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英格兰Coursework 本科课程作业:脱欧对英国NHS的影响

时间:2019-08-26 11:49来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
在某种程度上,脱欧是全球化进程中的一个障碍。英国脱欧无疑将影响英国在政治和经济层面的国际地位和声誉,因为欧洲为英国提供了巨大的市场和资源,这必然对英国经济产生特殊影响,英
在某种程度上,脱欧是全球化进程中的一个障碍。英国脱欧无疑将影响英国在政治和经济层面的国际地位和声誉,因为欧洲为英国提供了巨大的市场和资源,这必然对英国经济产生特殊影响,英国在欧洲失去了发言权。随着英国的撤军,德国和法国在轴心国的力量将进一步加强。脱欧后,英国将或多或少陷入经济发展停滞,通胀也将上升,英镑将贬值12%至15%(Pollard,2018年)。国内生产总值增长放缓;通货膨胀居高不下,失业率从52万上升到82万,失业率上升1.6个百分点到2.4个百分点。同时,英国在欧洲单一市场中在货物、服务、人员和资本自由流动方面所享有的巨大利益也将减少。
Brexit, to some extent, is an impact an obstacle to the process of globalization. Brexit will undoubtedly affect the international status and reputation of the UK on the political and economic level because Europe provides the UK with a vast market and resources, which must have a particular impact on the UK's economy, and the UK has lost its voice in Europe. As the UK withdraws, the force of Germany and France on the axis will be further strengthened. After Brexit, the UK will fall into more or less stagnation of economic development, inflation will rise also, and the pound will depreciate by 12% to 15% (Pollard, 2018). GDP growth is slowing; inflation is high, unemployment rises from 520,000 to 820,000 and unemployment rises by 1.6 to 2.4 percentage points. At the same time, the vast benefits that Britain enjoys in Europe's single market in the free movement of goods, services, people, and capital will be reduced.
国家卫生局(从现在起称为“NHS”)在英国提供公共卫生服务。从各自的劳动需求来看,国民保健服务需要更多专业的卫生服务人员来服务国际游客。欧洲一体化进程是一个纯粹的经济导向设计(Block Lieb,2018)。最根本的方法是消除国家之间的贸易和投资壁垒,实现经济资源的自由流通。欧盟认为,自由经济流动的核心保障之一是“人的自由流动”,但如果人们实现了“自由流动”,必然会从贫困地区流向富裕地区,这就给欧盟带来了一个问题:随着一体化的发展,优秀的青年人才进入了欧洲一体化进程。RNAL从南欧、地中海国家流向德国,进入英国的“学徒制”,在很大程度上帮助德国成为欧洲一体化的最大受益者。多年来,英国经济在欧洲一直是独一无二的,最顽固的因素之一是它吸引了最好的移民。因此,国民保健服务的专业劳动力将减少。
The National Health Service (from now on called 'NHS') offered the public health service in the United Kingdom. From the respective of the labor requirement, NHS requires more professional health service employees to service international tourists. The European integration process is a purely economic oriented design (Block-Lieb, 2018). The most fundamental method is to dismantle the trade and investment barriers between countries to achieve the free circulation of economic resources. The EU believes that one of the core guarantees of free economic mobility is "free movement of people." But if people realize "free flow", will inevitably flow from poor to rich regions, then creates a problem for the EU: with the development of integration, excellent young talents in Europe's internal flow from southern Europe, the Mediterranean countries to Germany, into the British system of "the apprentice", which to a great extent, help Germany to become the biggest beneficiary of European integration. The British economy has been unique in Europe for many years, and one of the most stubborn factors is the fact that it attracts the best migrants. As a consequence, the professional labor would be reduced for the NHS.
The number of employees of the NHS would be reduced by the reduced requirement of the Europe burden. The European Union's welfare system is well known in the world. It was initially designed in the 1970s and 1980s as a social structure with a ratio of 5:1 between working and retired people (ark, McKee& Atun, 2017). By 2005, however, the rate of working to retired people in Europe had become 4 to 1, and by 2040 it will be down to about 2 to 1, meaning that two working people will have to support one retiree, and the social welfare burden will be more substantial and more substantial. Based on these facts, it is not difficult to see that absorbing immigrants, including the admission of refugees, is not a simple question of good or bad, right or wrong, but a choice that has no choice. Any economy that has entered the post-industrial era will face declining population and aging, as a large number of women enter the labor market directly, and fertility will naturally drop and become irreversible -- there is no precedent for a reversal. The only developed country with a fertility rate of around 2 and a growing population in the United States, which also has a tradition of successful immigration.
The international labor markets were influenced by the economy of the UK so that the status of the economy could affect NHS. This round of globalization more brings to the investors interests makes workers at a disadvantage, create the wealth of the middle class, in the UK to take off the referendum, support to take off the most of it is in the traditional mining, manufacturing, such as the steel industry hit blue-collar middle class, and the strength of support for the most is the upper-middle-class business and finance, British behind the events, the economic globalization objectively brought Britain's social class divide, intensified the class conflict, worsening the economic and social environment, in a wave of the globalization and integration (Stack, Pentecost, & Ravishankar, 2018). If Britain stays in Europe, it will continue to suffer a series of disadvantages. Britain's economic management is much higher than that of Europe, but it has to be reconciled to their management model. Influx Europe immigration is complicated and the integration of the European social, traditional culture or change their original intention and the European mainstream ideology and values, most migration is relative lack of working enthusiasm, just want to get Europe's welfare, housing and other treatment, can really come up with new ideas for the Europe high technology talent shortage, it is not only to European countries to back the heavy financial burden, and what is more important for Europe's social order, for European cultural tradition of erect weaken. If the UK can get rid of this problem and fetter, the UK's federations will highlight a lot of questions, and such things need to be adequately dealt with (Sampson, 2017). Therefore, Brexit may also be the protection policy for the UK in some areas. However, with the increasingly globalized world politics and economy, it is not a wise move for Britain to leave such a vast market of Europe. Instead, it should carry out multilateral negotiations and treaty-making with Europe countries, actively participate in various Europe affairs, and seek for the well-being of its own country and the consolidation of its high power status.
In summary, this leads to a fascinating phenomenon: the increasing economic efficiency, the relatively shrinking income of workers, and the shrinking population and aging population structure of the whole society lead to the declining domestic demand on Brexit, and macro-control cannot change the relative decline. Therefore, the NHS could be influenced by the reduced requirements and reduced the number of the employees.  
 
Reference 
Ark, J. J., McKee, M., & Atun, R. (2017). Brexit: Severe Risks to Britain's National Health Service.American Journal Of Public Health, 107(10), 1594-1596. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2017.304010
Block-Lieb, S. (2018). Reaching to Restructure Across Borders (Without Overreaching), Even After Brexit.American Bankruptcy Law Journal, 92(1), 1-51.
Pollard, M. m. (2018). EMBRACING DISCOMFORT: BREXIT, GROUPTHINK AND THE CHALLENGE OF TRUE CRITICAL THINKING. Policy & Practice: A Development Education Review, (26), 173-186.
Sampson, T. (2017). Brexit: The Economics of International Disintegration. Journal Of Economic Perspectives, 31(4), 163-184. doi:10.1257/jep.31.4.163
Stack, M. M., Pentecost, E. J., & Ravishankar, G. (2018). A Stochastic Frontier Analysis of Trade Efficiency for the New EU Member States: Implications of Brexit. Economic Issues, 23(1), 35-53.


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