哈佛格式英国作业Critically examine the purpose, practice and theory

论文价格: 免费 时间:2019-04-24 13:52:09 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
1.0 Introduction引言
With the advent of the knowledge economy, human resources has become the most important and the most core resources for contemporary enterprises and organizations to maintain and enhance the quality of human resources has become one of the key factors in continuing operations and development of an organization. In this context, the concept of human resource development (HRD) was born. HRD appeared in the 1980s and has been paid attention increasingly by the world. HRD is a series of management strategies and activities aiming to enhance the quality of human resources. As a new strategy of development, HRD has been taken as the core weapon by governments, enterprises and organizations around the world to enhance their competitiveness. There are lots of mature theoretical studies on HRD, for a person who is about to engage in  HRM work in future, understanding HRD theory and how to make a reasonable use of theoretical knowledge related to HRD in specific practice is very realistic. This essay first of all introduces the definition and significance of HRD, followed by a critical analysis on the definition, purpose and practice of HRD. Then, it takes Hillvale Council as the object of a case study to understand its current situation and problems in terms of HRD, combined with relevant literature to analyze these issues and propose solutions.
1.1 Definition of HRD 人力资源部的定义
Leonard Nadler(1970)在1969年美国培训与发展学会年会上首次提出了人力资源开发的概念。麦克拉根(1989)将人力资源开发定义为在特定时间改变员工行为的有组织的活动行为。美国培训与发展协会(American Society for Training and Development)将人力资源开发定义为:人力资源开发是综合利用培训与发展、职业发展、组织发展等手段来提高个人、团体和组织的效率。这个定义将职业发展和组织发展介绍给了人力资源部。Torraco和Swanson(1995)认为,人力资源部正在组织和开展学习活动,以提高绩效或促进个人成长。戴维斯、诺顿和罗斯韦尔(2004)认为,人力资源开发是组织进行的任何有计划的培训、教育和发展活动,它们将组织战略目标的实现与满足个人需求和职业愿望相结合,不仅提高了劳动生产率,而且提高了个人满意度。工作要求。
Leonard Nadler (1970) first proposed the concept of human resource development (HRD) at the annual meeting of the American Society of Training and Development in 1969. McLagan (1989) defined HRD as an organized activity conduct to change employee behavior at a particular time. American Society for Training and Development defines HRD as that HRD is the comprehensive utilization of training and development, career development, organizational development, and other means to improve the efficiency of individuals, groups and organizations. This definition introduces career development and organizational development to HRD. Torraco and Swanson (1995) believe that HRD are learning activities organized and carried out to improve performance or to promote personal growth. Davis, Naughton and Rothwell (2004) believe that HRD are any planned training and education and development activities undertaken by organizations, they combine achievement of organizations’ strategic goals with meeting the needs of individuals and career aspirations, which not only improves labor productivity, but also improves personal satisfaction for work.
1.2 Effects of HRD 人力资源开发的影响
HRD is an effective means to improve economic efficiency and management performance of an enterprise, which is achieved through the following aspects.
1.2.1 Greater productivity and good quality products and services
To survive and develop requires enterprises to pay attention to HRD. Without HRD, the knowledge structure of enterprises is very easy to aging, thus companies need to constantly update knowledge, organizations need to continue to learn. These are achieved through employee training and internal knowledge management. By using HRD to find the potential of employees, so that a company's HR can play their most roles. On the one hand, it can directly improve the quality of producers, thereby improving labor productivity; on the other hand, it can create more technological invention to provide consumers good quality products and services in order to achieve more economic efficiency and competitiveness improvement (Harrison, 2009). 
1.2.2 Lower labor turnover and absenteeism
HRD emphasizes training and career design. Training is an effective means of staff growth, career design is an important way to improve cohesion of an enterprise, as well as accelerate the growth of workers. Through HRD to provide staff training will enable them to change from accepting training passively into an active seeking their own progress and organizational development, it will not only make workers and enterprises to grow together, but also enhance the cohesion of enterprises to culture staff’s sense of belonging for enterprises (Luoma, 2000; Foster and Akdere, 2007).
1.2.3 More motivated staff
Harrison and Kessels (2004), Garavan (1997) point out that implementation of HRD takes respect of people as the starting point to establish good communication ways, as well as mutual respect, cooperation and mutual assistance team atmosphere. HRD emphasizes formation of team atmosphere and team cooperation, in the current situation when market competition is increasingly intense, mutual cooperation and support among employees become an important weapon for survival and development of an enterprise. HRD is through making a comprehensive use of salary, work environment, corporate culture, staff training, performance appraisal and other means to more effectively improve employee satisfaction and to improve employees’ enthusiasm and engagement. HRD pays attention to employee career design and takes to achieve win-win situation of organizations and individuals as the goal to help to fundamentally improve the employees’, especially knowledge employees’ enthusiasm at work (Luoma, (2000). 
1.2.4 More flexibility
Enterprises are through HRD to pass on corporate values to staff to culture code of conduct of   common work, so that employees can consciously work in accordance with established practice to form a good, harmonious working environment, which enhances employees’ job satisfaction and sense of accomplishment to lay the foundation for building a learning organization and ensuring the effective implementation of business for enterprises (Foster and Akdere, 2007; Burack, 1991). On the basis of respect for staff’s independence and individuality to implement HRD, actively train and develop staff's potential will help enterprises to take the advantages of staff’s potential to the largest extent. Enterprises provide more training and study opportunities for staff, employees will have a good career moral and strong operational capacity to establish a strong sense of responsibility and professionalism, so that they can voluntarily make their own contribution to accomplish business goals (Bratton and Gold, 2003).
1.2.5 Greater ability to deal with change
Luoma (2000) analyze the strategic role of HRD. Firstly, as a means for an organization to remain competitive advantage, HRD enhance the expertise of members of the organization to increase the likelihood of realization of the organization’s objectives to meet the needs of the organization’s current strategic performance through playing a strategic role, which is similar to traditional training. Secondly, they believe that the strategy formation more relies on the expertise and learning capacity of senior management of an organization, and therefore the training of HRD for improving learning ability of senior staff also plays a key role in forming organizational strategy and take full advantage of new strategic opportunities emerging in the external environment.
1.3 Critical analysis
1.3.1 Critical analysis on HRD theory
Above definitions for HRD show three types of views, the first is the emphasis on the role of training in HRD, such as what Swanson and Toracco (1995) proposes, they point out the importance of HRD, realizing that it should first of all develop people’s ability, then they can effectively process and produce products. However, HRD under the guidance of this view is not systematic and planned, which lacks long-term goals. The second is to emphasize the importance of education in HRD, such as what Naughton and Rothwell (2004) analyzes. This view is valuable in recognizing that it is not enough to only conduct technical training for employees, training of ethical aspects is also needed, in order to form and consolidate an organization’s corporate culture. It also reflects the systematic and planned staff development, its shortcomings lie in that organizations’ condescendingly instilling employees, ignoring staff initiative. The third point emphasizes the importance of learning in HRD, such as what Leonard Nadler (1970) defines. Valuable point of this view is to emphasize the importance of giving full play to staff initiative, encourage mutual learning and self-development among employees in the learning process. However, the learning view of HRD puts forward higher requirements for technology hardware and cultural software of an organization.#p#分页标题#e#
1.3.2 Critical analysis on purpose of HRD  
About purpose of organization of HRD, different scholars have different views, Swanson and Toracco (1995) hold that HRD aims to enhance an organization's overall performance, and Barrieand and Pace (1998) think that the purpose of HRD is helping to improve the performance of individual employees. However, Harrison (2009) believes that HRD within an organization can enhance learners’ learning efficiency, thereby enhancing individual performance in the organization to ultimately lead to improved overall performance of the organization. York, Werner and DeSim’s definition break through the definition for traditional training to improve current staff performance, they propose that HRD aims not only to enhance the current performance of an organization and the individuals, but also to the long-term performance of the organization and the individuals, which combines HRD with organizational long-term strategic goals.
1.3.3 Critical analysis on HRD practice 
Leonard Nadler (1970) first summarized HRD in 1969. He believes that HRD involves three areas: learning related to career that current learners are engaged in, namely, training; learning related to career that learners may engage in future, namely, education; learning having nothing to do with the work that learners deal with, namely, development. Training, education, development together constitutes HRD. 
After what Leonard Nadler proposed in 1969, many scholars were from different points of views to replenish the content of HRD practice. Mclagan (1989) and Mankin (2009) propose that HRD professionals should assume the following roles: HR strategy adviser, HR system designer and developer, organizational change agent, organizational design consultant, learning planning expert, learning instructor, performance consultant, career development expert and researcher.
Garavan (1991) and Sims (2006) are from the perspective of HRD strategy to point out that in determining HRD strategy, enterprises must first make clear their corporate vision and strategic objectives, and then determine HRD strategy. HRD strategy as an important part of the overall corporate development strategy of an enterprise plays a big role in helping the enterprise to achieve its overall business development strategy.
Garavan (1997) and Baum (1995) are from the perspective of employee training to analyze that talents is the core resources and competitiveness of modern enterprises. Good training mechanism is an important way for enterprises to get talents. Companies should be able to carry out staff training through various forms according to their actual needs, it is necessary for them to pay attention to the training content and the needs of trainees, in order to increase employees’ business skills and professionalism.
Harrison and Kessels (2004) Burack (1991) are from the perspective of employee motivation to comment that companies can create an appropriate, safe, harmonious, pleasant working environment for employees, and create fair corporate culture of mutual respect, encouraging innovation, which is also one of the conditions to promote the positive work of employees. In addition, companies should provide excellent staff development space and the opportunity to showcase their talents, for example, they can provide promotion opportunities, financial, technical and other support for them. If companies allow employees to achieve organizational goals while achieving their own needs to create common corporate values, business philosophy and corporate culture for employees and enterprises, which can better motivate employees to work more effectively to help companies to successfully achieve their strategic objectives ( Garavan, 1997; Crouse, Doyle and Young, 2011).
There are a lot of controversy about HRD practice, for example, HRD are largely different from staff training in the past, the roles and tasks of HRD, staff, line managers and trainers are also different from those in the past, the roles, responsibilities of HRD, staff, line managers and trainers in HRD, as well as their mutual relationship requires to be further made clear (Harrison and Kessels, 2004).HRD emphasize to achieve win-win situation for individuals and enterprises, but in practice, individuals’ and a company’s goals are not always consistent, when individual needs conflict with the enterprise’s strategic goals, how HRD strategy reconcile this conflict can not be ignored (McGuire, 2010). In addition, HRD and an enterprise’s long-term business strategy are linked together, the consequence is that the effect of HRD is likely to be shown after quite a long period of time, how to establish a reasonable evaluation system and promptly evaluate the effect of HRD and find problems existing are problems needed HRD employees to think about (McGuire, 2010).
Sections 2: research on Hillvale Council’s HRD problems 
2.1 Status of HRD in Hillvale Council 
In this case, Hillvale Council is a local authority, it is facing significant cuts in its funding from Central Government, and it is conducting a review of all its services, policies and procedures. The Council has a Human Resource (HR) department, it manages all resource, reward and workforce relations issues. A Survey revealed that many individuals felt that they did not get adequate support for development from their line managers. The IIP Report revealed Hillvale Council’s problems: inconsistent implementation of the training and development processes by line managers; a lack of any clear assessment of the contribution of HRD to the achievement of the Council’s objectives; improvements needed to the induction process; improvements needed in approaches to individual personal development; weaknesses in the provision of development opportunities for line managers. The IIP Report also figures that the HRD Manager appears to work fairly independently.
2.2 HRD problems in Hillvale Council 
Garavan (1991), Sims (2006) note that an organization must include staff training and development planning in its long-term strategies, it must build its training and development system from a strategic height, so that its human resources development system can serve the realization of its strategic objectives by preparing enough talents to achieve strategic objectives to achieve a win-win situation of the organization and the staff. In this case, inconsistent implementation of the training and development processes by line managers showed that Hillvale Council's training and development processes were not conducted in line with the predetermined strategic planning, which was not conducive to achieve its strategic goals and achieve the win-win situation.
Morley and Garavan (1993) noted that determining training needs is one of the important work of HRD. Determining training needs in general require several steps, first of all, it should determine training needs and understand knowledge and skills required for each job. Communicating with a line manager of a job directly is an important way to understand the relevant information of the job. Then, after having a clear knowledge what skill and knowledge required by each job, it is necessary to refer to these requirements to find the gaps in existing staff. Finally, in writing training needs report, the report should generally cover knowledge and skills required for each job, gaps between the requirements and quality of staff, recommendations from departmental staff and managers for training, and so on. Considering from the above analysis, in determining training needs, HRD managers need to maintain smooth communication with staff of all levels through various formal and informal communication channels, in this case, the IIP Report also observes that the Hillvale Council HRD Manager appears to work fairly independently, which indicates that the HRD Manager of Hillvale Council has deficiencies in communicating with staff of various departments, which may cause that their determined training needs, developed training programs may not match with the actual needs of staff. 
Leicester (1989) finds that in the process of participating training, staff may encounter many difficulties and challenges, such as lack of sufficient training time, lack of professional trainers etc., which requires organizations to provide reasonable safeguards to better support staff to participate in training and development plans. In this case, many individuals felt that they did not get adequate support for development from their line managers. This indicated that the line managers of Hillvale Council provided insufficient support for staff in participation in training.
Crouse, Doyle and Young (2011) figure that after staff training, it should focus on assessment of training effect, appraisal methods include testing, performance appraisal, etc., at the same time, the results of training appraisal should also be archived, summarized and analyze promptly to provide effective basis to improve and enhance the subsequent training work. In this case, The IIP Report pointed out a lack of any clear assessment of the contribution of HRD to the achievement of the Council's objectives. This result suggested that Hillvale Council ignored the importance of assessment of training effectiveness, thus resulting in that the management were unable to determine whether the training at that time helped to achieve the Council's objectives, thus it failed to provide a basis for follow-up training to improve, leading to wasted training costs.
Dragomiroiu, Hurloiu, Mihai (2014) find that the importance of induction training in HRD can not be ignored, it helps new staff to faster integrate into a team. In this case, the IIP Report showed improvements needed to the induction process, proving that Hillvale Council has deficiencies in the induction process and it needed to be further strengthened, or it was not conducive to staff’ faster integration into the team.#p#分页标题#e#
Garavan, (1997), Crouse, Doyle and Young (2011) analyze that after training, if staff enhances their ability, they should be promptly rewarded by salary increase or promotion. In addition, they also point out that for excellent talents cultivated after training, they should be opportunities to get promotion to play their talents, so as to ask them to stay in the organization. In this case, the IIP Report pointed out the weaknesses in the provision of development opportunities for line managers. This result indicated that HRD of Hillvale Council ignored the incentive for staff, undermining staff’s enthusiasms at work and their satisfaction for work.
Baum(1995) finds that organizations should be based on the differences between staff to provide variety of training content and training methods to suit the needs of different types of workers. In the development of staff training plans, organizations should not only be according to what they need, but also take into account what staff need, allowing staff to be involved in the process of development of training programs, listening to what staff think about training content, training methods and training time help to improve staff’s enthusiasm of participating in training. In this case, the IIP Report mentioned improvements needed in approaches to individual personal development, indicating that Hillvale Council provided relatively simple methods to help with staff’s personal development, which could not meet the individual needs of staff and was not conducive to improving staff’s enthusiasm of participation in training and development of themselves.
2.3 Recommendations
Firstly, HRD plans needs to be determined based on an organization’s strategy and what the staff needs (Sims, 2006). Business strategy is a long-term business planning of an organization, and therefore HRD plans developed based on a long-term strategy also usually cover a long process, how to ensure that HRD plans can be implemented in accordance with the predetermined plans over the long term is an important work of HRD department staff, to achieve this purpose, it can make use of a reasonable performance appraisal, through the development of long-term, medium-term, short-term performance goals, based on quantitative and qualitative assessment criteria to carry out regular assessment on the implementation of HRD plans, which helps to ensure that the HRD plans can be conducted in accordance with the original plans. Furthermore, the development of HRD plans should also consider the actual situation and the needs of staff, which requires strengthening frequent communication between HRD department staff and department heads, staff to understand the knowledge and skills required for each position, based on this to find the gaps in existing staff, in consultation with departmental staff and managers to develop targeted staff training and development plans (Baum, 1995). 
Secondly, in HRD planning, line managers have undertaken more responsibility in employee training and development than in the past, in addition to mentor, coach, they also play the roles of a facilitator and a exciter. Therefore, line managers should pay attention to provide as much support in terms of time, money and trainers as possible to staff, so as to motivate staff to more actively participate in training and development programs (Leicester, 1989). While line managers should be good at listening to the views and feedback of staff, helping them to solve the problems encountered in training and after training to ensure that training and development work can be completed successfully to achieve the intended purpose (Baum, 1995). For example, in this case, the staff thought that training methods provided by Hillvale Council in helping staff with their personal development are relatively simple and can not meet their individual needs, then the relevant persons in charge should improve the training methods. In general, organizations often use classroom teaching for training. This method is easier to be implemented, but it is less effective, so Hillvale Council can use role playing, case discussion and other methods, although these methods are a little more difficult to be carried out, they can achieve a good training effect, and they may be more in line with the individual needs of some staff. 
Thirdly, HRD planning of an organization is related to whether its long-term strategic business goals can be successful, while HRD also needs an organization to invest large resources of manpower, material and funds, thus it is necessary to periodically assess HRD to understand that compared with the investment on HRD, whether an organization gets its expected return, whether its HRD contributing to the achievement of strategic business objectives, what problems exist in HRD, and so on. HRD assessment report should be analyzed without delay, archived and sent back to trainers and trainees, so that they will understand the effectiveness of training to take timely measures to carry out necessary amendments for HRD planning, including amendments for training content and training methods to ensure that HRD can both meet the strategic needs of the organization and meet the individual needs of staff (Crouse, Doyle and Young, 2011). At the same time according to the assessment report, line managers and staff who have  outstanding performance can be rewarded with physical and spiritual rewards, giving them more opportunities and space for their development can help them to participate more actively in HRD planning (Crouse, Doyle and Young, 2011).
Finally, correct induction training system is able to help new staff to integrate into a team faster, encouraging new staff to form a positive attitude and shortening the time for new staff to make themselves be familiar with their new work, which has great significance to improve staff loyalty and reduce management costs of an organization. Hillvale Council has deficiencies in its induction training in the past, they need to make improvements in these areas, such as health and safety training, a tour of the workplace and opportunity to meet fellow workers, provision of information about the values and expectations of the organization, discussion about employment issues and so on. While it should deal with training effectiveness appraisal and performance appraisal work to help it to choose potential staff they really need and detect those new staff who do not comply with the requirements and standards (Dragomiroiu, Hurloiu and Mihai, 2014).
3.0 Conclusion
With the advent of the knowledge economy era, the importance of HRD for enterprises is heightened increasingly, which is reflected in helping enterprises to provide good quality products and services, motivate staff, and develop more flexibility management systems. The main purpose of HRD is to enhance the current performance of an organization's and individuals’, it more contributes to the long-term performance of organizations’ and individuals’. HRD practice is reflected in corporate strategy, training, employee motivation, corporate culture and other aspects, the roles, responsibilities of HRD, staff, line managers and trainers in HRD, as well as their mutual relationship requires to be further made clear (Harrison and Kessels, 2004). In the specific implementation process, it will be faced with problems such as how to reconcile conflict between enterprises and individuals, how to establish an evaluation system.
Applying the theoretical knowledge of HRD reasonably to specific practice has a practical significance. In this essay, Hillvale Council is taken as the object of a case study to understand their current situation and problems relating to HRD, and from the following aspects: how to determine HRD plans, roles of management personnel in HRD, HRD assessment, induction process to recommend on how Hillvale Council improves the HRD in future. 
Barrie, J. and Pace, M. (1998). Learning for organizational effectiveness: philosophy of education and human resource development. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 9(1), 39-54. 
Baum, T. (1995), Managing human resources in the European tourism and hospitality industry: a strategic approach. London: Chapman & Hall, pp. 235-248.
Burack, E.H. (1991). Changing the company culture: the role of human resource development. Long Range Planning, 24(1), pp. 88-95.
Crouse, P., Doyle, W. and Young, J. D. (2011). Workplace learning strategies, barriers, facilitators and outcomes: a qualitative study among human resource management practitioners. Human Resource Development International, pp. 39-55.
Davis, P., Naughton, J. and Rothwell, W. (2004). New roles and new competencies for the profession. Training and Development, 58 (4), pp.26-36.
Dragomiroiu, R., Hurloiu, I. I. and Mihai, G. (2014). Induction staff training. Procedia Economics and Finance, 16, pp. 368-373.
Foster, R. D. and Akdere, M. (2007). Effective organizational vision: implications for human resource development. Journal of European Industrial Training, 31(2), pp. 100-111.
Garavan, T. N. (1997). Training, development, education and learning: different or the same? Journal of European Industrial Training, 21(2), pp. 39 – 50.
Garavan, T. N. (1991). Strategic human resource development. Journal of European Industrial Training, 15(1), pp. 17-30.
Harrison, R. and Kessels, J. (2004). HRD: emerging challenges. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp.83-103.
Harrison, R. (2009). The L&D Agenda in different sectoral settings. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, pp.265-293. 
Leicester, C. (1989). The key role of the line manager in employee development'. Personnel Management, 3, pp. 53-7. 
Luoma, M. (2000). Investigating the link between strategy and HRD. Personnel Review, 29(6),#p#分页标题#e#
pp. 769 – 790
Mankin, D. (2009). Developing an HRD strategy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp.69-104.
McGuire, D. and Jorgensen, K. M. (2010). Human resource development theory and practice. London: SAGE Publications Ltd, pp.1-20.
McCracken, M. and Wallace, M. (2000). Towards a redefinition of strategic HRD. Journal of European Industrial Training, 24(5), pp. 281 – 290.
Mclagan, P. A. (1989). Models for HRD practice. Training and Development Journal, 41(9), pp. 49-59.
Morley, M. and Garavan, T. (1993), The new organization- its implications for training and
development, conference. Irish Institute of Training & Development, 4, pp. 102.
Nadler, L. (1970). Developing human resources. Houston: Gulf, pp. 3.
Sims, R. (2006). Introduction to HRD, human resource development: today and tomorrow. Greenwich, Conn: Information Age Publishing Inc., pp.1-23,
Torraco, R. J. and Swanson, R. A. (1995). The strategic roles of human resource development. Human Resource Planning,18 (4), pp. 10-29.