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英国硕士作业:Managing a Small Business-Take Ningbo Global as an Ex

时间:2019-07-17 11:33来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
1.0 Introduction介绍
Ningbo Global Kid products Co., Ltd. ((hereinafter called as Ningbo Global) is a comprehensive national high-tech enterprise that integrates research, development, manufacturing, sales, and service with automotive child safety seats and takes it as its core products, the company was established in 2008 with a registered capital of 2.6 million yuan (RMB, similarly hereinafter), total assets of approximately 35 million yuan, and 260 employees (Shuidi Credit, 2018). With its professional level and mature technology, the company has become one of the most powerful companies in China in which child car seats are produced. Its annual sales in the last five years were around 70 million yuan.
According to the Chinese government's criteria for the classification of large and medium-sized enterprises, in the industrial industry, the standards for medium-sized enterprises must satisfy the standard that the number of employees is 300 or more, the sales is 30 million yuan or more, the total assets is 40 million yuan or more, and enterprises which fail to meet the standard are small enterprises (Denkena, Dittrich and Stamm, 2018). Although Ningbo Global has annual sales of more than 30 million, the number of employees and corporate assets are all lower than those of medium-sized companies’. Therefore, the company is a small enterprise according to the standards of the Chinese government.
The research aim of this study was to discuss the characteristics of small business management of Ningbo Global to point out the problems that small businesses encounter in the process of growth and how to solve the problems.
2.0 Literature review文献综述
2.1 Start-up strategy启动策略
小企业的创业战略不仅关系到小企业能否在公司诞生的早期阶段生存,而且对公司未来的经营产生更为重要的影响。一般来说,小企业的创业策略包括五种:从头开始创业、收购现有企业、收购特许经营权、管理层收购、管理/发展家族企业(Laari Salmela、Mainela和Puhakka,2017年)。从无到有的起步要求市场仍处于自由竞争阶段,中小企业可以有更多的机会参与竞争,市场上没有强大的垄断资本和公司,这对中小企业的发展具有阻碍作用。同时,这种创业战略对创业者的人才、资金和技术资源需求相对较少,但创业者往往需要花费更多的精力和时间才能成功。
购买特许经营权需要小企业在购买良好的特许经营权之前在早期阶段拥有更多的资金(Laari Salmela、Mainela和Puhakka,2017年)。同时,公司在长期发展过程中可能会受到特许经营限制。没有完全独立的发展方向决策权。这种创业战略的优势在于,它可以帮助小企业更快地获得资源,并在产品、渠道、促销、研发、品牌推广等方面提供帮助。小企业可以更快地取得成功。
Start-up strategies of small business are not only related to whether small business can survive in the early stages of the company’s birth, but also have a more important impact on its future operations. In general, start-up strategies of small business include five types: start-up from scratch, buying an existing business, buying a franchise, management buy out, managing /developing the family business (Laari-Salmela, Mainela and Puhakka, 2017). Start-up from scratch requires that a market is still in the stage of free competition, SMEs can have more opportunities to participate in competition, there is no strong monopoly capital and companies in the market which have a hindering effect on the development of SMEs. At the same time, this kind of start-up strategy requires relatively few talents, funds, and technical resources for entrepreneurs, but entrepreneurs often need to spend more effort and time to succeed.
Buying a franchise requires small businesses to have more funds in the early stage before they can purchase good franchise rights (Laari-Salmela, Mainela and Puhakka, 2017). At the same time, the company may be subject to franchise restrictions during the long-term development of the company. There is no complete independent decision-making power for its own development direction. The advantage of such a start-up strategy is that it can help small businesses to get faster access to resources and help in products, channels, promotions, research and development, branding, etc. Small businesses can achieve success faster.
Buying an existing business also requires small businesses to have more funds in the early stage before they can purchase a good existing business (Laari-Salmela, Mainela and Puhakka, 2017). The advantage of this starting strategy lies in the ability to use management, products, and technologies, channels of existing business to achieve the rapid development of the company, in the future development process, it has more fully independent decision-making power.
Advantages of management buy out lie in that, for entrepreneurs, on the one hand, they can use the original company's various resources to achieve the company's rapid development, and on the other hand, as the entrepreneurs are the original company's managers, they can be better evaluate  risks and utilize various resources of the original company (Laari-Salmela, Mainela and Puhakka, 2017). The disadvantage of this starting strategy is that entrepreneurs are required to have enough money to make acquisitions.
Advantages of managing /developing the family business include that corporate management has a better sense of belonging, has a strong common goal to quickly make decisions and implement changes (Laari-Salmela, Mainela and Puhakka, 2017). However, the problem is that when family-owned companies rely too much on family members, they cannot make good use of talents outside the family. The problem of succession of the companies is also more difficult to be solved.
Start-up strategies of the above types of small businesses have their own advantages and disadvantages (Kuester, Konya-Baumbach and Schuhmacher, 2018). An entrepreneur of a small company needs to consider not only its own circumstances, such as whether it has sufficient funds, technology, and channel resources, but also the market competition environment, such as: whether the market competition is free, whether there are monopoly companies hindering their own development. It is also necessary to consider whether they have the ability to make independent decisions in the future development process and whether they can obtain more resources for the development of enterprises.
2.2 Marketing strategy
Marketing mix refers to that enterprises are based on the needs of a target market, by comprehensive consideration of the environment, capabilities, competition, and the optimization and combination of various marketing factors (products, prices, distribution, promotions, etc.) that they can control to achieve better economic and social benefits (Yi, 2018). For medium and large enterprises, the theory and principles of marketing include: 4p, 4C, 4R, etc. However, Stokes and Wilson (2017) pointed out that constrained by their financial resources, technology, and channels, small companies have their own different characteristics in marketing mix strategy, thus they proposed 4Is marketing strategy, which includes the following four aspects (Stokes and Wilson, 2017). First, innovations, including to stock new lines, to have an access to new market segments by using particular services or improving existing services to old customers. Second, identification from a target market, small enterprises usually provide products, services to clearly identified groups of customers in a ‘niche' market. Third, interactive marketing, that is the ability to communicate or respond in a timely manner to individual customers. Internet technology can facilitate interactive marketing processes by remembering what a customer has said easily when it collects customer information online and communicating with customers more easily when they have complaint. Fourth, informal information gathering by using the network, Management of small enterprises can monitor a marketplace through informal networks, rather than formalized market research.
2.3 Analysis
The above literatures put forward suggestions on how small companies can reasonably establish start-up strategies and marketing strategies. This study analyzed the start-up strategies and marketing strategies of Ningbo Global based on the above literatures. However, it is worth noting that the above literatures and theories mainly discuss how small companies develop strategies in the early stages of development and with limited corporate resources. However, as small businesses grow, they will encounter many new problems. Under these circumstances, the above theories and literatures may not be able to better help small businesses to cope with the challenges. This study will explore what problems that Ningbo Global will encounter after its expansion, and how to solve these problems.

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