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供应链专业留学生assignment范文

时间:2016-02-27 17:23来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学生作业 点击:

供应商管理库存在快速消费品行业供应链
Vendor managed inventory in fmcg sector supply chain


供应商管理库存(VMI)是一个规划和管理系统,供应商完全负责补充库存的基础上及时向买家销售点信息(零售商)的地方。这个概念可以帮助提高客户响应能力通过减少供需差距因此给最终客户的满意度增加所需产品当客户想要它的可用性。

供应链合作伙伴必须分享他们的视觉需求,需求和约束设置共同目标(Guillaume等,2008)。买家供应商信任和关系质量,ICT系统质量和强度对VMI实施信息共享的积极影响(玛洛等人,2008)。信息技术结合VMI库存提供了清晰可见的位置给供应商更好的信息补充计划(沿着等,2007)。之前实施VMI、分析客户需求的不确定性的需要高不确定性需求的负面影响性能达到通过VMI(Kazim纱丽2007)。上游数据转移到供应商即当前的库存水平和准确的销售预测的最重要的因素是成功实施VMI(Astrid Vigtil,2007)。周围的VMI实施的好处取决于语境因素实现和二元的意图(Jongkyung等,2009)。实施VMI不是独自努力它可以是有益的,如果公司涉及广泛的努力(乔治kuk,2004)。VMI供应链改善了动态响应导致降低制造成本和运输需求(克里迪斯尼等,2003)。VMI给零售商和制造商收益降低风险的股票更进而减少了零售商的股票持有和短缺成本并增加利润(Brendra k等,2004)。

Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI) is a planning and management system in which vendor is fully responsible for the replenishment of inventory based on timely point of sale information to the buyers (retailer) place. This concept helps increases the customer responsiveness by reducing the supply and demand gap thus giving the satisfaction to end customer by increasing availability of the desired product when customer wants it.

Supply chain partners must share their vision of demand, requirement and constraint to set the common objectives (Guillaume et al; 2008). Quality of buyer supplier trust and relationship, quality of ICT system and intensity of information sharing has positive impact on VMI implementation (Marloes et al; 2008). Information technology combined with VMI offers a clear view of inventory holding location giving supplier better information for replenishment planning (Malla et al; 2007). Before implementation of VMI, analysis of the level of uncertainty of customer demand is needed as high uncertainty in demand negatively influences the performance attained through VMI (Kazim Sari 2007). Upstream data transferred to supplier's i.e. current inventory level and accurate sales forecast is the most important factor for the successful implementation of VMI (Astrid Vigtil, 2007). Benefits of VMI implementation depend on contextual factors surrounding the implementation and dyadic intentions (Jongkyung et al; 2009). Implementing VMI is not solo effort it can be beneficial if company wide effort is involved (George kuk, 2004). VMI supply chain has improved dynamic response which causes reduction in manufacturing on cost and transportation demand (S.M. Disney et al; 2003). VMI gives benefits to retailer as manufacturer stock more to reduce risk of stock out which in turn reduces retailer holding and shortage cost and increases its profit (Brendra k et al; 2004).

Implementation of VMI in FMCG sector of Pakistan is a major challenge for the FMCG companies and the retailers both. Maintaining of high quality error-free service in the dynamic and uncertain environment of Pakistan with lack of ICT infrastructure (information and communication technology) is a huge pressure. Due to heterogeneous customer base complete VMI implementation in this scenario is not possible so FMCG companies need to carry out its operation in both the way i.e. for the both VMI and non VMI customers. For flexible and fast communication between FMCG producers and retail chains proper ICT infrastructure is mandatory. So companies need to invest web-based information transfer systems like EDI (electronic data interchange). Adoption of VMI is not an easy task for companies as it requires heavy investment and commitment of retailers that how much they are willing to share POS information. Before full and final implementation of VMI companies must need to find out the right retailers to be served and the factors that are acting as a barrier from retailer's side as the clear and fault free implementation will have a great influence on future business performance outcomes.

Objective of this paper is to find out the suppliers/manufacturer perceived objectives, drivers, obstacles, performance outcomes for implementing VMI in FMCG sector of Pakistan.

Organizational objectives => Lead-time reduction, improvement in forecasting accuracy, improvement in customer service improvement in profit margin, improvement in rate of return, increase sales, control of bullwhip effect,

Strategic drivers => Competition, shorter product life cycle, global supply chain, corporate restructuring.

Obstacles => Ineffective organizational structure, lack of suitable it infrastructure, improper decision-support tool, lack of trust and mutual understanding between supply chain partners, internal/external integration,

Performance outcomes => Effective production planning, effective forecasting, effective replenishment, effective inventory control and management, effective logistics and distribution management

This paper is organized in sections. Section 1 offers the introduction; section 2 presents the literature review on research practices on VMI; section 3 is comprised of methodology: section 4 consist of data analysis and section 5 draws the conclusion regarding the findings.

文献综述——LITERATURE REVIEW

Jan Holmstrom (1998) studied a single case study to analyze the benefits of implementation of SAP R/3 in VMI between vendor and its wholesaler. It is found that administrative cost for vendor product is reduced with reduced delivery cost which in turn gives benefit to end customer through low prices. It is also found that demand variability, inventory level and order per delivery lead time also greatly reduces which give competitive advantage to both vendor and whole seller. It is suggested that full benefit can be attained if vendor extends its number of customers.

Sila cetinkaya et al (2000) studied the inventory replenishment and shipment decision in VMI through analytical model. Manufacturer with random demand patterns and retailers dispersed in different geographical areas are taken into account. Manufacturer has the freedom of holding small sized orders and dispatches it until the consolidation volume gathers. It is found that inventory costs are reduced if the inventory and shipments decision optimally coordinated.

Susan cohen kulp (2002) studied the impact of internal information (sales and inventory) accuracy and its reliability on supply chain profits in vendor managed inventory. Theoretical models of two system traditional and VMI are analyzed which indicates that the accurate information helps manufacturer to forecast the consumer demand accurately which increases manufacturer and retailer over all profits. Hypothesis was tested through survey of 53 divisions of manufacturers in the F&CPG industry. Result shows that use of VMI increases with the detail and reliability of retailer's internal information and wholesale prices are lowered with the extent of VMI use. It is suggested that VMI will lead to higher supply chain profits if retailer and manufacturer both are willing to share accurate information and use this information in taking inventory management decisions.

Terrance et al (2003) identified the distinction between supplier managed inventory (SMI) vendor managed inventory (VMI) through theoretical framework. Economic value analysis (EVA) is used to determine the non financial benefits and burdens of VMI and SMI implementation and effect of VMI and SMI on enhancement of share holder value.it is suggested that EVA analysis will help manager to identify the opportunities to increase the share holder value across both firms

S.M. Disney et al (2003) studied the effect of VMI strategies on transport operation and order batching activities. Three different scenarios traditional, internal consolidation and VMI are modeled through system dynamics methodology and tested through simulation. It was found that VMI supply chain has improved dynamic response which causes reduction in manufacturing on cost and transportation demand. Transportation cost saving in VMI is possible for long term and short term and this saving is not effected by escapable and inescapable cost. This paper may help in developing the policy regarding VMI and supply chain (distribution, production scheduling etc.).

S.M. Disney et al (2003) investigated the comparison between VMI and traditional seriously linked supply chain in producing bullwhip effect. Different equations are developed and simulation model testing was applied. Four variables as a source of bullwhip; price variations, rationing and gaming, demand signal processing, and order batching, were tested in traditional and VMI supply chain scenarios. It was found that through VMI supply chain all the variables can be avoided through well designed system. Demand signal processing and order batching can only be eliminated through inventory holding in traditional supply chain. For future it is suggested that VMI would be of greater benefit if the supplier uses inventory and sales information in making production and inventory management decision process.

George kuk (2004) investigated the determinants and outcomes of VMI in electronic industry through survey of 94 employees of 25 companies who fully implemented VMI. Four hypotheses were created having 3 independent variables: organization size, number of employees involved in VMI and type of logistic integration, 3 dependent variables: information quality enhancement, service quality improvement and cost reduction. Through ANOVA testing it is analyzed that large level of employee involvement, small size of organization and integrated logistics achieves more benefits of VMI. It is suggested that implementing VMI is not solo effort it can be beneficial if company wide effort is involved.



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