代写 网课代修 会员中心 TAG标签
网站地图 RSS
英国作业新西兰作业 爱尔兰作业 美国作业 加拿大作业
返回首页

劳资关系的历史和背景

时间:2016-01-26 08:53来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学生作业 点击:
摘要:本文主要讲述了涉及员工的态度和行为与组织和员工之间的关系,重点突出了劳资关系的历史和背景。

劳资关系的历史和背景
History And Background Of Industrial Relations 

 

今天经济危机处于糟糕的状态,由于破产的美国银行体系。它导致了大型金融机构的倒闭,银行由国家政府的援助和世界各地的股市处于低迷中,导致巨大的失业率。

三个顶级经济学家同意2009年大萧条以来最严重的金融危机,如果不采取正确的步骤,风险会增加。 (2009-2-29).路透社,2009-9-30从业务线新闻数据库重新获得。


介绍

劳资关系也称为就业关系,本文主要涉及员工的态度和行为与组织和员工之间的关系。如果关系的特点是开放交流、公平和公正。人力资源政策和实践,工作和生活满意度高,会有信任、合作、承诺和高性能。然而,如果他们的特点是缺乏沟通,不公平和歧视性的人力资源政策和实践,和低工作和生活满意度,会有冲突,不信任,承诺和低性能不佳。工业关系通常需要一个更广泛的角度来看,涉及政府、工业法庭,雇主协会、工会、工业法律,奖项,燕鸥和条件的工作,申诉程序、争端解决、倡导和集体谈判。

Today economic crisis is in a bad shape because of an American insolvent United States banking system. It has resulted in the collapse of large financial institutions, the bailout of banks by national governments and downturns in stock markets around the world and led to a huge unemployment rate.

Three top economists agree 2009 worst financial crisis since great depression; risks increase if right steps are not taken. (2009-2-29). Reuters. Retrieved 2009-9-30, from Business Wire News database


介绍——Introduction

Industrial relations are also called employment relations in this text deals primarily with employee attitudes and behaviour and the relationships between an organisation and its employees. If relationships are characterised by open communication, fair and equitable. HR policies and practices, and high work and life satisfaction, there will be trust, cooperation, commitment and high performance. However, if they are characterised by poor communication, unfair and discriminatory HR policies and practices, and low work and life satisfaction, there will be conflict, mistrust, low commitment and poor performance. Industrial relation traditionally takes a broader perspective, involving governments, industrial tribunals, employer associations, trade unions, industrial law, awards, terns and conditions of work, grievance procedures, dispute settlement, advocacy and collective bargaining.

The other objectives/importance of the industrial relationship:

To safeguard the interests of labour as well as of management by securing the highest level of mutual understanding and goodwill between all sections in industry which take part in the process of production?

To avoid industrial conflicts and develop harmonious relations, which are essential for the productive efficiency of workers and the industrial progress of the country.

To raise productivity to a higher level in an era of full employment by reducing the tendency to higher and frequent absenteeism.

To establish and maintain industrial democracy based on labour partnership, not only for the purpose of sharing the gains of organization but also participating in management decisions that the individuals' personality may be fully developed and he may grow into a civilized citizen of the country.

To bring down strikes, lockouts by proving better and reasonable wages and fringe benefits to the workers and improved living conditions.


历史——History

Industrial relations got its roots in the industrial revolution and the spread of capitalism which created the modern employment relationship by spawning free labour markets and large-scale industrial organizations with thousands of wage workers. Kaufman, the Global Evolution of Industrial Relations .As both societies wrestled with these massive economic and social changes, labour problems arose. Low wages, long working hours, monotonous and dangerous work, and abusive supervisory practices led to high employee turnover, violent strikes, and the threat of social instability and due to confluence of these event and ideas associated with rise of democratic governments in the western world of the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries. It emerged from both negative and positive impulses

The negative aspect, industrial relations was a reaction against deplorable working condition and with unrepressed profit making and employee clout in the nine teeth century and twentieth century capitalism and this led to the deplorable situations a conflict between capital and labour and hardship for employee of that time

So we come to the conclusion that industrial relation was part of the reform wing. Industrial relations arose from the conviction that cordial relationship between workers and employer could be improvised through a combination of scientific discovery, education, legal reform.....


现状——Current situation

Therefore, the maintenance of a good human relationship is a must in today business environment, because in case of its absence the organizational structure may crumble. Employees constitute the most valuable assets of any organization. Any neglect of the important factor is likely to result in increased cost of production in term of wage and salaries, benefits and services; working conditions, increased labour turn-over, absenteeism, indiscipline and cleavages, strikes and transfer on the ground of discontent and the like, besides deterioration in the quality of the goods produced and strained relations between labour and management.

The Germans practice co-determination which gives workers of the organization representation at the management of the companies these known as the law allows workers to elect representatives (usually trade union representatives) for the supervisory board of directors.

It could be break down to two parts


工作场所表示——Workplace representation

Works councils provide representation for employees at the workplace and they have substantial powers - extending to an effective right of veto on some issues. Although not formally union bodies, union members normally play a key role within them.

There is a clear legal basis in Germany for the workplace representation of employees in all but the very smallest companies. Under the Works Constitution Act, first passed in 1952 and subsequently amended, most recently in 2001, a works council can be set up in all private sector workplaces with at least five employees.

The United Kingdom doesn't practice co-determination so don't normally involve themselves with running of business but which could be subject to change due to European union invention

There is no Common structure for employee representation in the United Kingdom. Unions are the for the most part the general way that employees are represented and they can now legally oblige the employer to deal with them, but only if they have ample support and union recognition (legal body)


董事会层面的表现——Board-level Representation

In Germany employee representatives have a right to seats on the supervisory board of larger companies one-third in companies with 500 to 2,000 employees, half in companies with more than 2,000.

It reviews its performance. It gives advice, participates in setting the company's strategy and is provided with financial and other information and can veto on issues however there is an exception in other industries such as steel industries

UK employees have no statutory right to representation at board level and, with a tiny handful of exceptions; this has also been the case in practice.

There is no general right for any employee representatives to participate at board level. The handful of experiments with employee representatives at board level in state


职业训练——Vocational training

Prepares learners for jobs that are based in manual or practical activities, traditionally non-academic and totally related to a specific trade, occupation or vocation, hence the term, in which the learner participates. It is sometimes referred to as technical education, as the learner directly develops expertise in a particular group of techniques or technology.

Finally, most companies in the UK and the US do not offer general initial vocational training. In contrast, almost all medium and large sized. in Germany actively participate in this country's dual system of initial vocational training. This training, which normally has three year duration, combines on- and off-the-job training and off-the-job training in vocational schools. The German system of initial vocational training is highly regulated and thus reduces organizational autonomy. It also provides general skills rather than company-specific skills


健康和安全——Healthy and Safety

In Germany any business with more than 20 employees, safety officers must be appointed by the employer.

Health and safety is regulated by the 1973 Occupational Health and Safety Act ( Arbeitssicherheitsgesetz), amended in 1976, and the 1996 Occupational Safety Act ( Arbeitsschutzgesetz).

Works councils play an important role in health and safety. In particular they are consulted on the appointment of safety officers ( Sicherheitsbeauftragte). These must help the employer in the prevention of accidents at work and ensure effective implementation of statutory and regulatory health and safety provisions.

In any undertaking with more than 20 employees, safety officers must be appointed by the employer.



推荐内容
  • 英国作业
  • 新西兰作业
  • 爱尔兰作业
  • 美国作业
  • 加拿大作业
  • 代写英国essay
  • 代写澳洲essay
  • 代写美国essay
  • 代写加拿大essay
  • MBA Essay
  • Essay格式范文
  • 澳洲代写assignment
  • 代写英国assignment
  • 新西兰代写assignment
  • Assignment格式
  • 如何写assignment
  • 代写英国termpaper
  • 代写澳洲termpaper
  • 英国coursework代写
  • PEST分析法
  • literature review
  • Research Proposal
  • 参考文献格式
  • case study
  • presentation
  • report格式
  • Summary范文
  • common application
  • Personal Statement
  • Motivation Letter
  • Application Letter
  • recommendation letter
  • Europe (24-hours)
    EN:13917206902
    china (24-hours)
    CN:13917206902
    在线客服团队
    全天候24小时在线客服 QQ:1455780998

    微信在线客服(24小时)

    微信公众订阅号