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英国Intercultural Business Communication专业coursework代写:What ar

时间:2019-07-25 13:05来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
1.0 Introduction介绍 随着企业全球化的推进,跨文化管理逐渐受到企业的重视(Bird和Mendenhall,2016)。跨文化管理是指在全球运营中,管理者在跨文化条件下克服异质文化的冲突,维护不同文化背
1.0 Introduction介绍
随着企业全球化的推进,跨文化管理逐渐受到企业的重视(Bird和Mendenhall,2016)。跨文化管理是指在全球运营中,管理者在跨文化条件下克服异质文化的冲突,维护不同文化背景员工的共同行为准则,保持供应品、客户之间的顺畅沟通。不同文化背景的社会组织(侯、凡、谭、华、瓦尔德斯,2018)。那么什么是文化,如何理解文化已经成为跨文化管理的前提,但目前的问题是没有统一的标准来定义和理解文化。以Hofstede(2003)、Minkov(2017)、Trompnaars(1997)为代表的学者提出了大文化观。以霍利迪(1999)、辛格(1998)、詹姆逊(2007)为代表的学者提出了一种小文化观。大文化和小文化之间有很大的差异。这给试图将这些理论应用于跨文化管理的公司和人员造成了巨大的混乱(侯、范、谭、华、瓦尔德斯,2018)。如何认识他们的长处和弱点,并利用它们来接近商业文化,是一个有趣而有价值的话题。本文旨在从“大”文化和“小”文化的角度考察跨文化分工,分析文化在企业战略中的应用。本文首先介绍了大文化的概念和内涵,并分析了其不足之处。提出了小文化的概念和内涵,探讨了小文化的弱点。最后,它建议如何选择在商业环境中构思文化的方法和处理文化的方法。
With the advancement of the globalization of enterprises, cross-cultural management has gradually gained increasing attention from enterprises (Bird and Mendenhall, 2016). Cross-cultural management means that in global operation, managers overcome the conflicts of heterogeneous cultures under cross-cultural conditions to maintain the common code of conduct for employees with different cultural backgrounds and maintain smooth communication between supplies, customers, social organizations with different cultural backgrounds (Hou, Fan, Tan, Hua and Valdez, 2018). Then what is culture, how to understand culture has become the premise of cross-cultural management, but the current problem is that there is no unified standard for the definition and understanding of culture. Scholars represented by Hofstede (2003), Minkov (2017), Trompnaars (1997) put forward the view of large culture. Scholars represented by Holliday (1999), Singer (1998), Jameson (2007) put forward a small culture perspective. There are big differences between the large and small cultures. This has caused great confusion for companies and people who are trying to apply these theories for cross-cultural management (Hou, Fan, Tan, Hua and Valdez, 2018). How to recognize their strengths and weaknesses and make use of them for approaching culture in business is an interesting and valuable topic. The aim of this paper was to examine intercultural division from the perspective of “large” and 'small” cultures, analyze the application of cultures in business strategies. This article first introduced the concept and connotation of large culture, and analyzed its weaknesses. The concept and connotation of small culture were presented to explore its weaknesses. Finally, it recommended on how to choose ways to conceive culture and ways to approach culture in a business environment.
 
2.0 Main body主体
2.1大文化
2.1 Large culture 大文化
从大文化的角度来看,文化是先验的,可以从民族的角度来衡量,可以用维度来界定它是什么。一旦知道这些,它将有助于业务(Ehrenfreund、Peter、Schrogl和Logsdon,2010年)。国际管理者应认识到文化差异的存在,尊重这些差异,并充分利用管理中文化差异造成的多样性。有效利用知识已成为当今竞争优势的最重要来源,因为它决定了公司如何应用和保持其核心优势以及组织的学习方法。支持大文化观点的支持者有Hofstede(2003年)、Minkov(2017年)、Trompnaars(1997年)。他们认为文化是一套规则和方法,在特定的社会发展过程中,其文化逐渐演变,成为一个社会解决各种反复出现的问题的标准。它们深深植根于人们的心中。Hofstede(2003年)和Minkov(2017年)评论说,文化是一种心理过程,人们在一个环境中分享,这一环境将一群人与其他人区分开来。Hofstede(2003)认为,每个国家的成员都有一个受文化影响的共同行为模式,因为个人、父母、雇员、国家公务员或社会其他成员不可避免地受到这些行为模式的影响,反映了不同的价值观和文化。特点。通过研究,他将不同文化之间的差异归纳为六个基本的文化价值维度:权力距离,是指社会地位较低的人对社会或组织中权力分配不平等的接受程度;不确定性回避。它是指一个社会在受到不确定事件和非常规环境威胁时,是否采取正式渠道来避免和控制不确定性;个人主义/集体主义,它衡量一个社会整体是否关注个人利益或利益。集体主义者;男子气概/女性气概,主要取决于以男子为代表的社会素质,如竞争和专断;或妇女素质,如谦虚、关心他人,以及文化对男女功能的定义;长期/短期RM维度,是指文化成员延迟满足其物质、情感和社会需求的程度;放纵/约束维度,是指社会允许人们的基本需求和享受生活欲望的程度。(Hofstede,2003年)。霍夫斯泰德的文化维度模型在跨文化管理的研究和实践中得到了广泛的应用,在跨文化研究和应用中具有很高的影响力。Judging from the view of large culture, it holds that culture is a priori, and it can be measured from a nation-based perspective, dimensions can be used to define what it is. Once these are known, it is helpful for business (Ehrenfreund, Peter, Schrogl and Logsdon, 2010). International managers should recognize the existence of cultural differences and respect these differences, and make good use of the diversity caused by cultural differences in management. Effectively using knowledge has become the most important source of competitive advantage today, because it determines how companies apply and maintain their core strengths and the learning methods of the organizations. The proponents that support a large culture perspective are Hofstede (2003), Minkov (2017), Trompnaars (1997). They believed that culture is a set of rules and methods, in a particular social development process, its culture has gradually evolved and become the standard for a society to solve various recurring problems. They are so deeply rooted in people’s hearts. Hofstede (2003) and Minkov (2017) commented that culture is a psychological process that people share in an environment that distinguishes a group of people from others. Hofstede (2003) figured that members of every country have a common pattern of behavior influenced by culture, as individuals, parents, employees, national civil servants, or other members of a society are inevitably affected by these patterns of behavior, reflecting different values and cultural characteristics. Through research, he summarized the differences between different cultures into six basic cultural value dimensions: power distance, it refers to the degree of acceptance of the unequal distribution of power in society or organizations by people with low status in a society; uncertainty avoidance, it refers to whether a society adopts formal channels to avoid and control uncertainty when it is subject to uncertain events and unconventional environmental threats; individualism / collectivism, it measures whether a society as a whole pays attention to the interests of individuals or the interests of the collective; masculinity / femininity, it mainly depends on the quality of a society represented by men, such as competition and arbitrariness, or the quality of women, such as modesty, caring for others, and the definition of male and female functions by the culture; long-term / short-term dimension, it refers to the extent to which members of a culture are acceptable to delaying the satisfaction of their material, emotional, and social needs; indulgence / restraint dimension, it refers to the degree to which a society allows the basic needs of people and enjoy the desire for life (Hofstede, 2003). Hofstede's cultural dimension model is widely used in the research and practice of cross-cultural management, it has a high degree of influence in cross-cultural research and application.
Large culture concept has also attracted some criticism (Hou, Fan, Tan, Hua and Valdez, 2018). For example, McSweeney believed that culture has no boundaries. A state cannot be used as a unit of culture studies. Because many countries are composed of different nationalities, they have more than one culture, and there are different levels of subcultures. Hofstede’s theoretical model is obviously impossible to describe all the cultural characteristics of a country's culture. McSweeney (2002) also argued that Hofstede's mistake is to equate individual behavior with the behavioral characteristics of groups of a country. Hofstede's samples were middle-level managers from IBM's multinational companies, they have a unique knowledge, background and social status, inferring the overall culture of the country based on the employees makes the representativeness of the research be questioned. Schwartz (1990) believed that IBM employees were undoubtedly different from other people, as they have a specific value. Schwartz (1990) speculated that if other types of samples were chosen, the research objects might produce value dimensions of other types, and in a certain dimension, the order of the countries would also change. At the same time, judging from the cultural dimensions determined by Hofstede, there was no socialist country and less affluent country in his survey data, so the cultural dimensions he identified might not be applicable to the cultures of developing countries (Hofstede, 2003).


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