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Research Proposal范文:A Research Proposal on The Individual Psychological Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior

论文价格: 免费 时间:2023-02-23 14:47:20 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

Research Proposal范文-影响消费者行为的个人心理因素研究计划书。本文是一篇留学生论文的Research Proposal部分,也就是我们常说的研究计划书。主要内容是讲述消费者总是受到他们的社会阶层、文化、亚文化、参考群体、性格、家庭和心理因素的影响。因此,了解消费者的行为至关重要。详细了解此类消费者行为和促成此类行为的因素将有助于了解对消费者来说什么是重要的,并确定对他们如何做出购买决定的重要影响。尽管每个人都是独一无二的,但在消费者行为上也有一定的相似之处。这种相似性将特定群体的客户聚集在一起,并使营销等过程更容易。因此,Research Proposal提出消费者行为是营销中的一个重要因素,有助于定义营销组合和目标市场。如果没有对消费者行为的正确理解,就很难为未来确定合适的营销策略。消费者行为是一个复杂的主题,包含多个关键要素;例如,Hoyer等人概述了消费者行为包括服务、商品、体验和活动等组成部分。下面就请参阅这篇留学生Research Proposal格式范文的具体内容。

Research Proposal范文

Introduction 引言

Consumers are always affected by their social class, culture, subculture, groups of reference, personality, family, and psychological factors. Therefore, understanding the behavior of consumers is critical. A detailed understanding of such consumer behavior and the factors that contribute to such behavior will assist in knowing what is significant to consumers and also determine the vital influences on how they make purchase decisions. Even though every individual is unique, there are certain similarities in consumer behavior. Such similarities bring together customers in particular groups and make processes such as marketing easier. Thus, it may be identified that consumer behavior is a vital element in marketing, which assists in defining marketing mixes and the target market (Dinu et al., 2016). Without a proper understanding of consumer behavior, it is challenging to identify the appropriate marketing strategy for the future. Consumer behavior is a complex subject that entails multiple pivotal elements; for instance, Hoyer et al. (2013) outline that consumer behavior entails components such as services, goods, experiences, and activities.

Problem definition 问题定义

Consumer behavior is all about the behavior of the ultimate customer, and numerous characteristics that impact the customers when deciding what they should buy, their habits of shopping, purchasing behavior, the choice of brands, and the retailers they prioritize. A purchasing decision depends on all of the aforementioned elements. Therefore, consumer behavior could be the emotional, physical, and mental activities that individuals take part in as they select, purchase, use, and dispose products to meet their desires and wants. 

消费者行为是关于最终客户的行为,以及在决定他们应该购买什么、他们的购物习惯、购买行为、品牌选择以及他们优先考虑的零售商时影响客户的众多特征。购买决定取决于上述所有要素。因此,消费者行为可以是个人在选择、购买、使用和处置产品以满足其欲望和需求时所参与的情感、身体和心理活动。

Consumer behavior does not only entail the physical purchase of products, but also multiple activities, stages, and experiences of the product buying process. It entails studying individual needs, thought processes implemented when selecting a product over the other, motivation, and the buying patterns of different products. Consumer behavior, generally, may be considered to be everything, because every aspect of our lives rotates around services and goods consumption. The consumer behavior field covers a wide base stretch as it entails the entire consumption process, including all issues influencing consumers prior to, during, and after the product purchase. Almost every behavior that individuals take part in are in some way related to consumption; be it shopping, traveling, or watching T.V., people directly or indirectly take part in consumer behavior.

消费者行为不仅包括产品的实际购买,还包括产品购买过程的多个活动、阶段和体验。它需要研究个人需求、选择产品时实施的思维过程、动机以及不同产品的购买模式。一般来说,消费者行为可能被认为是一切,因为我们生活的每一个方面都围绕着服务和商品消费。消费者行为领域涵盖了广泛的基础,因为它涉及整个消费过程,包括在产品购买之前、期间和之后影响消费者的所有问题。个人参与的几乎每一种行为都与消费有关;无论是购物、旅游还是看电视,人们都直接或间接地参与了消费行为。

To compress the wide subject into a specific field, a segment of consumer behavior was selected, which is the psychology of consumers. This area of interest deals with how groups or individuals take part in consumer activities and the effect it carries on them on an individual level. It is quite challenging to understand individual psychological traits among consumers without gaining an understanding of the ways in which individuals process or handle information and make decisions. However, little research has been done to highlight the individual psychological factors that affect consumer behavior, which constitutes the research gap that the proposed work seeks to address. 

为了将广泛的主题压缩到特定的领域,选择了消费者行为的一部分,这就是消费者的心理。这一感兴趣的领域涉及群体或个人如何参与消费活动,以及在个人层面上对他们产生的影响。在不了解个人处理或处理信息以及做出决策的方式的情况下,了解消费者的个人心理特征是非常具有挑战性的。然而,很少有研究强调影响消费者行为的个人心理因素,这构成了拟议工作试图解决的研究空白。

Research questions 研究问题

More specifically, the following research questions have to be addressed: 更具体地说,必须解决以下研究问题:

i.What factors of psychological characteristics have the most effect on consumer behavior?心理特征的哪些因素对消费者行为影响最大?

ii.How do individual psychological factors influence customer behavior?个人心理因素如何影响客户行为?

Objectives 目的

The main objective of the proposed work is to develop an understanding of the individual psychological factors affecting consumer behavior. More specifically, the sub-objectives of the proposed work are: 

拟议工作的主要目的是了解影响消费者行为的个人心理因素。更具体地说,拟议工作的次级目标是:

i.To examine if individual psychological factors influence the behavior of consumers 检查个人心理因素是否影响消费者的行为

ii.To gain an understanding of how consumers reach a buying decision.了解消费者如何做出购买决定。

iii.To investigate the influence of the various psychological elements on the behavior of consumer behavior, such as personality traits, beliefs, and attitudes. 调查各种心理因素对消费者行为的影响,如性格特征、信念和态度。

The issues that will be brought up and discussed in the proposed work are based on how product manufacturers and marketing personnel can use the consumer behavior research findings on individual psychological factors to improve their performance and effectiveness in the production and marketing of different products. 

拟议工作中提出和讨论的问题是基于产品制造商和营销人员如何利用个人心理因素的消费者行为研究结果来提高他们在不同产品生产和营销中的表现和有效性。

Literature review 文献综述

Successful companies have an in-depth understanding of the ways of leveraging the multiple factors influencing the behavior of consumers and using such knowledge to market their services and goods and increase sales efficiently. Previous studies have revealed that there exist four primary factors that carry a significant influence on the behavior of consumers. The factors are social factors, cultural factors, psychological factors, and individual or personal factors. In line with Callwood (2013), the psychological elements affecting the decision of individuals to purchase products are categorized further into beliefs and attitudes, motivation, learning, and perceptions. 

成功的公司深入了解如何利用影响消费者行为的多种因素,并利用这些知识营销他们的服务和商品,并有效地增加销售额。先前的研究表明,有四个主要因素对消费者的行为产生重大影响。这些因素包括社会因素、文化因素、心理因素以及个人或个人因素。影响个人购买产品决定的心理因素进一步分为信念和态度、动机、学习和感知。

1.Motivation 动机

This is an active internal state of desire or wants that leads to a goal-oriented behavior to fulfill a need. The concept of motivation is outlined as comparatively strong, persistent, and enduring internal stimuli that are responsible for arousing and directing behavior toward specific goals or aims (Trehan & Trehan, 2007). The beginning point in the product buying process is recognizing a need, which may be outlined as the inadequacy or total lack of an essential item. A customer’s motivation to buy services or goods may be attributed to convenience, prestige, style, to be at par with other individuals, or for self-pride (Khan, 2007). If marketers have an understanding of what creates motivation, they are in the position of developing marketing strategies or tactics that will affect the motivation of consumers in various ways; for example, thinking about, being involved in, and/or process information regarding their brand (Smoke et al., 2009).

这是一种积极的内在欲望状态,导致一种以目标为导向的行为来满足需求。动机的概念被概括为相对强烈、持久和持久的内部刺激,这些刺激负责激发和引导行为达到特定目标或目的。产品购买过程的起点是认识到一种需求,这种需求可以概括为一个基本项目的不足或完全缺乏。顾客购买服务或商品的动机可能归因于便利、威望、风格、与其他人不相上下,或出于自尊。如果营销人员了解是什么创造了动机,他们就能够制定营销策略或策略,以各种方式影响消费者的动机;例如,思考、参与和/或处理关于其品牌的信息。

1.1.Maslow’s Motivation Theory 马斯洛的动机理论

Maslow outlined that the needs of individuals may be arranged hierarchically from the high-level needs down to the most basic needs. When the most pressing needs, which are the basic needs, are met, individuals are less motivated to start finding new ways of satisfying high-level needs (Jansson-Boyd & Marlow, 2016). The hierarchy comprises of the following needs: physiological needs, which are the primary needs like water, food, sleep and warmth, safety needs, social needs whereby individuals feel they should be accepted and loved by other people. These needs also push humans into attending unions and groups and interact with others (Jansson-Boyd & Marlow, 2016). There are also esteem needs, whereby individuals want to be accorded respect and admiration. Finally, there are the self-actualization needs whereby individuals who have acquired all the other needs want more. The needs at this hierarchical level show how individuals regard themselves and how they are regarded by others (Jansson-Boyd & Marlow, 2016).

马斯洛概述了个人的需求可以从高级需求到最基本的需求进行分层安排。当最紧迫的需求(即基本需求)得到满足时,个人开始寻找满足高层次需求的新方法的动力就会减弱。这一层次包括以下需求:生理需求,这是水、食物、睡眠和温暖等主要需求,安全需求,个人认为自己应该被其他人接受和喜爱的社会需求。这些需求也促使人类加入工会和团体,并与他人互动。还有尊重的需要,个人希望得到尊重和钦佩。最后,还有自我实现的需求,即获得所有其他需求的个人想要更多。这一层级的需求表明了个人如何看待自己以及他人如何看待他们。

1.2 Balance theory 平衡理论

This is a cognitive consistency theory which explains how inconsistency of attitudes has a persuasive effect on individuals. It outlines that individuals have both attitudes toward (sentiment relations) and connections with other individuals, ideas, events, or objects (unit relations). German (2004) outlines that it is the organization of these relations that determines if or not the individuals are balanced.

这是一个认知一致性理论,它解释了态度的不一致性如何对个人产生说服力。它概述了个人对(情感关系)的态度以及与其他个人、想法、事件或对象的联系(单位关系)。German指出,正是这些关系的组织决定了个人是否平衡。

2.Perception 感知

This is a phenomenon that has been used widely in consumer behavior literature. It is outlined as the energy that makes individuals cognizant of the environment around them and gives it a meaning after the process of sensing (Ramya & Ali, 2016). Other sources have also described perception as a process that involves the interpretation of environmental factors such as touch, smell, sound, and vision, all within the reference frame of the customer (Strydom, 2005). Every individual in the world has a different perception of the environment. Several individuals have similar ideas about a particular event, and studies have revealed that no individual is capable of seeing or feeling 100% of all things. Individuals buy specific products because of perception, which is how such individuals understand the world surrounding them depending on what they decipher using their senses. While responding to stimuli, a consumer, in a subconscious way, takes part in the evaluation of his/her values, expectations, and wants and uses such evaluation to choose, coordinate, and evaluate stimuli (Rugiman, 2018). The perception of industry or brand is significant, which brings the reason why established brands always ensure that the perception about their industry or brand is positive. Consequently, companies such as TCL pay renowned people such as Neymar for product modeling. Through the alignment of the way individuals feel about such product models with the company’s brand, TCL may improve its brand perception and reinforce what potential buyers believe about the company (Taylor et al., 2006).

这是一种在消费者行为文学中被广泛使用的现象。它被概括为一种能量,它使个体认识到周围的环境,并在感知过程后赋予其意义。其他来源也将感知描述为一个过程,涉及对环境因素(如触摸、气味、声音和视觉)的解释,所有这些都在客户的参考框架内。世界上每个人都对环境有不同的看法。一些人对某一特定事件有类似的想法,研究表明,没有人能够100%地看到或感觉到所有事情。个人购买特定产品是因为感知,这就是这些人如何理解周围的世界,这取决于他们使用感官解读的内容。在对刺激做出反应的同时,消费者以潜意识的方式参与对他/她的价值观、期望和愿望的评估,并使用这种评估来选择、协调和评估刺激。对行业或品牌的认知是重要的,这就是为什么老牌品牌总是确保对其行业或品牌认知是积极的原因。因此,TCL等公司向内马尔等知名人士支付产品建模费用。通过将个人对此类产品模型的看法与公司品牌相一致,TCL可能会提高其品牌认知,并强化潜在买家对公司的看法。

The perception concept has been widely used in studies regarding consumer behavior. The procedure entails three primary stages: sensing, attention, and interpreting (Solomon et al., 2006). It is vital to follow the consumer on the path of perception as it assists in understanding the potential reactions and also in analyzing the problem from a psychological approach. The physical effects like sound, vision, touch, and smell, have a massive impact on the perception of the consumer and a marketing approach that a company will take (Solomon et al., 2006). Studies have proven that consumers are used to having an overview of a product by looking at the physical features or characteristics and building complete images regarding objects (Tyagi, 2018; Haugtvedt et al., 2018). 

感知概念已广泛应用于有关消费者行为的研究。该程序包括三个主要阶段:感知、注意和解释。跟踪消费者的感知路径至关重要,因为它有助于理解潜在反应,并从心理学角度分析问题。声音、视觉、触觉和嗅觉等物理效应对消费者的感知和公司将采取的营销方法产生巨大影响。研究证明,消费者习惯于通过查看产品的物理特征或特征,并构建有关对象的完整图像来对产品进行概述

Perceptions of quality have a massive impact on quality management and marketing. Developing an understanding of the quality perception about its products assists a company in determining the appropriate strategy for attracting more customers and maintaining the old ones. Several instruments have been used to determine service quality, and one mostly used instrument is SERVQUAL. The primary idea of the concept is understanding the ratio between the real quality and the perceived quality of service (Wankhade and Dabade, 2010). It is critical to understand that customers have their perspectives regarding the understanding of the service or product quality. According to Zeithaml et al. (1990), quality maximizes sales while ensuring that customers are satisfied.

质量观念对质量管理和营销有着巨大的影响。对产品质量认知的理解有助于公司确定吸引更多客户和维护旧客户的适当策略。已经使用了几种仪器来确定服务质量,其中最常用的一种仪器是SERVQUAL。该概念的主要思想是理解实际服务质量和感知服务质量之间的比率。了解客户对服务或产品质量的理解有自己的观点至关重要。根据Zeithaml等人的说法,质量最大化了销售,同时确保了客户的满意。

3.Learning 学习

Learning entails the changes in the behavior of a person as a result of behavior. In each situation, an individual’s perception is determined by initial experience, as this is what entails his/her expectations or preparatory set and the model into which individuals seek to please and organize the stimuli they sense. According to Blythe (2008), individuals learn from earlier experiences and find the balance or consistency by interpreting and relating to fresh stimuli with regard to the stimuli they learned or experienced in the past. The importance of this theory in studying consumer behavior is that marketers or product manufacturers can realize the demand for products by associating it with demand drivers, implementing motivation cues, and to the similar drivers as competitors and offering related cues since consumers are more likely to be loyal to related brands (Lamb, 2010). Lee (2007) outlines two learning types: conceptual learning, where learning is not gained via direct experience and experiential learning that occurs when an experience alters the behavior of an individual.

学习意味着一个人行为的改变。在每种情况下,个人的感知都是由最初的经验决定的,因为这意味着他/她的期望或准备集,以及个人试图取悦和组织他们感知到的刺激的模式。根据Blythe的说法,个体从早期的经验中学习,并通过解释和关联他们过去学习或经历的刺激来找到平衡或一致性。这一理论在研究消费者行为方面的重要性在于,营销人员或产品制造商可以通过将产品需求与需求驱动因素联系起来,实施激励线索,并向与竞争对手相似的驱动因素提供相关线索,从而实现对产品的需求,因为消费者更可能忠于相关品牌。Lee概述了两种学习类型:概念学习和体验学习,概念学习不是通过直接体验获得的,体验学习是在体验改变个人行为时发生的。

4.Attitudes and beliefs 态度和信仰

Lee and Kotler (2011) outline belief as a descriptive concept, thought, or perception that a person holds regarding an object or item. In contrast, attitude is a person’s long-term cognitive evaluation, action tendency, and emotional feelings toward an idea or object. Strydom (2005) outlines consumer attitude as a particular way of behavior in a specific situation in a particular time period towards objects that are market-related. In line with Sarangpani (2009), individuals may have specific attitudes or beliefs regarding particular services or products. 

Lee和Kotler将信念概括为一个人对一个物体或项目持有的描述性概念、思想或感知。相反,态度是一个人对一个想法或对象的长期认知评估、行动倾向和情感感受。Strydom将消费者的态度概括为在特定时间段内特定情况下对市场相关对象的特定行为方式。个人可能对特定服务或产品有特定的态度或信念。

Companies have an interest in the beliefs that individuals formulate regarding particular services or products since these beliefs constitute the brand and the product or company image that affects the purchasing behavior of consumers. If certain beliefs are inappropriate and negatively affect the purchase, marketers have to start a campaign for correcting them. Consumers could believe that Sony cameras take quality videos, are easy to use, and are the most decently priced. Such beliefs are founded on hearsay, faith, or knowledge. According to Lee (2007), buyers have the tendency to develop sets of beliefs regarding the attributes of products and then, via these beliefs, develop a brand image. Individuals have attitudes pertaining to religion, clothes, food, politics, music, among other things. These attitudes of consumers affect consumer behavior. If their attitudes toward a particular item are favorable, then it carries a positive effect on the behavior of consumers. Companies, through their marketing personnel, will identify the existing attitude toward their product and put efforts of making it positive and maintain the positivity if it is already positive (Hoyer et al., 2013). 

公司对个人关于特定服务或产品的信念感兴趣,因为这些信念构成了影响消费者购买行为的品牌、产品或公司形象。如果某些信念是不合适的,并对购买产生负面影响,营销人员必须开始纠正这些信念。消费者可能会相信,索尼相机拍摄的视频质量高,使用方便,而且价格最合理。这种信仰建立在道听途说、信仰或知识之上。根据Lee的说法,购买者倾向于对产品属性建立一套信念,然后通过这些信念建立品牌形象。个人对宗教、衣服、食物、政治、音乐等都有态度。消费者的这些态度会影响消费者的行为。如果他们对某一特定商品的态度是有利的,那么这会对消费者的行为产生积极影响。公司将通过其营销人员确定对其产品的现有态度,并努力使其积极,如果已经积极,则保持积极态度。

In marketing, attitude is a vital point in understanding the process of making a decision and determining the potential behavior of consumers in particular situations. Attitudes have a specific impact on consumers when they are making decisions. However, in line with Noel (2009), it may not be the reason for specific behavior. Having a positive attitude does not entirely mean that a customer will purchase particular products (Noel, 2009).

在市场营销中,态度是理解决策过程和确定消费者在特定情况下的潜在行为的关键。当消费者做出决定时,态度对他们有特定的影响。然而,根据Noel的观点,这可能不是特定行为的原因。拥有积极的态度并不完全意味着客户会购买特定的产品。

Multiple factors have an influence on the attitudes of consumers and their buying behavior. In essence, consumer behavior and the entire process of making decisions is significantly influenced by the background of the possible buyers. As cited by Dinu et al. (2016), Sandhusen outlined that social class determines the purchasing behavior of customers. It is common that individuals belonging to the same social class have common attitudes, wants, demands, and needs. Also, reference groups have a crucial role in determining attitude and the patterns of behavior (Dinu et al., 2016). According to Hansen et al. (2008), personality also influences the attitudes of consumers. However, they note that personalities tend to change over time. Thus, it can be concluded that their no constant element about the purchasing behavior of customers and their attitudes.

多种因素会影响消费者的态度和购买行为。本质上,消费者的行为和整个决策过程都受到潜在买家背景的显著影响。正如Dinu等人所引用的,Sandhusen概述了社会阶层决定了顾客的购买行为。属于同一社会阶层的个人有共同的态度、愿望、要求和需求是很常见的。此外,参考群体在决定态度和行为模式方面起着至关重要的作用。根据Hansen等人的说法,个性也会影响消费者的态度。然而,他们注意到,随着时间的推移,性格往往会发生变化。因此,可以得出结论,他们对顾客的购买行为和态度没有恒定的因素。

The primary goal of this literature review was to develop an understanding of the fundamental consumer behavior aspects. Factors such as drivers, goals, perceptions, and attitudes are the pivotal elements that assist in understanding consumer behavior. All attitudes and perceptions might, in the long-term, vary, and not remain constant (Hansen et al., 2008). However, the primary risk while studying and evaluating the behavior of consumers is that there are increased individualism levels in the current society. Many people have individual preferences toward different products, and consequently, their behavior regarding how they consume different products could be misunderstood because target groups are usually generalized (Kotler et al., 2019). Understanding the behavior of consumers from an unintended perspective may cause challenges to a specific firm. There are specific areas that research has not emphasized because of the sophisticated nature of consumer behavior. To understand the behavior of consumers in more depth, it is vital to understand an individual’s psychology in the first place. Thus, this proposal seeks to understand consumer behavior from a individual psychological perspective as it carries a massive impact on consumer behavior theory.  

这篇文献综述的主要目的是发展对基本消费者行为方面的理解。驱动因素、目标、认知和态度等因素是帮助理解消费者行为的关键因素。从长远来看,所有的态度和看法都可能有所不同,而不是一成不变。然而,研究和评估消费者行为的主要风险是当前社会中个人主义水平的提高。许多人对不同的产品有个人偏好,因此,他们关于如何消费不同产品的行为可能会被误解,因为目标群体通常是广义的。从非预期的角度理解消费者的行为可能会给特定公司带来挑战。由于消费者行为的复杂性,研究没有强调某些特定领域。为了更深入地了解消费者的行为,首先了解个人的心理是至关重要的。因此,这项建议试图从个人心理角度理解消费者行为,因为它对消费者行为理论产生了巨大影响。

Methodology 方法论

Two research methods are used in research: quantitative and qualitative. Both of them have advantages and disadvantages, which all rely on the type of study and what researchers would wish to evaluate. The quantitative method will be applied in the proposed study. Quantitative methods of research provide data from a huge number of participants. The data collected from the research participants is usually referred to as variables, which are the characteristics or features that a researcher is interested in, which for this work, will be the individual psychological factors influencing consumer behavior. For this study, multiple variables will be chosen and compared against others to identify relationships. On one side, there will be individual psychological factors such as beliefs, attitudes, and motivation, and on a different side, the issues associated with the processes of decision making, for example, the search of information and evaluating options. 

研究中使用了两种研究方法:定量和定性。这两种方法都有优点和缺点,都取决于研究的类型和研究人员希望评估的内容。定量方法将应用于拟议研究。定量研究方法提供了大量参与者的数据。从研究参与者收集的数据通常被称为变量,这是研究人员感兴趣的特征或特征,在本研究中,这将是影响消费者行为的个人心理因素。在本研究中,将选择多个变量并与其他变量进行比较,以确定关系。一方面,会有个人的心理因素,如信念、态度和动机,另一方面,与决策过程相关的问题,例如信息搜索和评估选项。

The proposed work involves dealing with people, and as pointed out by Shuttleworth (2008), any test involving human judgment will be set under the questionnaire. The participants of this study will be selected using random sampling, and then fill questionnaires. They will have to choose the alternatives that show their opinions or attitudes best. The questionnaire will be founded on the theory of factors influencing consumer behavior discusses earlier, which include motivation, attitudes and beliefs, perceptions, and learning. It will entail both open-ended and multiple-choice questions. The questions will be planned in such a way that participants are able to select numerical answers that outline best their opinions or attitudes. Liker-type scales will give room for respondents to show the extent to which they disagree or agree with statements (Vogt, 2007). The agreement or disagreement categories may then be evaluated as ordinal scales during measurement (Howell, 2009).

拟议的工作涉及与人打交道,正如Shuttleworth所指出的,任何涉及人类判断的测试都将在调查问卷下进行。本研究的参与者将采用随机抽样的方式进行选择,然后填写问卷。他们将不得不选择最能体现自己观点或态度的替代方案。问卷将基于前面讨论的影响消费者行为的因素理论,包括动机、态度和信念、认知和学习。这将包括开放式和多项选择题。这些问题将以这样一种方式进行规划,即参与者能够选择最能概括其观点或态度的数字答案。喜欢型量表将为受访者提供空间,以显示他们不同意或同意声明的程度。然后,在测量过程中,可以将一致性或不一致性类别作为顺序量表进行评估。

To get information about individual psychological factors, the questionnaire will entail questions on the attitudes of customers, the prejudices of customers, and related questions such as where they come from to establish a correlation between beliefs and consumer behavior. Also, questions about the motivations of consumers for the consumption of specific products will be included in the questionnaire. The questionnaire will be tested before publishing, and the test groups will entail ten individuals from different ages. Some of the questions will be adjusted so that participants can select two or more alternatives for each question. For the other questions, the Likert scale can be adjusted into a form that can be understood easily (Brown, 2011). The questionnaire will be completed by participants within two months. 

为了获得有关个人心理因素的信息,问卷将包括有关客户态度、客户偏见的问题,以及相关问题,如他们来自何处,以建立信念与消费者行为之间的相关性。此外,关于消费者消费特定产品的动机的问题将包括在问卷中。问卷将在发布前进行测试,测试组将包括来自不同年龄段的10名个人。部分问题将进行调整,以便参与者可以为每个问题选择两个或多个备选方案。对于其他问题,Likert量表可以调整为易于理解的形式。参与者将在两个月内完成问卷调查。

The questionnaire results will be analyzed using statistical programs such as SPSS Statistics, which gives room to analyze and interpret the results in a numerical format. The numerical data may be evaluated using statistical methods and converted into formats that will support conclusion making. With such an analysis, it will be easy to identify the relationship between variables and the research issues. Analyzing correlations will involve the use of Chi-square tests. If the results of this test will be lower than 0.05, then it will imply variable dependency (Howell, 2009). If a correlation will be established, it enhances the fact that the theory is in line with the findings. For further correlation analysis, the Spearman test will be handy in measuring the relationship strength. The proposed study will run for approximately three months, with the following primary activities involved: 

拟议研究将持续约三个月,涉及以下主要活动:

Preparing questions for the study 1 week 准备研究问题1周

Identifying the participants 2 weeks 确定参与者2周

Filling the questionnaires and collecting them 2 months 填写问卷并收集2个月

Analyzing results 1 month 分析结果1个月

Drafting final results 2 weeks 起草最终结果2周

References 参考文献

Blythe, J. (2008). Consumer behaviour. Cengage Learning EMEA.

Brown, J. D. (2011). Likert items and scales of measurement. Statistics, 15(1), 10-14.

Callwood, K. (2013). Psychological factors that influence consumer buying behavior. Journal of Business, 15(2), 39-48.

Dinu, D., Stoica, I., & RADU, A. V. (2016). Studying Consumer Behavior through Big Data. Quality-Access to Success, 17.

Gorman, P. (2004). Motivation and emotion. Psychology Press.

Hansen, H., & Sand, J. A. (2008). Antecedents to customer satisfaction with financial services: The moderating effects of the need to evaluate. Journal of Financial Services Marketing, 13(3), 234-244.

Haugtvedt, C. P., Herr, P. M., & Kardes, F. R. (Eds.). (2018). Handbook of consumer psychology. Routledge.

Hoyer, W., MacInnis, D., & Pieters, R. (2013). Consumer Behavior (6th ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning, c2013. 

Howell, D. C. (2009). Statistical methods for psychology. Cengage Learning.

Jansson-Boyd, C. V., & Marlow, N. (2016). The history of consumer psychology. In Routledge International Handbook of Consumer Psychology (pp. 21-35). Routledge.

Khan, M. (2007). Consumer and advertising. New Age International Publishers, New Delhi.

Kotler, P., Keller, K. L., Brady, M., Goodman, M., & Hansen, T. (2019). Marketing management. Pearson UK.

Lake, L. (2009). Consumer behavior for dummies. John Wiley & Sons.

Lamb, C. W., Hair, J. F., & MacDaniel, C. (2010). MKTD 5. Cen gage Learning, Mason.

Lee, S. (2007). Motivation study based on expectancy theory. The Florida State University College of Information Academic Library Service, the Florida State University.

Lee, N. R., & Kotler, P. (2011). Social marketing: Influencing behaviors for good. Sage Publications.

Noel, H. (2009). Basics marketing 01: Consumer behaviour (Vol. 1). Ava Publishing.

Ramya, N., & Ali, M. (2016). Factors affecting consumer buying behavior. International journal of applied research, 2(10), 76-80.

Rugiman, N. A. (2018). Psychological Factors Towards Purchasing Decision Among Students in School of Business Innovation and Technopreneurship. Available at SSRN 3237245.

Sarangapani, A. (2009). Rural Consumer Behavior in India.

Shuttleworth, M. (2008). Hawthorne Effect: explorable psychology experiments.

Smoke, C. H., Keeton, C., Wenzel, B. J., & Boyd, B. (2009). Company officer. Cengage Learning.

Solomon, M., Bamossy, G., Askegaard, S., & Hogg, M. K. (2006). Consumer Behaviour: A European Edition.

Strydom, J. (Ed.). (2005). Introduction to marketing. Juta and Company Ltd.

Taylor, C. R., Franke, G. R., & Bang, H. K. (2006). Use and effectiveness of billboards: Perspectives from selective-perception theory and retail-gravity models. Journal of advertising, 35(4), 21-34.

Trehan, M., & Trehan, R. (2007). Advertising and sales management. F.K. Publications.

Tyagi, A. (2018). A Study on Factors Affecting Consumer Buying Behaviour. International Journal of Business & Engineering Research, 11.

Vogt, W. P. (2007). Quantitative research methods for professionals. Boston: PearsonEducation.

Wankhade, L., & Dabade, B. (2010). Quality uncertainty and perception: information asymmetry and management of quality uncertainty and quality perception. Springer Science & Business Media.

Zeithaml, V. A., Parasuraman, A., Berry, L. L., & Berry, L. L. (1990). Delivering quality service: Balancing customer perceptions and expectations. Simon and Schuster.

Research Proposal提出论文的问卷结果将使用SPSS统计学等统计程序进行分析,这为分析和解释数字格式的结果提供了空间。可以使用统计方法对数值数据进行评估,并将其转换为支持得出结论的格式。通过这样的分析,很容易确定变量和研究问题之间的关系。分析相关性需要使用卡方检验。如果该测试的结果低于0.05,则意味着变量依赖性。如果建立了一个相关性,这将增强理论与研究结果一致的事实。为了进行进一步的相关性分析,斯皮尔曼测试在衡量关系强度方面会很方便。本站提供各国各专业留学生Research Proposal写作指导服务,如有需要可咨询本平台。


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