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最后的晚餐-Analysis of “The Last Supper”

时间:2016-04-13 11:25来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学生作业 点击:
宗教的含义首先是通过这幅画的对称布局体现。作为一个横幅画,有一种天然的稳定性和庄重的感觉这幅画的。
1.Introduction介绍
 
本文第一部分分析了这部名著的主题,《最后的晚餐》中描绘了一个室内餐厅,12个弟子和基督在一个长方形的桌子后排成一排。耶稣坐在绘画中,弟子分为在耶稣两侧三组,他们表现出不同的动态和表情后听到耶稣说:“你要背叛我”,骚动出现的表,只有耶稣似乎从他的表情平静,形成强烈的对比与他的门徒。艺术家仔细地思考了每个人的行为、情感和精神行为,构成人物、身体结构、敏感的关系,这些元素都达到了前所未有的生动和谐。此外,对这幅作品的构图和色彩,本文也进行了详细分析。艺术家明智地使用了一条在墙上的两侧的餐桌和线条,把它们集中到一个点上,然后明亮的窗口作为一个箔的头,因此,在这幅画里,上帝有一个突出的主导地位。虽然画家在这幅画中描绘了许多文字,但这幅画的变化却没有一点混乱,这一切都是完美的。通过对这部作品的分析与深入研究,本文对这幅画的深层意义和价值进行了深入的研究,反映了经济和政治制度在旧的经济和政治体系中被淘汰的意识形态和意识形态,也反映了旧的经济和政治制度中的意识形态,也体现了新的社会因素,并建立了新的经济和政治服务体系。The first part of this paper analysis the subject of this masterpiece, "The Last Supper" depicts an indoor restaurant, 12 disciples and Jesus lined up after a rectangular table. Jesus sitting in the middle of the painting, disciples are divided into three groups in both sides of Jesus, they showed different dynamics and expressions after heard Jesus said "one of you shall betray me", a commotion appearing by the table, only Jesus seems serene and calm from his expression, formed strong contrast compare to his disciples. The artist carefully thought about everyone of character’s action, emotion and mental action, the composition characters, physical structure, sensitive relations, all these elements of this painting have reached an unprecedented vivid harmony. In addition, to the composition and color of this masterpiece, this paper also carried 3 
out a detailed analysis. Artist wisely used the perspective lines of dining table and lines of on both sides of the wall, concentrated them to one spot upon Jesus's head, then bright windows served as a foil to the head of Jesus, therefore, Jesus has a prominent dominant position in this painting. Although the artist depicted many characters in this picture, there is no confusing at all, all the changes in this painting had been unified perfectly. Through analysis and deep study of this masterpiece, this paper leading to the deeper meaning and value of this painting, it reflects the economic and political system witch dominate the society and serving the dominant "ideology", the remain of Ideologies which has been eliminated in the old economy and political system, also reflects the new ideology of existing society, growing with a new social factors, and the establishment of a new economic and political services system. 
 
2. The subject, style and form of expression of “The Last Supper” 主题,风格和“最后的晚餐”的表现形式
 
DaVinci depicted the most important thing in Christianity in the painting of“The Last Supper” -Jesus knew that he has already been betrayed by his disciples, when he and his disciples sit together for the last supper, twelve disciples, each one of them showed different reactions. The greatest success of this painting's is the artist successfully showed different psychological behavior of each character, the inside voice of these thirteen characters has been lively performed by the great art master in this art piece. 4 
Leonardo da Vinci not only searched for innovation in drawing techniques, but also showed creativity in the layout of the picture. All along, in other art works with same subject, the most common layout is Jesus' disciples sitting in a row, whole Jesus sitting alone at another side. On the contrary, Da Vinci allowed the Twelve Apostles sit on both side of Jesus, Jesus sitting in the middle by himself, with his face shining behind bright windows, raised the sense of solemn. The sharp contrast in the background is leading audiences to focus all attention to Jesus, also created an unsettling atmosphere among those disciples of Jesus, everyone's facial expressions, eye contacts, movements are different, especially panic Judah, whose elbow knocked over the salt shaker, body lean back, with the panic and anxiety on his face. Figures in the painting from left to right are Bartholomeus, Jacobus Alphei, Andreas, JJudas Scariotes, Peter Simon Petrus, Iohannes Zebedaei, Jesus, Thomas, Iacobus Zebedaei, Philippus, Matthew Mattheus, Simon Cananeus, St. Jude Thaddeus. In Mercy Convent of Santa Maria in Milan, the rectangular restaurant lobby, where monks used as dinner, this art piece took the place of a whole wall in there. There is no reason for audiences not to imagine about what the scene would look like when the murals show up, in the long dining table monks gathered together and sitting alongside with Jesus and his apostles on the table. The religious stories never became so close to real life, exhibited in front of people so lively and vividly before Da Vinci 5 
created “The Last Supper”. It seems to be outside of the hall, there has been added to another hall, where “Last Supper” is truly happening when viewers standing in front of it, people are able to feel and touch that legend. How bright is the light, falling on the table, how strongly it to enhanced the three-dimensional effects of characters and delivered a solid feeling of the painting. At first, monks probably deeply shocked by the realistic feeling to this art piece, before they noticed that all the details are actually depicted so real, from dishes on the tablecloth to those drapery folds. Like always, ordinary people usually evaluate art works based on the degree of realism of a certain art piece. However, that is only the first sense, in full appreciation of this extraordinary master piece, after the surprise brought by the realistic feeling of this painting, attention of audiences might turn to the creative method which been used by Da Vinci in order to state the story from “Bible”, compare to other art works with the same subject, Da Vinci used a whole new expression method, and there are nothing similar with other works in the same subject. In the painting of "The Last Supper", Jesus with calm and peacefully expression, the saints with an interesting gesture, and the unidentified woman, all three characters appeared in the same painting, might seems contradictory in a certain degree. Of course, first of all these characters and seems fairly appropriate as a whole, overall, the structure and composition of this painting are well arranged, the analyzes about 6 
these undefined elements can be detached to the work, as appreciation for a separate individual outside of the art work. Also worth to mention that this kind of desire and pursuit to a god or a noble human, and all sorts of doubts about God, as well as the humanization of this god, are closely related to Renaissance. Majority of elites emerged during Renaissance period, were passionate about human spirit, human liberation, at the same time, they believed in the existence of Gods, Da Vinci as a representative art master in this period, it is understandable for him to wonder repeatedly in this conflict, and gradually progress. The success of “The Last Supper” is closely related to artist’s pursuit of humanist thought, advanced painting techniques and methods, and the realism creation style. Different characters in this painting implied the kindness and evil of human society. By contrast between different characters, all characters are intrinsically linked and echoed, formed a unified, emotional whole. This can be considered as the most successful factor of Da Vinci’s psychological depicting of characters, which is a perfect example of pursue unity within diversity situation. 
 
3. Composition and the use of color 成分和色彩的运用
 
3.1. Compositional features of “The Last Supper” If majority of contemporary people are not as interested in religious legend as the old days, people can still enjoy the beautiful painting formed by the figure of characters. Composition of the picture seems to have a natural relaxed feeling, with the sense of balance and harmony, which is one of Gothic painting’s nature, also is 7 
the effect Rogier Van and artists like Botticelli tried very hard to reinstated by their own different creation methods. However, Leonardo was found that sacrifice the correctness and accuracy of observation sketch would not lead to the achievement of pleasing contour. In “The Last Supper”, lines been used in characters are mellow and powerful, lines been used in wall and backgrounds are certain and straight. Curved and straight lines combined in the same painting, supporting each other in the mean while of making a strong contrast, grow the resonance between lines and visualization. If artists did not take the beauty of composition in to consideration, standing in front of this masterpiece, we would suddenly feel in the face of the certain corner of the real world, as real as we have seen in any pieces of Masaccio or Donatello's art, so striking. The artist used the principle of balanced symmetrical in the composition of “The Last Supper”, Jesus as the main character, been arranged at the center position of the picture, his twelve disciples were seating on both of his left and right sides, this compositional arrangement formed the symmetrical visual effects by divided character layout into two sides. Symmetry of left and right side decorative wall, background wall and to-ceiling windows, and the symmetrical structure of the ceiling, naturally leading the focus of the picture to central position-where Jesus is, this composition method brought a sense of calm and stable to viewers, which is the first visual experience will be brought to the viewer by symmetrical compositions. 8 


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