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英国硕士课程作业:A study on tourism motivation of Chinese students s

时间:2019-04-16 16:47来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
Abstract摘要
本研究以推拉模式、旅游职业阶梯理论为基础,探讨1990年后英国留学生旅游动机。截至2015年底,在英国学习的中国1990年后一代学生达12万人。中国学生消费力强,对英国文化、社会和商品有很高的兴趣和热情。因此,研究和了解中国学生在英国的旅游动机,将有助于英国当地相关旅游企业和组织开展有针对性的营销活动和提供服务,并帮助相关组织更好地帮助中国学生适应在英国的学习和生活。本研究将以推拉模式、旅游职业阶梯理论为基础,通过定量与定性相结合的研究方法,更好地了解中国学生的旅游动机以及为什么会有这样的动机,以及如何激发中国学生的旅游动机。本研究将问卷调查与半结构访谈相结合,采用t检验、方差分析、层次分析法等数据分析方法。研究预计总共需要75天的时间,在研究过程中可能遇到的伦理问题将通过适当的措施加以解决。
This study aims to be based on push-pull model, travel career ladder theory to study the tourism motivation of Chinese students of post-1990 generation studying in the United Kingdom. By the end of 2015, there were 120,000 Chinese students of post-1990 generation who studied in the UK. Chinese students have strong spending power, a high interest and enthusiasm for UK's culture, society and commodity. Thus, to study and understand tourism motivation of Chinese students in the UK will help relevant local tourism enterprises and organizations in the UK to carry out targeted marketing activities and provide services as well as help relevant organizations to better help Chinese students to adapt to their studying and living in the UK. In this study, it will be based on the push-pull model, travel career ladder theory, through combining quantitative with qualitative research methods to better understand what tourism motivations that Chinese students have and why they have such motivations, as well as how to motivate Chinese students’ tourism motivation. The study will use questionnaire and semi-structured interview in data collection, the data analysis methods used include T test, variance analysis and analytic hierarchy process and so on. The study is expected to cost a total of 75 days, ethical issues which might be encountered in the course of the study will be dealt with by using appropriate measures.
Keywords: tourism motivation; Chinese students of post-1990 generation; the United Kingdom; push-pull model; travel career ladder theory
 
1.0 Introduction介绍
1.1 Background 背景
英国是世界上最重要的旅游目的地和旅游出口国之一,旅游业发达。旅游业在英国的政治、经济和社会生活中扮演着越来越重要的角色,它被称为英国“最赚钱”的产业之一。多年来,英国的旅游收入仅次于化工和金融业。2015年,外国游客在英国消费超过210亿英镑,但近年来,受全球经济危机的影响,英国旅游业也受到了一些负面影响,游客到达率和旅游收入增速放缓,对于目前的英国旅游业来说,寻找新的经济增长点是当务之急。需要考虑的问题(文化、媒体和体育部和Helen Grant,2014年)。英国的教育水平很高,英国是国际学生选择留学的最佳目的地之一,在英国留学的中国学生达1500万人,其中90年代或之后出生的中国学生约12万人,已成为英国留学生中最大的一部分(高等教育)。关于统计局,2015年)。这些1990年后一代的中国留学生不仅在英国学习,而且在英国消费、旅游,对于旅游业来说,面向1990年后一代中国留学生的旅游市场是值得关注的。Mitra和Buliung(2015)指出,青年旅游者有很长的旅游周期,他们也有很高的环境意识和探索的勇气,他们创造了非常可观的经济效益。因此,对于英国旅游业而言,应重点发展面向英国1990年后一代中国学生的旅游业务。UK is one of the world's most important tourist destinations and tourism-exporting countries, the tourism industry is well developed. Tourism plays an increasingly important role in British political, economic and social life, it is known as one of the "most profitable" industries in the country. For years British tourism revenue is second only to revenues of the chemical and financial industries. In 2015, foreign tourists spent more than £ 21 billion in the UK, but in recent years, affected by the global economic crisis, the British tourism industry has also suffered some negative impact, the growth rate of tourist arrivals and tourism revenue slows down, for current British tourism, the search for new economic growth point is the urgent problem needed to be thought about (Department for Culture, Media & Sport and Helen Grant, 2014). There is a high level of education in UK, UK is one of the best destinations that international students choose to study in, the number of Chinese students studying in UK reach 15 million, of which Chinese students who were born in or after the 1990s are about 120,000, they have become the largest part of the foreign students in UK (Higher education statistics agency, 2015). These Chinese students of post-1990 generation not only study in the UK, they also consume, travel in the UK, for the travel industry, travel market towards Chinese students of post-1990 generation is worth of paying enough attention. Mitra and Buliung (2015) point out that youth travelers have a long period of tourism, they also have a high degree of environmental awareness and the courage to explore, they create very impressive economic benefits. Therefore, for the tourism industry in UK, it should emphasize the development of tourism business aiming at Chinese students of post-1990 generation in the UK.
1.2 Rational
Market segments have a very important significance for success of tourism business. Market segmentation helps enterprises to find the best market opportunities and seize market opportunities, thereby increasing market share to achieve great economic efficiency. Market segmentation methods used commonly are based geographical environment, demographics, consumer behavior and consumer psychology of tourists (Lin, Lee and Wang, 2012). Currently, tourism enterprises are mainly based on differences in tourist demand and combine with social attributes, physical characteristics and other aspects of tourists to segment travel market, such as the elderly tourist market, women market, business market and so on. However, the current British tour companies have paid insufficient attention to the travel market towards Chinese students of post-1990 generation who grew up in the special social and historical background in China and now study in UK. With the rising number of tourists of post-1990 generation and increased capacity of tourist spending, from the perspective of Chinese students of post-1990 generation to develop marketing strategies will become a new topic for British travel companies. Thus, it is essential to explore the tourism motivation of this group of Chinese students studying in UK, and it also has a positive theoretical and practical significance. Considering from the theoretical sense, the results of this study is reflected in that it is based on push-pull theory, travel career ladder model (Caber and Albayrak, 2016; Williams and McNeil, 2012) to explore the tourism motivation of post-1990 generation Chinese students studying in the UK, which to a certain extent, supply and enrich researches on different tourism market segmentation. From a practical sense, based on the research in this study, it can explicitly understand the travel motivations, needs, consumer behavior characteristics of post-1990 generation Chinese students studying in the UK, so as to provide valuable guidance and reference for relevant tourism enterprises to carry out marketing for corresponding products or services.
2.0 Literature review
2.1 Concept of tourism motivation
Tourism motivation is the direct driving force promoting people to travel, stimulated by tourism motivation, people take action after determine a travel target, making their travel needs satisfied, thus eliminating tension (Lin, Lee and Wang, 2012). Bao (2009) notes that factor affecting tourism motivation includes individual psychological and personal factors, as well as some external factors. If a person wants to travel, he must have both subjective and objective conditions. Subjectively, he must have a need to travel; objectively, he must have a certain ability to pay and leisure time, as well a health condition, etc. Study on consumers’ tourism motivation is the key for tourism enterprises to a comprehensive understanding of what consumer needs to carry out accurate market segments to provide timely introduction of tourism project to meet the needs of a target market to increase market penetration (Caber and Albayrak, 2016; Devesa, Laguna and Palacios, 2010).
2.2 Push-pull theory
There are several theories on tourism motivation, such as drive theory, arousal theory, inducement theory, expectancy value theory, attribution theory and achievement goal theory, etc., push-pull theory is one of the most famous theories (Mohamed and Othman, 2012). In this model, the factors pushing refer to needs caused by internal imbalance or tension, which are internal factors affecting people’s going for tourism, the internal factors include escaping from everyday environment, carrying out social communication and so on (Chen and Chen, 2015). Pulling factors link to attributes and characteristics of a destination, there are factors affecting people to choose which particular destination, such as a unique natural landscape, historic monuments and so on (Bao, 2009). Pulling factors are extrinsic factors affecting travel motivation (Bao, 2009; Seebaluck, Munhurrun, Naidoo, and Rughoonauth, 2015). The theory appeared in the 1970s, after that, it has been improved by scholars, up to now, push-pull theory has been widely applied to the study on tourism motivation (Caber and Albayrak, 2016).


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