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时间:2015-10-20 11:17来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:anne 点击:
Introduction 介绍
在1900年前,海洋地区建筑是相当重要的。尤其是在新西兰这个国家,并在这一时期新西兰文化受到了英国建筑风格的影响。新西兰是一个移民地国家。此外,在1900年前,坎特伯雷省议会大楼是最具特色的。这是由本杰明woolfieldmountfort设计。因此,本文想从坎特伯雷省议会大楼作为例子,介绍海洋区域建筑的特征,也对未来遗产进行介绍。Prior to 1900, the architecture of the Oceanic region is quite important, especially in the New Zealand.During this period, the culture is influenced by England. New Zealand is an immigration country. Moreover, The Canterbury Provincial Council Building is the most featured before the 1900, which was designed by Benjamin WoolfieldMountfort. Therefore, this article would like to discuss the feature of the Oceanic region architecture from the example of the Canterbury Provincial Council Building and also the legacy for the future. 


Brief introduce the designer and architecture 简要介绍了设计和体系结构


The building is located in the central Christchurch. 
从1853年坎特伯雷省议会大厦被当地政府的作为行政中心,并于1876年停止服务。它是在新西兰唯一的既有建筑文化遗产有被立为行政目的建筑(洛克黑德Lochhead的变体,1989年)该建筑在2011二月的基督城地震中受到严重损害。因此,克赖斯特彻奇市议会部分已经拆除了。The provincial parliament building of Canterbury was the administrative center of local government from 1853 and was ceased service in 1876. It is the only existing building among all of its peers in New Zealand, which were built for administrative purposes (Lochead, 1989). Building was badly damaged by the Christchurch earthquake in February 2011.Therefore, Christchurch city council had it partly dismantled.
The foundation of the first building was placed in January 1858.The first group of buildings was two floors, wood form an L-shaped space along the street in Durham and the timber trade association.It was modeled on the 14th and 16th-century manor hall, provincial council meeting room. Chamber of commerce was facing directly to the street and in September 1859 it was introduced to its first time using. An extension to the north had been entrusted by the first beginning and wasopen in 1861. It was along the streets ofDurham and Armagh, plus the existing buildings, formed a courtyard. The third and the last of the buildingwas built during 1864-1865. The Stone Chamber is the new conference room. It is greater than the timber trade association, in order to cope with increasing the size of the parliament. Its internal is described as provincial architect Benjamin Mountfort's most impressive achievements. Bellamyadded to the back of the timber association.
On February 22, 2011, the provincial council building stone chamber of Canterbury collapsed due to severe damage caused by the Earthquake and it also led a series of damages on other parts of the complex, including Amar street steeple collapse; Wing Bellamy greatly damage, and Durham street spires. The chimney was down and then was deleted.
Figure 1: Designed by Benjamin WoolfieldMountfort
In 1865, former member of province and Craig Bellamy, despite increasingly built part, suffered huge damage and inclined towards the river lateral diffusion, due to vibration. Part of the wood masonry and transferredcomplex also fell on the ground.But in general, there are some not of the damaged.
Figure 2: Canterbury Provincial Council Chambers
Figure 3: Canterbury Provincial Council Chambers after the earthquake 2011
Benjamin WoolfieldMountfort is listed as one of the most important and fruitful New Zealand Gothic Revival Architects. Erect gothic architecture in New Zealand is not only a fashionable sport, in the Victorian era it tasted well. It expressed a desire to re - conscious of British settlers, who believe that in the past and cultural landscape, could be a cure of industrial diseaseson this unspoiled,un-crowded vastland  (n.d,2011). Mountfortalso found himself on this land that he can shape the transplantation of his dream. After arrived at Canterbury in 1850, ten years later after itwas established in the south island,Mountfort lived at the settlement as the trainer and compassionate religious ideology worker. However, as an architect, he had strict test. Lochhead vividly explainedMountfort’s difficulties from New Zealand, which are from geography and settlement, such as the risk of the country's strong wind and earthquake, in some areas lack of quality construction stone, the shortage of skilled workers, and almost all the construction budget was mild, see figure 3  (New Zealand History, 2015). Mountfort had to face all these challenges in his career.


History background 历史背景


More than 130 years, New Zealand was seeking people connected with Britain, such as British friends and relatives. In the following years, immigrants from new country changed American culture and values.
Though to some of the refugees and the poor and the couple did not struggle, education isrelatively rich. In their own suburbs,especially in Auckland, they set up their own churches, schools, restaurants, and social etiquette. Stay together, they become stronger. 
However, it is not surprising that these developments have some negative political reaction.When the New Zealand constitution act of 1852 became a British law,the 30000 European citizens found himself a colonial governor.The bicameral congress elected president of the six provinces and made six provincial council rules (Sundt, 2001). Committee movedforward to business style and business like contemporary America, Australia and Canada. In 1853 the national and provincial committee simplified its version. They have more influence than the central government to its citizens' daily life. But in the early 1870s, railway, telegraph and ships are intertwined, more effectivelycontrolled by the colonies  (n.d,2012). Smaller provinces struggled and Prime Minister Julius Vogel's huge growth and migration project needed a central authority work effectively.
The last meeting held in the provincial council was on June 18, 1875. The government abolished the system at the provincial level as the central government office buildingsand changed to business uses on October 31, 1876.
In 1928, the province of Canterbury decided to send back the timber and stones chamberto local control. This was the first time a government of New Zealand adopted legislation protection to historical buildings. It was until 1971, the rest of the building was taken under the control of the board of directors of the local.
Summarized the feature of Oceanic region (especially New Zealand) 
To study Mountfort’svalue of works today, must avoid similar design under their European background. In the 1860s, New Zealand was a developing country, provided free materials and resources to Europe. Mountfort tended to new home as early high buildings, or anxiety, failed to take into account the non-European climate and landscape. However, he soon adapted and developed his skills and crude and unrefined material work.Therefore, this building was fail to consider the climate and landscape factor to design, because this climate was not according to the non-European climate and landscape, namely, New Zealand’ Climate  (Robinson et., al, 2006.). 


What learned the context in 21st century from the 1900 architecture 21世纪的背景下,从1900年的建筑中学到了什么


Christchurch, New Zealand and the surrounding area is the only thingcan be directly attributed to Benjamin Mountfort,according to the particular gothic style. Although the commission did not accept Mountfort small private residence, he is a better public understanding of the church today.The civil society is in the design and execution. Christchurch his immortal stone gothic building construction, it won't be at Oxford or Cambridge, adversity materials is a great achievement. Wooden gothic church of his signature today embodies a concentrated reflection of the 19th century the province of Canterbury  (KILLICK, 2010). They accept that there are parts of the landscape. So Benjamin Mountfort’s achievement is his favorite style of synonyms, identity province of Canterbury. After his death, one of his seven children, Cyril, continued workingon the gothic style and work until the 20th century. Cyril Mountfort’s city church of St. Luke's, this implemented the design, which his father did. In this way, his many buildingswere used as reference.Mountfort’s heritage isalso through daily public life. His RA in the 19th centuryis considered as one of the New Zealand Lawson greatest architectstoday.
Main content from 1900 years of cultural factors are considering the building's unique heritage value and importance as cultural sites and other activities. Christchurch earthquake appealed to trust the ministry of culture announced that they would work together for the provincial parliament building with Canterbury providing $2.5 million for reconstruction of theArmagh and Durham streets spire  (Glenn, 2014). When it is completed, the aim of this work is to make the wooden buildings adjacent, and to bring it back to the public as soon as possible. Vision to create a "better English," in the 19th century colonial settlement in New Zealand to establish government buildings are reminiscent of those in London, the British gothic revival style combined with local prosperity. Offices, meeting rooms of wood and stone, and became the seat of the Canterbury until 1867, since the government at the provincial level was complex government agencies (Lochhead, 1997). Benjamin Mountfort’s design of architecture, which in the 21st century is still largely unchanged, makes itthe first gothic revival government architecture complex world.

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