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英国留学作业代写|微观与宏观经济学的区别

时间:2016-11-18 08:56来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:cinq 点击:
经济是研究人类行为的科学,作为一种目的和稀缺的手段之间的关系,有替代用途。
 
Economic is the science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses, says Lionel Robbins in a 1932 essay.
 
The problem of scarcity and choice 稀缺性与选择问题
 
每一个社会都有可以作为生产性投入的资源。这些有时被称为生产要素。他们经常被划分为土地、劳动力、资本和企业。这些都是用来生产商品和服务。占有和使用这些商品和服务是衡量我们生活水平的一个标准。衡量一个经济体的产品和服务的总产出的衡量被称为国民生产总值。
事实上,我们作为个人,并且同样适用于企业和政府,不能在给定的时间点上,我们想要的一切就是稀缺的经济问题,只有极少数商品可以称为免费商品相对于经济商品如我们呼吸的空气。使用或消耗大部分的资源或物品将涉及一个牺牲,例如,如果你买一本书,那么你使用的钱,你的时间可能已被用于其他东西。被放弃的最好的替代被称为机会成本,在研究决策时是经济学和其他社会科学的一个重要概念。
 
Every society has resources which can be used as productive inputs. These are sometimes known as factors of production. They are often classified as land, labour, capital and enterprise. These are used to produce goods and services. Possession and use of these goods and services is one measure of our living standards. A measure of an economy's total output of goods and services is known as gross national production.
 
The fact that we as individuals, and the same applies to companies and to the government, cannot get everything we want at a given point in time is known as the economic problem of scarcity, only a very small number of goods can be called free goods as opposed to economic goods such as the air we breathe. Using or consuming most resources or goods will involve a sacrifice, for instance, if you buy a book then the money you used and the time you took could have been used for something else. The best alternative given up is known as the opportunity cost, and is an important concept in economics and other social sciences when studying decision making.
 
The concept of opportunity cost 机会成本概念
 
Making a choice means one thing must be given up to get something else. Every choice is a trade-off, which means giving up something to get something else. Every choice also involves a cost. It is called opportunity cost. Opportunity cost can emphasize the problem of scarcity when making a choice. For instance, you can quit college or university right now or you can stay in education. If you quit and take a job, you might earn money and buy what you want, and spend more free time with friends. If you remain in education, you might not afford these things. You will be able to buy these things later and that is one of the payoffs from being in college. Therefore for now, if you buy books, you might not have enough money left to buy clothes. The opportunity cost of being in college is the alternative things that you would have done if you had quit college.
 
The difference between micro and macro economic 微观与宏观经济的差异
 
Microeconomics is the study of the decisions of individual people and businesses and the interaction of those decisions in markets. It seeks to explain the prices and quantities of individual goods and services. Microeconomics also studies the effects of government regulation and taxes on prices and quantities in markets.
 
Macroeconomics is the study of the national economy and the global economy as a whole. It seeks to explain average prices and the total level of employment, income and production. Macroeconomics also studies the effect of taxes, government spending and the government budget deficit on total employment and incomes. It also examines the effects of money and interest rates.
 
For example, the difference between the micro and macro perspective is highlighted by Olympics. You can take a micro view of a single participant and the actions he or she is taking, or you can take a macro view by looking at the whole pattern formed by the joint actions of all the individual participants in the display.
 
Derivation of individual demand curve 个别需求曲线的推导
 
Individual demand is the relationship between the price of a good and the quantity demanded by a single individual.
 
Individual people's demand curves for any good will be the same as their marginal utility curve for that good, measured in money. The graph above shows the marginal utility curve for a particular person and a particular good. If the price of the good were P1, the person would consume Q1: where MU=P. Thus point a would be one point on that person's demand curve. If the price fell to P2, consumption would rise to Q2, since it is where MU=P2. Thus point b is a second point on the demand curve. If the price fell to P3, Q3 would be consumed. Point c is a third point on the demand curve.
 
Therefore as long as individuals consume where P=MU, their demand curve will be along the same line as their marginal utility curve.
 
Derivation of market demand 市场需求衍生
 
The market demand curve is the horizontal sum of the individual demand curves formed by adding the quantities demanded by each individual at each price.
 
People who operate firms make many decision. All of these decisions are aimed at one overriding objective: maximum attainable profit. Decision about the quantity to produce and the price to charge depend on the type of market in which the firm operates.
 
No one sets up a firm without believing it will be profitable. And profit depends on total revenues and costs. Costs are related to the choice of input used for production.
 
The firm's short-run output decision 公司的短期产出决策
 We know that the perfectly competitive firm can sell as many units as it wants, as long as it charges the market-determined price. The perfectly competitive firm must decide how much to produce. The firm will choose the quantity where profits are maximized.
 
We know that profit = total revenue - total cost.
 
Total revenue (TR) is calculated as price multiplied by quantity. TR = P x q
 
Marginal revenue (MR) is the added revenue that a firm takes in when it increases output by one additional unit, or MR = (change in TR)/(change in q).
 
The profit maximizing strategy is for a firm to find out if the additional money it gets from selling one more unit is more than the cost of making one more unit. In other words, the marginal revenue more than the marginal cost, then the firm would want to make one more, because it will make money on that additional unit.
 
As long as the MR is bigger than the MC, the firm should produce more. Once MR = MC, the firm will want to stop production, because if it increases production, the MC will be bigger than the MR. If MC > MR, then the cost of making one additional unit is more than the amount of money received from selling one additional unit. Thus, the profit-maximizing quantity is where MC = MR.
 
Output (supply) decisions are less constrained in the long run because the firm has no fixed factor of production and firms are free to enter and exit industries. A firm with a positive profit level is earning an above-normal rate of return, and in the long run, new firms are likely to be attracted into the industry.
 
Sometimes, though, the best a firm can do, given the market price, might still cause the firm to lose money. A firm that is suffering a loss is earning a rate of return that is below normal, and investors are not going to be attracted to the industry. The firm may also be breaking even, meaning that its profit level is zero. But since profit is total revenue minus total cost, and total cost includes a normal rate of return, the firm that is breaking even is still earning exactly a normal rate of return. New investors may not be attracted, but current ones are not running away either.
 
The table below summarizes the different circumstances in which a perfectly competitive firm may find itself in the short run.
 
As it looks to the long run, it must consider how its costs will change with different scales of operation. The analysis of long-run possibilities is even more complex than the short-run analysis, because more things are variable-scale of plant is not fixed and there are no fixed costs. In theory, the firm may choose any scale of operation, and so it must analyze many possible options.
 
In the long run, entry and exit of firms are possible. If firms in an industry are earning profits, entry is likely. If they are suffering losses, firms will exit. This is the long-run adjustment to the short-run conditions of profit or loss.
 
How equilibrium price and equilibrium quantity is achieved
An equilibrium is a situation in which opposing forces balance each other, so there is no tendency for change. Market equilibrium occurs when the market price balances the plans of both buyers and sellers. The equilibrium price is the price of which the quantity, demand equals the quantity supplied. The equilibrium quantity is the quantity bought and sold at the equilibrium price. The price of good regulates the quantities demanded and supplied. If the price is too high, the quantity supplied exceeds the quantity demanded. If the price is too low, the quantity exceeds the quantity supplied. There is one price, and only one price, at which the quantity demand equals the quantity supplied. Price will adjust when there is a shortage or a surplus because it is beneficial to both buyers and sellers.


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