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英国石油和天然气工业

时间:2016-01-31 17:19来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学生作业 点击:

英国石油和天然气工业
UK Oil And Gas Industry


英国石油和天然气行业的利益我们的日常生活中,为电力行业、石油运输提供能源,给人们的家庭提供热气。通过其广泛的供应链,它雇佣了成千上万的人,根据税收方面,技术和出口,有利于英国的经济。自1960年代第一次生产,工业操作不断应对挑战提出的价格,具有不可预知性,成熟,改变监管和社会观念。在政府的帮助下,它有责任确保国家从石油和天然气储备中获得最大受益。从石油和天然气的经济效益和社会效益中,必须平衡好自然资源和环境的安全护理。业界致力于一系列措施和目标的供应链咨询,监管机构、政府、非政府组织和社区更广泛的利益相关者,以透明的方式所监控的对象。

产业分析

PEST分析

Fullen年代(2006)PEST因素是外部业务,当分析整个行业时,需要被理解。它测量指示区域的市场潜力增长和下降。

政治分析

英国石油和天然气(新闻稿:2010)政府区分政治稳定的税收制度的重要性,为业务提供了确定性。石油和天然气是最大公司纳税人和工业投资者spending4.7十亿,它在国家经济增长和复苏发挥作用。

经济学和英国石油和天然气的商业主管Mike Tholen(2010)说,最新的6月预算,2010年提供了稳定,因为巨额投资建立和准备好在我们的行业进行投入运行。

2011 - 2012年,行业的企业所得税是27%,进一步削减1%后在每一年和小利润率将从2011年4月减少到20%。

The oil and gas industry of UK benefits our daily life by providing energy to power industry, oil to transport and heat to homes. Through its broad supply chain, it employs hundreds of thousands of people and makes a major contribution to the UK economy in terms of tax revenues, Technologies and exports. Since first production in the 1960s, industry operations continually respond to the challenges presented by price unpredictability, maturity, changing regulation and perceptions within society. It takes responsibility with help of government is to make sure the nation achieves the maximum benefit from its oil and gas reserves. The economic and social benefits from oil and gas production must be balance with good, safety of the natural resources and environmental care. The industry is committed to a range of measures and targets with the consultation of supply chain, regulators, government, non-government organizations and the wider stakeholder community that is monitored in a transparent way.

产业分析——Industrial Analysis

PEST分析——Pest Analysis

Fullen S (2006) Pest factors are external to your business and need to be understood when analyzing the industry as whole. It measures the market potential by indicating areas of growth and decline.

政治分析——Political Factors

UK Oil and Gas (Press Release: 2010) Government distinguishes the importance of Political stability in the tax system that provides certainty for business. Oil and gas is largest corporation tax payer and industrial investor spending ???4.7 billion, it play role in growth and recovery of nation???s economy.

Economics and commercial director of UK oil and gas Mike Tholen (2010) said that latest budget June, 2010 provided stability because huge investment built up and ready to go within our industry.

The corporation tax for the industry is 27 % for 2011-12, with further 1 % cuts in each following years and small profit rate will reduced to 20% from April 2011.

经济分析——Economic Factors

Oil and gas industry provides highly skilled and well paid jobs for 450,000 people across the UK and around 10,000 business including multinationals and small companies are working in supply chain. The reduction in corporation tax will encourage innovation and motivate growth and development in overall industry.

A report on energy and climate change by UK parliament (2009), Employment in the industry is depending on the continuing investment. Oil and Gas UK estimates that the investment of 1 billion pounds can create 20,000 jobs. The fall of 2.5 billion pounds over the next two years, could loss of up to 50,000 jobs.

It increasingly tough for the oil and gas companies to access to credit and equity because of banking crisis has deteriorated an already difficult situation. The only one British bank- Lloyds/HBOS- is lending to oil and gas companies and not lending to new operators. Small companies need debt capital and large companies reviewing their budgets due to recession and banking crisis.

Oil prices were $50-80 per barrel range in 2006- 2007, rise steeply at $147 in 2008. In Feb. 2009 falls to five year low of $32 and increased in May to $60. Short term competitiveness of the industry and price of oil are the key factors determining levels of investment. The oil and gas faces high cost, low prices, global recession and lack of affordable credit.

Legal Environment:

The government ensures the security of supply within the framework of moving towards a low carbon economy while determining UK oil and gas policy. UK health and safety executive explained UK health and safety law protect all personnel health, safety and welfare on offshore installations. Identify hazards, assess the risks and its consequences and follow the suitable procedure and control the risks. According to health and safety act 1974 at work, place duties on employers and everyone must play their role to ensure health and safety.

BBC News 22 August, 2010 Oil and gas industry has to improve safety of workers on offshore because of big rise in injuries and other serious incidents. The average number of injuries for the previous five years was 42.

环境因素——Environmental Factors

UK oil and gas industry works with government and its stakeholders to reduce the environmental impact of operations. Exploration and production of oil from resources is industrial process that has some degree of impact on environment. The secure energy supply is big challenge that has to balance with the benefits. All operating companies are required to have Environmental Management System (EMS) in place that ensures appropriate control measures on particular location or operations. Regulation and directives by EU and recommendations by OSPAR provides protection for the environment and their goals and targets are given in UK legislation.

技术因素——Technological Factors

Economic report of UK Oil and Gas 2009, UK oil and gas industry is working in harsh and challenging environment. Investment in innovative technologies is a major factor in achieving maximum recovery from reserves. North Sea takes a position at forefront of offshore engineering in subsea technology to recover oil and gas from complex reservoir and deep waters. UK oil and gas fields are complex, small and economically marginal. Latest technology helps in revitalization of resources from deep water, heavy oil and high temperature

In report 7 Oct, 2010 of Industry???s Technology Facilitator (ITF) helps in identifies need and facilitates the collaborative technology innovation and development in oil and gas industry. Technological collaboration deals with volatile prices and mature field production and small field development cycle. It recognizes the country as a technical inventor.

The introduction of new novel underwater cutting device sponsored by BP, CoP, and Shell is cost effective and cutting speed is comparable with sharp water jet cutting in air.

社会文化因素——Socio-cultural factors

SWOT分析——SWOT Analysis

Kern R (2001) SWOT analysis helps you understand the product attributes, the competition, opportunities and determines the current state of the market and outline challenges that lie ahead.

优势——Strengths

领先的市场地位——Leading Market position

British Petroleum has a strong position in market. The company is one the largest in production of oil and second largest in gas production. BP is largest producer of hydrocarbon in the UK and Largest producer of oil & gas in North America.

In addition, BP is largest global supplier of fuels to the aviation businesses and supplying fuel in 64 countries and has marketing sales of more than 25 billion liters. The company is one of the largest suppliers of Marine Lubricants to the marine industry and has globally presence in over 850 ports. Moreover, BP is largest blender and marketer of bio-fuels and has robust brand image over 100 years of operations across the globe. The bargaining power of company is high due to its dominant market position in the global oil industry.

垂直整合的业务——Vertically integrated operations

British Petroleum involved in upstream, midstream and downstream of oil businesses. The company has two segments for operations: exploration and production; and refining and marketing.

The exploration of oil and gas is upstream and midstream involves ownership and management of crude oil and natural gas pipelines. BP???s downstream activities involve refining and marketing of oil & gas and related products. At the end of FY2009, BP owned 16 refineries worldwide and 22,400 retail sites and 500 sites outside Europe and the US.

BP???s vertically integrated operations improve operational efficiencies and give it competitive edge in the global market.

地理上的广泛存在——Wide geographic presence



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