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A critical review of an aspect of early development

时间:2019-08-15 10:47来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
午饭后我去了凯西的家,给了她一只小泰迪熊作为生日礼物。她很高兴也有点害羞,因为这是我们第一次见面,我笑着说生日快乐。然后,我们马上进了她的卧室,因为我在来之前和她妈妈谈过
午饭后我去了凯西的家,给了她一只小泰迪熊作为生日礼物。她很高兴也有点害羞,因为这是我们第一次见面,我笑着说生日快乐。然后,我们马上进了她的卧室,因为我在来之前和她妈妈谈过电话上观察方法,她妈妈正在准备一些新衣服让她试穿。我开始坐下来不再说话,她妈妈和我也有眼神交流。
I went to Kathy´s home after lunch time, and gave a small teddy bear as a birthday gift to her. She was very glad and a bit shy to receive the present from me, because it was our first time meet with each other, and I smiled back with saying happy birthday. Then, we got into her bedroom straightaway as I have talked to her mother about the observing methods on the phone before coming, and her mother was preparing some new clothes for her to try on. I started to sit down and not talk any more, her mother and I had an eye contact with each other as well. 
她妈妈问凯西想先穿哪件衣服,她只是随便指了指一件衣服,然后她看着我,我对她笑了。我想她是在寻求我的帮助。在那之后,她拿了我给她的泰迪熊,开始触摸它,上下抱着它。她妈妈只是看着她笑着问凯西:“你今天快乐吗?凯西说:“是啊。”
Her mother asked Kathy which clothes she would like to try on first, she just pointed to a dress randomly, then she looked at me, I smiled to her. She was seeking my help I guess. After that, she took the teddy bear that I gave to her, and start to touch it and hold it up and down. Her mother was just looking at her and smiling, She asked Kathy:”Are you happy today?”Kathy said:”Yeeeeeah.”
最后,她妈妈帮她穿上了新衣服,她几乎要在床上跳舞了,然后是下午的睡觉时间。
At last, her mother helped her wore the new dress, and she was nearly dancing in her bed, and then it is her sleeping time in the afternoon.
我认为这是凯西的好日子。然而,我也在想,如果我再观察一天,会不会是另一种情况,如果不是她的生日,她会如何表现。
I think it should be a good day for Kathy. However, I was also wondering if I did the observation another day, would it be another kind of situation, and if it was not her birthday, how she would behave.
 
Family factors家庭因素
中立性特征的综合经验,经验与事实的关系,经验与组织关系的概念,我们可以说,终极性,判断是经验,理论与非终极性,判断。因此,尽管随着科学的发展,理论在事实上越来越普遍,对事实确认的影响也越来越大,但经验仍然是决定性的东西,理论上的决策命题并不成立。既然没有终极性、判断性、终极性,判断就是经验,是科学标准和真理、终极性、判断方式的终极源泉,所以我们不能把事实看成是观察的结果,只能把经验看成是观察的结果(Fonagy,2004,第42页)。也就是说,汉森的观察是无效的,汉森的用法是无效的,正统用法是合乎逻辑的。更深入的调查汉森使用问题,我们可以发现,造成汉森使用困境的根本原因是语言的误用:个别科学家,特定语境的科学界,汉森使用是恰当的,从相反的观察和在理论与观察之间关系的背景下,汉森与法律不适用(Music,2011,第18页)。首先,观察是观察,而不是推断。据观察,双方在观察结果上存在分歧。这本身就意味着双方的“观察”不能被视为观察,而是主观的观点。因此,获得这个“观察结果”的过程不是观察。这表明汉森的用法在这个场合是不合适的。其次,通过辩论,解决双方对立的“观察结果”应分为两个方面:观察的语言含义和经验差异(第2011页,第318页)。前者是通过对语言的分析来分析语言意义的差异,并就语言意义达成一致。后者是检验经验的差异,并取得经验的结果。当语言存在差异时,他们可以通过语言分析消除歧义,因此他们本质上是等价的,没有差异,不需要再观察;相反当语言存在差异时,通过语言分析达成协议后,将不会有ABL语言。消除差异,所以他们的差异是本质,差异是经验,解决方法是观察。重新观察的任务是公开确认经验。这一观察结果的使用也得到了承认。这种对观察需要的比较表明,解释结果不能被视为客观观察的结果。它还表明,汉森的使用在这个场合是不适当的(Rustin,1989年,第63页)。
Comprehensive experience of neutrality features, the relationship between experience and facts, experience with the notion of the organization's relations, we can say, ultimacy, judgment is experience, theory and no ultimacy, judgment. Therefore, although with the development of science, the theory is more and more pervasive in the fact, the influence on the confirmation of the fact, but the experience is still the decisive thing, the theoretical decision proposition does not hold. Now that didn't have ultimacy, judgment, ultimacy, judgment is experience, and is the ultimate source of scientific criterion and the way of truth, ultimacy, judgment, so we can't see the facts as the result of the observation, but only the experience as the result of the observation (Fonagy, 2004, p.42). That is to say, Hansen's observations are not valid, and Hansen's usage is not valid, and orthodox usage is logical. More in-depth investigation Hansen usage of the problem, we can discover, causing Hansen USES the plight of the root cause is the misuse of language: the individual scientists, specific context of the circle of the scientific community, Hansen usage is appropriate, from the opposite observation and context of the relationship between theory and observation, Hansen with law shall not apply (Music, 2011, p.18). First of all, observations are observed, not inferred. It is observed that both sides disagree with each other on the observation results. This in itself means that the "observations" of both sides cannot be regarded as observations, but rather as subjective views. Accordingly, the process of obtaining this "observation result" is not an observation. This shows that Hansen's usage is not appropriate on this occasion. Secondly, through the debate, the "observation results" that resolve the opposing sides of the two sides should fall into two aspects: the language meaning of the observations and the differences of experience (Page, 2011, p.318). The former is to analyze the difference of the meaning of language through the analysis of language, and agree on the meaning of language. The latter is to examine the differences in experience and to achieve a result of experience. When there are differences of language, they can eliminate disambiguation by means of language analysis, so they are essentially equivalent, no difference, no need to observe again; Instead when there are language differences, after the agreement through the analysis of the language will not be able to eliminate differences, so their differences is the essence, the difference is the experience, the way to solve is to observe. The task of this re-observation is to make public confirmation of experience. The use of this observation is also acknowledged. This comparison of the need for observation indicates that the interpretation results cannot be regarded as the result of an objective observation. It also shows that Hansen's usage is inappropriate on this occasion (Rustin, 1989, p.63).
 
Children's stage is the most easy to help children to shape the stage, teachers and parents should pay attention to children education. Home cooperation refers to a new teaching mode for children of education in children's teaching. Preschool period, children in an ignorant period, the rest of the world is full of curiosity and desire to things, the child to the stand or fall of things without any resolution, all knowledge and life skills need the people around to guide education. In the mode of home cooperation, the traditional teaching mode can be solved and the children will indulge themselves as soon as they come home, which leads to the hidden trouble of teachers' teaching in kindergarten (Ryan and Deci, 2001, p.153). In early childhood teaching, can teachers and parents to communicate first, and then combine the kindergarten education and family education, make children always in a good learning atmosphere, cultivate children's good behavior habit since childhood.
Children in early childhood are at a stage of good movement, which requires adults to discipline and instruct their children. In traditional education, teachers often restrict the behavior of children in kindergarten, let children queue up for items, wash their hands before meals, and see the elders to say hello and so on (Trevarthen, 2005,p.86). But teachers often find that once a child comes home for a night, when they come to kindergarten, they forget everything they taught the day before. The so-called habit is to make a behavior deep in the child's mind and become a subconscious and habitual activity under the constant constraint (Balbernie,2001, p.53). But in traditional preschool education, due to some parents lack of consciousness of education or for some reason did not have time to discipline children, at home no constraint children's behavior, make teachers in kindergarten teaching cases, children living in such environment is difficult to form a good behavior habits. And home cooperation this teaching strategy is proposed to solve the problem, teachers in kindergarten time constraints, young children's behavior, and in the home, by parents to take over the teacher's responsibility, attention to children's behavior, to criticize some wrong behavior, give praise to the correct behavior, increase the child's memory. For the cultivation of the behavior is a long-term process, teachers and parents must be like one day a year to correct all the time to the child, let the good behavior into young children's habits. Before the teacher in teaching can consult with parents good conduct, such as "wash your hands before eating," "posture to correct" "reference books" home and watch an hour a day, and so on, then teachers in kindergarten according to the code of conduct, and parents in the home, according to the code of conduct. In the long run, children can develop a good behavior habit, which is also one of the important functions of home cooperation (Bowlby, 1993, p.76).


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