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GIS assignment的分析怎么写?

时间:2016-03-30 09:12来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网 点击:
为了确定选择通常考虑很多因素,如成本,环境影响或其它。以路由选择为例,旅行时间,收费成本,道路质量和沿路场景都是因素。和不同的人有不同的看法,导致了不同的结论。这项研究的目的是应用到更多的人,谁与个人和专业的事情处理访问多目标决策分析方法。目标群体包括研究人员,普通用户,分析师和所有的决定使得使用地理信息系统做分析。因此,文章提出了多目标决策分析的概念进行了概述,并用各种方法MCDA应用它变成地理信息系统,然后让人们了解和知道如何使用基于特定目的的方法。
本文是建立了如下序列。第1节是军事和民防资源的背景和必要性的讨论。然后在第2节民防资源的概念提供并推出。第3节给出了影响类别和方案决定一个listof因素,从而帮助用户确定合适的选择来选择。在第4节,描述和解释,引导用户使用军事和民防资源的方法。该研究随后提供军事和民防资源在下一节的空间扩展。在第6节中,作者介绍了各种可用的软件,结合军事和民防资源和地理信息系统战略。最后,该结论实现。
本文的语言严谨,专业性强。此外,它描述的概念与实例,使其生动,容易理解。
在GIS分析的空间决策需要的工具和信息收集。它也需要一个机制来合并它们,以便为用户提供更好的理解。然而,各种各样的方法导致在分析困难。本文的重点是为GIS用户,研究人员和其他用户提供指导。的最终目标是使所有的用户访问。为了描述的方法和让人们明白,有很多影响因素多标准决策的选择。此外,具有一定的方法的具体问题也说明。有各种不同的方法,包括数学规划,启发式算法,并基于加权属性值多目标。
作为新的技术产生,基于web的参与和可视化技术也有助于做出决定。
该文件是有价值的,因为笔者就更好地利用与军事和民防资源的综合地理信息系统提供了指导。人们也许理解它在一个简单的方法具体的例子也给出。然而,缺乏创造性思维,因为方法研究了前人。它需要更多的创新,在一个特定的方案来应用这些方法。仍然有很多工作,为应用程序执行。Randal Greene (Department of Geography, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Analyst) etc have done a research on the application Multiple-Criteria Decision Analysis  on GIS. When doing GIS spatial analysis, people always should make different decisions based on a certain or some criteria: finding the least-cost route when building a new road, evaluating where the best position of a new office, or choosing the best route to take a commute. To determine a choice usually considers a lot factor, such as cost, environment impact or others. Take route selection as example, travelling time, toll cost, road quality and the scene along the road are all the factors. And different people have different kinds of the views, leading to a different conclusion. The goal of the research is to apply Multiple-Criteria Decision Analysis method accessible to more people, who deal with personal and professional things. The target group includes researchers, common users, analysts and all the decision makes using GIS to do analysis. Thus, the paper gave an overview of the concept of Multiple-Criteria Decision Analysis and applied it into GIS with a variety of MCDA methods, and then making people understand and know how to use the method based on a particular purpose.
The paper is built up as following sequence. Section 1 is the background of MCDA and discussion of its necessity. And then in the Section 2 MCDA concept is provided and introduced. The Section 3 gives a listof factors that affect the category and scenarios decision, which help users to determine the suitable choice to choose. In Section 4, MCDA methods are described and explained to guide users to use. The research then provides a spatial extension of MCDA in the next Section. In the Section 6, the author introduces a variety of available software and strategies combining MCDA and GIS. Finally, the conclusion is attained. 
The language of the paper is rigorous and strongly professional. Moreover, it describes the concepts with instance, making it vivid and easy to understand.
The spatial decision in GIS analysis needs tools and information collection. It also requires a mechanism to incorporate them so as to provide better understanding for the users. However, the variety of methods leads to a difficulty in the analysis. The key point of the paper is to provide guidance for GIS users, researchers and other users. The ultimate goal is to make it accessible to all the users.  To describe the method and make people understand, a lot of factor affecting the MCDA are selected. Moreover, the specific problem with a certain method is also explained. There are different kinds of methods, including mathematical programming, heuristic algorithms, and multi-objective based on weighted attribute values.
As the new technologies generating, the web-based participation and visualization technology also help make decisions.
The paper is valuable because the author provides guidance on better utilization of the GIS integrated with the MCDA. People maybe understand it in an easier way as specific examples are also given. However, there is a lack of creative thinking because the method has studied by previous researchers. It needs more innovation to apply these methods in a particular scenario. There are still a lot work to do for the application.
 
Reference文献
 
Randal Greene, RodolpheDevillers, Joan E. Luther and Brian G. Eddy, GIS-Based Multiple-Criteria Decision Analysis, Geography Compass, (2011): 412–432

Fatih Kara, who is the faculty in Department of Geography, Fatih University, Istanbul/ Turkey, develops a least cost model by combining multicriteria analysis and the GIS.The transportation system plays an important role in the economy of the count and the social wealth by providing mobility and accessibility of goods and people. Thus, it is significant to build a new road. However, the highway system design is not an easy work but a complex project because it needs to consider a variable effect factors. The paper provides the route selection analysis with the multicriteria analysis in ArcGIS for identifying the influence factor of the route cost, and then determining the routecost in the case study area. It aims to give guidance for the transportation engineering doing the transportation planning and the cost analysis, so they can be better to find the suitable and the economic route. 
The structure of the paper is in the following steps: The background of the study is analyzed that there is a strong need of the transportation network and the GIS is a useful tool for the transportation planning. In the second section, the study area is determined and the methodology is provided with a detail analysis procedure. Section three shows the collection of the data including the slope, protected area, soil type and the residucial area. These data lays the basis of the GIS analysis. In section four, the multicriteria theory is introduced and its application on the least cost route model is explored. The final section comes to the result of the least cost model with recommendation alternatives.
The central point of the paper is the least cost route model with multicriteria analysis in GIS environment. To build the model, the author firstly introduces the GIS technology and the multicriteria theory, and then combining the two technologies and applying it in a real case study. The social data as well as the terrain data of the study area is collected, and then the author gives each of the influence factors a weight value according to the previous research. For example, The slope of the terrain directly determines the complexity and cost of the road because the steep slope area always needs a lot of dig and fill make the route better drive. Moreover, the road design parameters are related with the slope such as the superelevation, speed limitation, the sight distance and the vertical curve. Thus, the slope plays the most important role in the determination of the total cost. Current studies indicate that the road construction prefer gentler slope. After the data collection, a number of the data layers related with the construction cost are generated, and then the cost map for the route development is developed. This process involves the calculation of the ‘neighbourhood movement cost’, allowing for the direction-dependent terrain slope, distance and the hazard area. Moreover, a Least Cost Algorithm is adopted, which will implement the least-cost route selection. 
The paper provides a basic guidance on the least cost route selection procedure, which helps the readers to use it to find the suitable route GIS. However, a lot of the problems exit in the paper. The language is bad quality as there is no strong logical analysis and a good structure of the paper. Moreover, the paper only introduces a basic model, however, there is no innovation of the model. Another problem of the model is that it does not do model calibration and validation, which are essential to improve the model accuracy. 
Fatih Kara, NurunnisaUsul 2012, HIGHWAY ROUTE DESIGN THROUGH THE USE OF GIS AND MULTICRITERIA ANALYSIS: A CASE STUDY OF ISTANBUL,Ozean Journal of Applied Sciences 5(1), pp.71-84
 


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