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西方抽象艺术的主要影响力

时间:2016-02-01 16:45来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学生作业 点击:

西方抽象艺术的主要影响力
Dominant Influence In Western Abstract Art 


为了探索抽象作品最佳的呈现方式,我将回顾近一百年的历史和理论,在这段发达的时期,我将分析几个抽象艺术家的细节,这些对我有重大的影响。通过抽象艺术的综述和分析,我相信我能找到成功的抽象艺术作品的因素,和抽象的基本元素将保留在未来,并实现进一步的发展。这些基本元素和抽象的标准,也是我努力探索出现在我自己的工作中的问题。

我想从抽象艺术的定义开始,赫伯特·里德给出在实践中的以下定义,我们称之为“抽象”所有的艺术作品,尽管他们可能从艺术家视角来认识对象的外部世界,继续做一个有条理的、独立的审美统一,决不依靠客观等价(Read, 1936: 150).

从上面提及的定义角度,抽象艺术第一次出现在1910年至1920年之间,进化贯穿着整个20世纪,没有特定抽象艺术诞生的时刻,和抽象的形式中可以找到最早的民族符号或客观迹象的陶器,图片在纺织品和岩石,它是由直线和圆组成的,它显示出一定的沟通的抽象。抽象的审美也可以追溯到柏拉图,他在对话斐利布篇说‘我不理解美丽形式等美丽的动物和图片,但我理解直线和圆的寓意,和飞机或固体数据所形成的角度转动车床和统治者和措施;

In order to explore the best way to present abstraction in works, I will review almost a hundred year history and theories, which developed during those periods, then I will analyze the detail of a couple of abstract artists who have had significant influence on me. Through this review and analysis of abstract art, I believe I can find a factor for successful abstract art works, and a fundamental element on which abstract will be kept alive and achieve further development in the future. These fundamental elements and criteria of abstraction are also the issues I am trying to explore and present in my own works.

I want to start with the definition of abstract art, Herbert Read gave the following definition 'in practice we call "abstract" all works of art which, though they may start from the artist's awareness of an object in the external world, proceed to make a self-consistent and independent aesthetic unity in no sense relying on an objective equivalent' (Read, 1936: 150).

From the point of view of the definition above, abstract art first emerged between 1910 and 1920, evolving throughout the 20th, there is no particular moment when abstract art was born, and the form of the abstraction can be found in the earliest peoples with symbolic or present objective by signs in pottery, picture in textiles and rock, it is made of line and circle, It is showing the certain communication of abstract. The abstraction in aesthetic could also be traced back to Plato, who in his dialogue philebus said 'I do not mean by beauty of form such beauty as that of animals and picturesa€|but understand me to mean straight lines and circles, and the plane or solid figures which are formed out of them by turning-lathes and rulers and measures of angles; for these I affirm to be not only relatively and absolutely beautiful.'(Jowett,1907: 191).

However, the element of abstraction applied in painting was found in the painting Grainstack by Claude Monet, founder of French Impressionism. Between the mid-nineteenth century and early twentieth, France was the undoubted art centre of the west, French impressionism was the origin of initial abstraction, the subject became less important than before, As Paul Gauguin said, 'Do not paint too much after nature. Art is an abstraction; derive this abstraction from nature while dreaming before it, and think more of the creation which will result than nature.'(Gauguin,1888: 60). Vincent van Gogh was inspired about by abstraction from music, he regarded music as a self-contained language without reference. This point may help me understand the application of colour in painting, "a more general development of abstract art, an art that should deal with colours as music does with sound." (Santayana, 1955: 47). Those practices by the impressionist artists had a comprehensive impact on 20th century art, which broke the rules of academic painting, and focused on visual effects instead of details, this led to the advent of abstraction in art.

Impressionism was reinforced by symbolism and other art movements, and this developed abstraction. Maurice Denis, a French symbolism painter, he is also a writer he said in his proposal: "Remember that a picture, before being a battle horse, a nude, an anecdote or whatnot, is essentially a flat surface covered with colors assembled in a certain order" (Chipp,1968: 94).His theories have fundamental contribute to the cubism and fauvism. Those art movements also took the process of abstract art further.

There are other new models among the other arts not just the form of art traditional painting and sculpture, which affect the development of abstraction in this period. I have mentioned music above, which was respected by visual artists and critics. Architecture can also be seen as a model of application and abstraction in Bauhaus.

Poetry, in particular is worth mentioning in relation to abstraction, Arthur Rimbaud and Stéphane Mallarmé, the symbolist poets are well known for finding relationship between the linguistic sign, reality and coded meaning. Those two symbolism poets have common ground in abstraction with the pioneers of abstract art Wassily Kandinsky and Piet Mondrian who will be discussed later, 'all four poets and painters in respective art forms provoked awareness of the problematic nature of the relation between sign and object' (Reynolds, 1995: 1)

The pioneers of abstraction were Wasily Kandinsky, Kazimir Malevich and Piet Mondrian - two Russians and a Dutchman. They relied less on the form of the uncertain, and more on universal values, based on philosophical or mystical doctrines.

It is worth mentioning before talking about those pioneers that the German historian Wilhelm Worringer's doctoral dissertation "Abstraction and Empathy" was published in 1907 by the publisher, Reinhard Piper. Abstraction and empathy were two opposing poles, "this counter-pole to the need for empathy appears to us to be the urge to abstraction. My primary concern in this essay is to analyse this urge and to substantiate the importance it assumes within the evolution of art" (Worringer, 1907:14) For Worringer, empathy relates to three-dimensional space while abstraction is a flat, crystalline. Empathy is individual; abstraction is collective. Where empathy is curves, abstraction is the direct and straight line. "Such abstraction does not make use of any natural object as a model, and the geometric line is distinguished from the natural object precisely by the fact that it does not stand in any natural context." (Worringer, 1907:20).Additionally, empathy is like ancient Greece and Renaissance Italy, while abstraction is like ancient Egypt and medieval Europe. For Worringer, Greek temples are about empathy, and the pyramids are the sum of abstraction.

Worringer was influential to abstract art because he thought abstract art is not secondary or lower than "realist" art, and worthy of respect. His theories lift up the application of abstraction in pre-war European art. Although the abstract art pioneer Kandinsky did not refer to Worringer in his books, he was familiar with Worringer's work, and their books were published by the same editor, Reinhard Piper, because Kandinsky had a very strong personality, he did not owe anything to Worringer.

From 1910 to 1914, Kandinsky broke through traditional art ever more than before both in practice and theory, he started art forms based on the nature; and then he transformed those to the completed abstract form. He was the first artist to publish theories about abstraction, in 'Concerning the Spiritual in art' and for him, it seems, abstraction is synonymous with symbol.

Kazimir Malevich is another pioneer Russian abstract artist, and he is also the founder of the Avant-garde Suprematist movement, which focused on fundamental geometric forms. In 1916, he supposed his art was pure and without any trace of the objects found in nature.

Piet Mondrian had significant influence to the De Stijl art movement, and he seems to be different in development from Kandinsky and Malevich, not only in forms but also in style of composition. He had started to use the words "abstract' and "abstraction" since 1915. He wanted art to be a high reality which was beyond nature and would help viewers to reach the greatest understanding and knowledge.

Nevertheless, Mondrian shared the same inspiration with other two pioneers Kandinsky and Malevich, and they all have their ideas in the teaching of Theosophy, which was founded by Madame Blavatsky in modern society in New York 1875. Theosophists insist that those activities such as the philosophy, science, arts, commerce, religion and philanthropy, make people much closer to "the Absolute." Kandinsky and Mondrian intended to use the painting to help people to get a spiritual revival.

They have other similar points as well, firstly, Kandinsky and Mondrian found a certain connection between painting and music, which is the nearest art form to abstraction; it can convert the emotion purely without any external references. Secondly, they all use colour as language, representing certain meanings, for instance Kandinsky defines red as blood, blue as heaven, Mondrian named red as outward, and blue as inward. Finally, they all wanted to utilize abstraction to achieve freedom of expression.

After World War I, Constructivism was a major postwar abstract movement in Europe, which had utopian and political implications for abstraction, and new technology and new media also had an effected like as radio and cinema. As a result, a much wider range of public could be reached and affected by abstract art. There were three groups of constructivism in different countries, De Stijl in the Netherland, Bauhaus in Germany, and the Constructivists in Soviet Union respectively.



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