城市化如何影响供应链管理?How urbanization affects supply chain managemen

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With the development of the world economy, urbanization will become the mainstream phenomenon in most countries. A report predicts that by 2025, three-fifths of people will live in urban areas and there will be 35 “megacities” in the world. The emergence of urbanization will have many implications for supply chain management.
Urbanization brings together different levels and types of consumers (Guan, Wei, Lu, Dai and Su, 2018). These consumers will all become corporate customers. Supply chain management will have to face and meet more diverse consumer demands. This requires supply chain management to be able to more accurately investigate and forecast consumer demand for inventory management. It also requires a good job of communication and coordination should be done in all links, including information, capital, transportation, and other links within a supply chain, so that the company is more efficient to meet consumer demand for diversification and personalization without increasing its costs. For example, to achieve information management of supply chain management allows companies to understand customer needs according to the data, adjust product inventory levels and keep inventory at a reasonable level while meeting the diverse needs of consumers to reduce inventory costs. At the same time, the companies deliver information to suppliers in a timely manner, so that the suppliers can immediately improve product quality and design to shorten delivery times.
In urbanization process, improvements of infrastructure, including transportation facilities and network facilities, people can shop through more ways, supply chain management has to provide a variety of shopping, payment and delivery methods to satisfy consumers’ shopping needs in different channels (Li, Jia, Wu, Yan and Liu, 2018). In addition, the problem of traffic congestion caused by urbanization and the concentration of consumers’ shopping needs in terms of time and place require that the efficiency of supply chain management should be greatly improved, and the management process and application of various tools should be constantly optimized to meet consumer demand more rapidly. For instance, traffic forecasting tools, RFID tags, GPS devices, road sensors, bar codes, geofences, location-based tracking and other technologies will help companies to optimize travelling and ensure that they can proceed as planned. In the event of an accidental outage, the onboard telematics system will allow the delivery to be redirected or rescheduled.
城市化给人们的生活带来了便利,也带来了许多环境问题,如空气污染(马、成、齐,2018)。城市化要求包括供应链管理在内的各行业采用更绿色的技术、产品和方法,以减轻城市化带来的环境压力。在供应链管理中可以采取的措施包括更环保的包装,例如避免过度包装,减少塑料等包装材料的使用,以及采用更环保的运输方式,例如使用电动汽车和o减少排放,更多地使用铁路和其他运输方式,这可以有效地减少城市拥挤和降低运输成本。Urbanization brings convenience to people's lives, it also brings many environmental problems, such as air pollution (Ma, Cheng and Qi, 2018). Urbanization requires that various industries, including supply chain management, should adopt greener technologies, products, and methods to reduce the environmental pressure brought about by urbanization. The measures that can be taken in supply chain management include more environmentally friendly packaging, such as avoiding over-packaging, reducing the use of packaging materials such as plastics, and adopting more environmentally-friendly means of transport, such as the use of electric vehicles to reduce emissions and much more using railways and other transportation methods, which can effectively reduce urban congestion and reduce transportation costs.
Guan, X., Wei, H., Lu, S., Dai, Q. and Su, H. (2018). Assessment on the urbanization strategy in China: Achievements, challenges and reflections. Habitat International, 71(1), 97-109.
Li, Y., Jia, L., Wu, W., Yan, J. and Liu, Y. (2018). Urbanization for rural sustainability – Rethinking China's urbanization strategy. Journal of Cleaner Production, 178(20), 580-586.
Ma, L., Cheng, W. and Qi, J. (2018). Coordinated evaluation and development model of oasis urbanization from the perspective of new urbanization: a case study in Shandan County of Hexi Corridor, China. Sustainable Cities and Society, 39(5), 78-92.