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时间:2017-02-06 09:03来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:cinq 点击:
关于道德行为组织的两种观点首先是功利主义的意义,即增加最大多数人的最大利益。这个理论是由约翰·穆勒提出的功利主义倾向促进生产力和效率。功利主义是最常见的伦理理论在商业世界。虽然这是非常流行的理论有一些缺点,功利主义,如谁将决定什么是对谁好?意思是没有这样的协议来决定什么是真正好的最大的人。它不判断行为的对错。第二,正义理论认为,一切伦理决策都应以公平、公正、公正为原则。这个理论是由John Rawls提出,正义理论的优点是,它更容易编纂成法律法规比其他一些伦理原则。随着权利的角度,这一理论提供了许多国家法律的基础。在商业世界,它强调平等机会的所有,也可以帮助作出商业决策时。对正义理论的一些批评可能是,在什么情况下,个人可以不同意政府,他们能做些什么呢?谁决定什么是对什么是错?什么是公平?
Organization and Management 组织与管理
Question 1
Ethics is a set of principles of a right conduct, it is not just acting for profit but also what is right and fair. It can influence the behavior by taking the wrong decision, poor planning and miscommunication.
The two viewpoints on the ethical behavior organizations are firstly Utilitarianism meaning increasing the greatest good for the greatest number of people. This theory Utilitarianism was introduced by John Stuart Mill it also tends to promote productivity and efficiency .Utilitarianism is the most commonly ethical theory used in business world. Although it is very popular theory there are some drawbacks in utilitarianism such as who will decide what is good for whom? Meaning there is no such agreement set to decide what is actually good the greatest number of people. It does not judge the rightness or wrongness of the actions, the consequences. Secondly the theory of Justice which suggest that all ethical decisions should be based on the principles of fairness equity and impartiality. This theory was introduced by John Rawls, advantages of the theory of justice is that it more easily codify into regulations and laws than some other ethical principles. Along with the rights perspective this theory provides the foundation of many national laws. In business world it emphasis on equal opportunity for all and also can be helpful when making business decisions. Some of the criticism of the theory of justice can be that under what circumstances can individuals disagree with the government and what can they do about it? Who decides what is right and what is wrong? What is fair?
Three examples of how an organizational code of ethics can influence decision making are:
Poor and miscommunication within the organization which may lead the company to the wrong direction thus not meeting its goals.
Poor planning, making wrong decisions not doing the right thing at the right time.
No team involvement within an organization which can lack the production of the company and also incompletion of deadlines means failure in growth of the organization.
Three examples of how a code of ethics can be used for external purpose by an organization
Government – a company has to pay tax and rates each month.
Agents – for marketing purposes organizations has to deal with other agents.
Banks (finances) – for finances and support when they are need.

Question 2
Corporate social responsibility is how a business/organization behaves ethically and contributes to economic development while also making sure the quality of life of working environment and the people around the society.
The Two viewpoints of social responsibility of organization are: Classical View where the bosses and managers are focused on making profit without any concern for the community or society. This theory was introduced by Milton Friedman. Opposing View- where management is focused on their money making scheme but also take a step further than (classical view) to protect the environment and wellbeing of community.
Three ways in which social responsibility policy can influence decision making in an organization are:
Violation of profit-means business being too responsible only society and less focused on making profits.
Increase in costs –money social responsible actions just based on people and community and it does not cover for their costs, therefore someone has to pay their cost.
Lack of skills- business leaders/ managers are not competent enough to put social issues into correct order.
D. Three Benefits of CSR policy to an organization are:
ï‚· Better environment -Business involvement in a community/society will enhance everyday social problems.
Long term profits –socially responsible organizations tend to have more secure and long term future, they tend to do right things at the right time.
Public image –organizations can have a favorable public image because it is more people and environmentally friendly if projects a good business name in public.

A .The main concept of organizational sustainability in an organization is:
All their visions and goals are realistic.
To not only try to make profit in an organization.
Not over doing things which may lead to not enough resources plus not enough money.
A sustained organization works more ethically and socially, where it has a set of principles for doing right things and socially responsible as involving more people and being environmentally friendly.
B.Keeping the goods and vision realistic at all times as it helps an organization determine its productivity and sustainablilty.
Doing right things on right time.
To be classically responsible but stepping further and being more socially responsible as this will put a good image of the organization.
Question 4
The two models that I have studied are:
-John Cotters 8 –step Change Model.
-The Mckinsey 7S Framework.
The two models that I have chosen are; one of the theories is John Cotters 8-step change model. It was introduced by John Katter in the 1980’s. The 8-steps of this theory are :
1. Create urgency –developing urgency around the need for change.
2. Form a powerful collation– gather people with the same attitude towards change and are influential people in the business. Putting such people together in a team leading the change
3. Create a vision for change – creating a vision of set goals and targets which the whole company works towards to achieve.
4. Communicate the vision- Making sure that everyone in the organization is familiar with the vision of the company.
5. Remove Obstacles- moving barriers which work against the change.
6. Create short term wins- give out early rewards.
7. Build on the Change- keeps monitoring and ways to improve change.
8. Anchor the Changes in Corporate Culture –embedding the changes into the new cooperate culture.
Changes to an organization structure involve hierarchy of authority, job roles and other structural characteristics. Hierarchy change of authority meaning setting new layers of managers, they determine all the major business roles. Managers needs to create a vision to change thus create a vision which is closer to the change. Plus removing obstacles by looking at the current status and organizational structure including payroll and soppy... Similarly doing change for technology by creating an urgency identifying the potential threats and developing scenarios showing what can be done in the future to enhance technology. People change can be encouraged through thoroughly analyzing the potential pros and cons of their target and also reward people who help in achieving the goals. Plan thoroughly and have solid grounds to implement the change that can be done much easily thus improving the chances of success.
Second theory is the Mckinsey”s 7S framework, this theory was introduced in the early 1980s by Tom Peters and Waterman. In this principle there are 7 internal aspects of an organization that needs to be aligned if it is be successful. The 7s model involves seven independent factors which are:
1: Strategy - the plan which has to be set to achieve and build competitive advantage over the competition.
2: Structure- they way the organization is built up (structured) and who reports to whom.
3: System – the daily activities and procedure’s that employees engage in to get the job done
4: shared values- Also known as “super ordinate goals” these are the core values of the company that are evidenced in the corporate culture and the general work ethics.
5: style- The style of leadership adapted.

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