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新西兰人力资源assignment代写

时间:2014-09-08 10:12来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:zcm84984 点击:
本文是人力资源管理中的一个留学生assignment,主要写的是旷工与组织管理的问题,作者根据离职营业额率的指标来分析旷工能否成为预测人力资源管理中的一个指标,是一个很好的作业例子。
Is absenteeism a predictor
旷工是一个预测指标吗?
自愿离职营业额--旷工是一个预测指标吗?

篇章一--引言
 
在当今的社会,旷工是组织不会太在意的但存在的巨大问题。也许现在是时候,让组织更关注一点在旷工这一问题上了,因为这个问题可能是自愿离职营业额率的预测指标。当员工们离职时,可能对于生产力,及时服务客户,员工士气,更重要的是组织的底线产生极大影响。
 
自愿离职营业额可能是内生或者外生原因。内生的自愿离职营业额是由于员工在组织中的地位更换了。外在的自愿离职营业额是因为员工都离开了组织。这篇研究报告的关注点是在于外在的自愿离职营业额。有许多因素可能引起员工离职。比如说像对薪资不满,工作条件苛刻或者工时太长,或者甚至由于升职机会得不到,都是一些自愿离职营业额的原因。本文企图弄清楚,是否过度的旷工确实能成为自愿离职营业额的预测指标。
 
Voluntary Turnovers - Is Absenteeism A Predictor?
 
Chapter One - Introduction To The Problem
 
In today's society, absenteeism is a huge problem that organizations do not pay much attention to. Maybe now is the time that organizations place a little more focus on absenteeism as this problem could be a predictor of voluntary turnover rates. When employees leave their jobs, sometimes it may have an affect on productivity, customers being serviced in a timely a manner, employee morale and most importantly the organization's bottom line.
 
Voluntary turnover can be internal or external. Internal voluntary turnover is when an employee takes another position within the organization. External voluntary occurs when an employee leaves the organization all together. The focus of this research will focus on external voluntary turnover. There are many factors that may cause an employee to leave his job. Factors such as not being satisfied with pay, the working conditions or hours, or even because advancement opportunities are not available are some of causes of voluntary turnovers. This paper will seek to determine if excessive absenteeism can actually be a predictor of voluntary turnovers.
 
Research Question
 
Can organizations predict voluntary turnover rates based on absenteeism within the organization?
 
Purpose Of Research
 
Turnover is a topic that has been widely studied over the years; however, there is very little empirical data that exists in reference to absenteeism. Steers and Mowday (1981) model will be used to determine if there is a relationship between voluntary turnovers and absenteeism. Since turnovers can become a serious problem for organizations, additional research should be done to determine the correlation between the two variables. Excessive turnovers can eventually hurt an organization's financial performance. In order to determine if a relationship exists, organizations will first need to distinguish between voluntary and involuntary turnovers. According to Sullivan (2009), some studies indicate as many as two-thirds of employees of employees are ready to go.
 
The compensatory model suggests that absenteeism combined with turnover rates are a form of work withdrawal. There is a second model that suggests the two variables are completely independent of one another. The third model, progression of withdrawal model suggests employees go through stages of psychological withdrawal before actually leaving an organization. Due to these gaps in literature, more research should be conducted to determine if absenteeism could predict voluntary turnover rates.
 
Significance Of Study
 
Employee turnover is a problem that is continuing to grow. Employers will need to develop some retention strategies as employees are looking for other opportunities. “Employee turnover is on the rise next year, based on a survey that 60 percent of workers are unhappy with their present jobs and plan to leave in 2010 (HR Focus, 2010, pg. 8). Organizations should closely evaluate the types of absenteeism that is occurring within their organization. By taking a closer look, organizations might be able to find a correlation between absenteeism and voluntary turnover rates. The goal of this research is to take Steers and Mowday's model and compare it against other models to determine if turnover rates can accurately be predicted.
 
Hypothesis
 
Organizations can determine by differentiating between voluntary and involuntary absences the amount of turnover they will have within the organization.
 
Chapter 2 - Literature Review
 
Voluntary turnovers are managerial issues that many organizations are not placing enough focus. Managers should try to determine what is causing employees to leave their organizations voluntarily. Voluntary turnovers can become very costly to an organization's bottom line. Once managers actually begin to take the time to study predictors of turnover within their organization, they can begin working on retention strategies to keep their employees. The review of literature will include that of Steers & Mowday, (1981) as well as the findings of other theorists on predicting voluntary turnover rates and its relationship to other variables.
 
First organizations need to separate all involuntary turnovers from their voluntary turnovers. “Voluntary turnovers, in contrast, is a discretionary behavior on the part of the employee and, consequently, has been categorized with absenteeism and lateness as a form of withdrawal from the organization” (Morrow, McElroy, Laczniak, Fenton, 1999). With the given definition of voluntary turnovers, organizations need to focus on who is leaving their organization and why.
 
Review Of Models
 
Researchers at the Tavistock Institute (Hill & Trist, 1955) suggest that absenteeism is a coping mechanism to turnover (Morrow et al. 1999). In conducting their research it was argued that employees who engaged in absenteeism did so to relieve stress or because they were dissatisfied. For these reasons, the researchers believed that at this point, turnover became an unnecessary factor. Basically, these researchers believe that there is no relationship between the two variables, absenteeism and voluntary turnover rates.
 
A second model also suggests that these variables have no relationship. “Mobley (1982), has theorized situations in which no relationship would exist, such as in those cases where turnover is the result of pull factors (an attractive job) as opposed to push factors (Morrow et al. 1999). Herzberg, Mausner, Peterson, and Capwell (1957), created the progression of withdrawal model, which is the third model that is being evaluated. The progression of withdrawal suggests that a relationship between absenteeism and turnover does exist. According to this model, if an employee continues to be dissatisfied, then that employee will go through a withdrawal process. The process includes the employee being late for work, then progressing to being absent and finally leaving the company. According, to a meta-analysis by Mitra, Jenkins, and Gupta (1992), there is empirical data that states the correlation between absenteeism and turnover was a positive .33 (Morrow et al., 1999).
 
Steers & Mowday, (1981) model on absenteeism and voluntary turnover incorporated other factors that might involve reasons as to why an employee would continue to work for a company or leave. The Steers & Mowday model includes factors on voluntary turnover rates that organizations cannot control. According to Steers & Mowday model, job expectations and values interact with organizational characteristics, experiences, and job performance in determining an employee's affective responses to a job (Dreher, 1982).
 
The first category that Steers & Mowday model concentrates on is the actual work factors that may influence an employee to want to leave a company. In order to argue this point Steers & Mowday cited work produced by Sussman and Cogswell. The work suggests that when an employee is considering changing employment factors such family and even involvement in the community could be an influence. Steers & Mowday second category involves the economy and market conditions. These theorists believe that these factors too influence whether an employee will leave or stay.
 
“Jackofsky's (1984) analysis of job performance and turnover suggested that different types of voluntary leavers are influenced by different turnover antecedents” (Krug, 2006). In studies conducted by Jaclofsky's, she has found that employees who leave voluntarily did so because of their desire to move and due to perception of ease. Her study also suggested that employees who perform poorly could possible share the same attitude as those employees who have been terminated as she was not able to find a relationship between their reason to leave, job satisfaction or any other variables that have been described to predict voluntary turnovers.
 
Turnovers can be viewed as functional or non-functional. A turnover is considered functional when the organization can actually benefit from an employee leaving the organization. Usually, this is true when an employee was not a top performer. A non-functional turnover; however, is one in which the employee who is leaving is a good worker. A study conducted by Hollenbeck and Williams in 1986 found that 53% of turnovers were in favor of the organization. “In a meta-analytic study relating job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover and intent to leave, Tett and Meyer (1993) found that job satisfaction had the strongest linkage with turnover intent and turnover (Krumm, pg. 220). Krumm also indicated that there are researchers who found a relationship between absenteeism and the employee's intent to leave the company.


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