英国Supply chain作业:Lean supply chains and supply chain practic

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1.0 Introduce the concept of "lean supply chains" and the improvement methods of financial performance.介绍“精益供应链”的概念和财务绩效的改进方法。
Lean Supply Chain is defined as "a group through the product flow, service flow, cash flow and information flow between the upstream and downstream directly connected institutions or organizations, they pull through efficient and effective, satisfy the customer the product or service to reduce waste, to reduce costs (Yang, Hong, and Modi, 2011)." A lean supply chain is the process of integrating products from product design to end customers, and the necessary steps and partners to integrate and respond quickly to the changing needs of customers.
That is to say, any of the participants in the supply chain can not only considering the direct participants of downstream demand, and should consider to the end user's demand as much as possible, strive for the procurement, manufacturing and sales, with the lowest price for purchasing department to complete the right amount of purchase; The manufacturing sector strives to increase production speed with minimal consumption; The sales department earns the largest profit from the smallest sales cost. The core is to maximize customer demand and create as much value as possible with as few resources as possible.
2.0 Affirm the correctness of the author's statement.确认作者陈述的正确性。
I have agreed with the author's statement. In addition, lean supply chain is a kind of brand-new concept, it will break through the traditional management idea, in the following several aspects to bring a new competitive advantage, make the enterprise in the fierce market competition in a favorable position (Tortorella, Miorando, & Marodin, 2017).
(1) time advantage: for enterprises, time is a resource that can be developed deeply. The advantages that companies have in time response can lay the foundation for other competitive differentials, which will lead to the overall competitive advantage of the company. The best way to gain competitive advantage in traditional management mode is "to provide the highest value at the lowest cost"; It is now a new model of success for companies "to provide the highest value at the lowest cost in the shortest possible time". The 21st century is no longer the era of "big fish eat small fish", but the time when "fast fish eat slow fish", only "time competitors" with quick response ability can survive and develop. The lean supply chain requires the supply chain to participate in the full sharing of market information. In order to realize the smooth flow of information communication and integrate the corresponding process, the seamless connection between the parties can be realized, so as to unify the operation of the supply chain. In this way, not only can bring their own value, such as inventory reduction, speed up capital turnover, the dependence of the deepening of enterprise customers, improve customer satisfaction, etc., at the same time created real value for customers.
(2) cost advantage:the dividing method of combining both at home and abroad for the supply chain cost, combined with the actual situation of real estate enterprises, this paper will supply chain cost is divided into purchasing cost, design cost, construction cost, logistics cost and service cost. In the supply chain, the lean supply chain constantly eliminates the activities that do not create value for customers, and eliminates waste, thus achieving the minimum cost of supply chain. That is, from procurement, design, construction, logistics and service cost control on the supply chain, in order to achieve the optimal supply chain cost, to enhance the efficiency of the supply chain, the maximum to meet the needs of customers personalized diversification, to continuously strengthen enterprise competitiveness.
(3) customer resource advantages: think customer creation value. The lean supply chain assumes that customers create real value as a prerequisite to eliminate waste and reduce costs. It is considered unsuccessful to eliminate waste without adding value to the customer. From this perspective, the lean supply chain in order to strengthen the understanding of the customer, will strengthen the interaction and communication with customers, use the time to contact and know more about customers, satisfy customer needs, for the sake of customers, the more it will make the enterprise more to get the trust of the customer, the relationship between each other is closer to accumulate more customer resources, enterprises can also on this basis to establish an unmatched competitive advantage.
3.0 Point out the deficiency of the author's statement, including that in addition to improving organizational the processes and cost efficiencies, the methods to improve financial performance of lean supply chains also include other methods, such as raising flexible production capacity, reducing inventory levels, and so on.
It can be found that the five elements ultimately lead to the production of lean supply chain (Tortorella, Miorando,& Tlapa, 2017):
(1) improvement of product development level. This leads to a significant shortening of the product development cycle and a faster time to market, enabling companies to take full advantage of external resources and seek opportunities for collaborative design, development and construction. This is what the market environment and consumer view of the 21st century demand, which is also the key to winning the competition.
(2) diversified and personalized customer needs. With the improvement of people's living standard, customers are no longer satisfied with the single product provided by the enterprise, and they want to get diversified products that meet their personality and needs. This demand is in
Putting pressure on companies also provides new opportunities.
(3) the supply chain is more flexible. To respond to the "fast-changing, unpredictable" market, supply chains need not only technical flexibility but also managerial flexibility, as well as staff and organisational flexibility.
(4) distribution, and line, set into and save as the characteristics of the global supply chain. Under the trend of economic globalization, distribution is stronger and more widely distributed. The degree of parallelization is higher, which means that many processes of enterprises can be implemented in parallel across regions and across departments. The integration level is higher, not only the integration of information and technology, but also the integration of management, personnel and environment.
(5) rapid development of information technology. The key of lean supply chain is to realize the information integration and sharing among the enterprises in the Internet network environment. Electronic Data Interchange, EDI) technology, RFID (Radio Frequency ID such as a new generation of automatic identification technology, Electrical Fund Transfer, EFT technology popularization and application of supply chain management provides effective technical support, provides the technical foundation for the realization of the lean supply chain.
Lean supply chain based on the theory of lean thinking, realize the product small batch production. Second, lean supply chain changed the original organizational structure and shift into customer and value chain oriented process model organization.The lean supply chain believes that the whole supply chain process will always be improved. Through visual management of the supply chain activities to collect the data, in order to make a timely response, and supply chain event management is the change of the activity of some of the key nodes in the key monitoring and effective management, so as to ensure the normal supply chain activities. At the same time, the collected data are analyzed, from the perspective of eliminating waste and reducing cost to create value for customers, to find out the steps that can be improved.#p#分页标题#e#
Tortorella, G, Miorando, R, & Marodin, G 2017, 'Lean supply chain management: Empirical research on practices, contexts and performance', International Journal Of Production Economics, 193, pp. 98-112, 
Tortorella, G, Miorando, R, & Tlapa, D 2017, 'Implementation of lean supply chain: an empirical research on the effect of context',TQM Journal, 29, 4, pp. 610-623
Yang, M.G.M., Hong, P. and Modi, S.B., 2011. Impact of lean manufacturing and environmental management on business performance: An empirical study of manufacturing firms. International Journal of Production Economics, 129(2), pp.251-261.