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英国财务管理会计作业 Financial and Managerial Accounting

时间:2017-05-24 19:05来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:cinq 点击:
本文是英国留学生作业,主要内容是讲述管理会计的基本定义,以及管理会计与财务会计两者之间的区别和相似之处。
虽然,财务会计和管理会计系统准备和分析相同的财务数据,他们在某些方面也有所不同。例如,用户的信息是不同的。此外,他们的准备程序不同,包括时间框架。成本会计是处理企业产品和活动成本分析的另一个领域。它构成了管理会计的一个重要组成部分,因为通过它,管理层也可以作出决定。本文分析了两者的相似之处。
 
Executive Summary 执行摘要
Though, financial accounting and managerial accounting systems prepare and analyze the same financial data, they also differ in some aspects. For example the users of the information are different. Also the procedures for their preparations differ including the time frames. Cost accounting is another sphere of accounting that deals with the analysis of costs of products and activities in an organization. It forms a substantial part of managerial accounting since through it, the management can also make decisions. This paper analyzes the similarities a swell as differences between the two.
 
Introduction 简介
Management accounting is and accounting system that provides the management with techniques that provide of an organization with information for purposes of internal use like decision making and effective control of the organization's resources. According to Enotes website (2010), procedures in management accounting provide information for decision makers in a company. Contrary, financial accounting procedures provide information to external users like the shareholders of a firm, government agencies, and creditors to the firm. Management accounting reports are usually generated anytime; daily, weekly, monthly, or quarterly. While individuals in an organization decide management accounting methods, financial accounting techniques must conform to external standards like the international financial accounting standards developed by financial accounting standards board (FASB). Cost accounting is often confused with management accounting. Cost accounting involves determining the cost of an activity while management accounting goes beyond to combine multiple management disciplines that contain financial information for internal decision making. Therefore cost accounting can be said to a necessary component of management accounting (Enotes website, 2010).
 
Characteristics of management accounting procedures
According to netTOM website (2010), management accounting procedures should posses the following procedures. They should be; Relevant for the purpose, complete, accurate, clear and precise to the manager, timely, communicated through the appropriate channel, less costly to provide and the volume should be manageable.
 
The role of management accounting
Management accounting plays the following roles within an organization:
 
Planning:
the information provided by management accounting procedures is vital in planning and budgeting processes. This is because such information contains various costs like pricing, product costs and capital expenditures.
 
Control:
the management is in a position to see which activities are not conforming to the plan from the reports provided by the management accounting (netTOM website, 2010).
 
Organization:
the management accountant can reinforce the organizational framework of the organization by tailoring the accounting structure to the organizational structure.
 
Motivation:
the managers and other staff are always motivated by the budgets prepared by the management accountant.
 
Decision making:
this is one of the major functions of management accounting procedures. Through the collection and analysis of data, the reports he or she presents to the managers assist in decision making (netTOM website, 2010).
 
Similarities between financial accounting and management accounting
Despite the two fields having numerous differences, there also many areas of similarities as specified below;
 
Certification: both fields emphasize on certification. For one to be certified, he/she must pass the exams that are concerned in each field of specialization. Certifications come in form of certified management accounting and certified public accounting (Ehoh website, 2010).
 
Review of historical data: both systems prepare reports basing on historical data review. In financial accounting, this is for comparison purposes of the business between the present and the past, while for management accounting, it is for determining the current performance of the organization and to come up with a business financial forecast of the future (ehow website, 2010).
 
Measurement of the currency: the unit of measurement in generation of reports in the two systems is the currency. The reports generated are thereafter used to give tangible information to business owners or show the financial state of the business. They can also be used to plan and generate the budget for the business (ehow website, 2010).
 
Terminology used: both systems of accounting use similar accounting terminology. E.g. debits and credits are used in both systems to describe the money that goes out and the money that go in to the business respectively (ehow website, 2010).
 
Techniques: the accounting techniques employed by both the systems are basically the same. E.g. the technique that is used to determine the actual cost of the product (ehow website, 2010).
 
Differences between Financial and managerial accounting
Although both financial accounting and management accounting provide information to the user for decision making, there are various differences between the two as summarized in the table below.
 
Financial accounting
 
Management accounting
 
Information from Financial accounting system is used by external parties to the organization like the creditors, shareholders etc
 
Information from management accounting procedures is for internal use by the organizational management.
 
Financial accounting reports provide information on financial performance of an organization over a given period of time and the state of affairs for the organization at the end of the period.
 
Management accounting reports are for planning and control activities and also for decision making in an organization.
 
It is compulsory according to the law for limited companies to prepare financial statements.
 
Management accounting reports have no legal requirement.
 
Financial accounting statements are an end to themselves as they dwell mainly on the whole organization aggregating costs and revenues from different departments.
 
Management accounting information can not be an end to a product but rather aid in decision making. Also management accounting may give focus to specific areas and not every department.
 
Essentially, a historical picture of a past operation is presented by financial accounting procedures.
 
In management accounting, both the historical past of the immediate past and a future tool for planning is given.
 
Financial accounting records should be provided for at least a period of 12 months.
 
There is no time limit for management accounting records.
 
The international accounting standards must be followed in the preparation of accounting statement (financial accounts of various companies can be compared). I.e. Generally accepted Accounting Principles must be followed (GAAP).
 
There are no strict rules to govern management accounting record preparation (no need to follow GAAP). The records are used by managers of the organization and therefore there is no need for comparison.
 
A specific format specified by the IAS is to be followed in the preparation for financial statements.
 
There is no specified management accounting format and therefore no specific statements should be produced.
 
The nature of financial statements most often is of financial nature.
 
Management accounting information not necessarily money related. It can also be non-monetary.
 
(NetTOM website, 2010)
 
Types of management accounting reports
Since management accounting is a vital part of the planning tool kit, you can find the following managerial reports within SAC:
 
Variance analysis:
this usually determines the standard, projections and actual costs of an activity. One key element to the company's benchmark is the difference between the actual and the standard costs, i.e. how much it can cost to produce the same computer chip by two different computer manufacturers. The organization can analyze its planning processes using the projections or estimate variance analysis. Through variance analysis, there is a special field called bottleneck accounting that examines the relative costs and the variances created through production bottlenecks (lovetoknow website, 2010).


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