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Assignment写作格式:Issues of Organizational Politics in the Workplace

论文价格: 免费 时间:2022-11-12 13:24:32 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

Assignment写作格式-工作场所的组织政治问题。本文是一篇留学生Assignment格式范文,主要内容是讲述组织,像其他机构一样,将人类互动融为一体,势必会有不同立场的人,他们的观点和信仰也不尽相同。这种不同的意见和信念表现为政治姿态,有时会使一个组织的活动陷于停顿。然而,组织中的这些政治是无法回避的,这是组织行为和结构的复合性质的直接结果。关于组织政治对组织的有效运作是有益还是有害,可能存在争论。组织内部(无论是层级结构还是跨部门结构,都存在职能相互依赖性)不断出现的不同意见,为这些论点提供了依据。尽管如此,对组织的复杂性、行为和结构属性的清晰理解和理解,将认识到政治是任何人类管理机构的内在组成部分这一现实。组织政治通常在组织结构中如此复杂地交织在一起,以至于员工的互动、传统、活动、绩效和结果都受到这些因素的巨大影响和影响。因此,有必要了解政治对组织的影响,并努力将员工的精力转化为有意义的产出,而不会破坏组织的首要目标。下面提供留学生Assignment格式范文供参考。

Assignment写作格式范文

Introduction 引言
Organizations, like other institutions that bring together human interactions, are bound to have persons of diverse positions in the pecking order with divergent opinions and beliefs. Such divergent opinions and beliefs are manifested in the form of political posturing, and can at times bring an organization’s activities to a standstill. Yet these politics in the organizations cannot be circumvented, as a direct consequence of the composite nature of organizational behavior and structure. Arguments may subsist as to whether organizational politics are beneficial or detrimental to the effective running of an organization. Such arguments are informed by the upshots of dissenting views within the organization, whether hierarchical or across departments, that have functional interdependencies. Nevertheless, a clear comprehension and appreciation of the complexity of an organization, regarding its behavioral and structural attributes, will be cognizant of the reality that politics is an intrinsic composition of any human-managed institution. Organizational politics are normally so complexly interwoven within the organizational structure that employee interactions, traditions, activities, performances and results are tremendously affected and shaped by them. It is necessary therefore to understand the impact of politics on organizations and try to channel the employee energy into meaningful output that does not undermine the overriding goals of the organization.
Roots of Organizational Politics 组织政治的根源
Organizational politics has varied and subjective definitions depending on the nature of the firm. Pfeiffer (1981, p. 7) describes politics as “those activities taken within organizations to acquire, develop, and use power and other resources to obtain one’s preferred outcomes in a situation in which there is uncertainty or dissensus about choices”. This definition by Pfeiffer not only reveals the tight rope that managers have walk when carrying out their managerial duties, but it also unmasks the selfish interests that are always vested in organizations between and among departments. In fact organizational politics could be identified as the selfish and scheming behavior of employees and departments to advance vested interests at other employees and departments’ expense. These selfish interests are manifested through the scramble for organizational resources, employee and inter-departmental conflicts, struggle for power and headship and strategic control effected by managers, supervisors and departments. These managers, supervisors and departments in the organization will carry execute these activities with the intentions of getting power, cultivating individual significance or stature, accessing sensitive and valuable information, concealing true intentions and crafting alliances.
组织政治根据公司的性质有不同的主观定义。Pfeiffer将政治描述为“在选择存在不确定性或分歧的情况下,组织内部为获得、发展和使用权力和其他资源而采取的活动”。Pfeiffer的这一定义不仅揭示了管理者在履行管理职责时所走的紧绳,而且也揭示了部门之间和部门之间的组织始终存在的私利。事实上,组织政治可以被认定为员工和部门的自私和阴谋行为,以牺牲其他员工和部门利益来推进既得利益。这些自私的利益表现在对组织资源的争夺、员工和部门间的冲突、权力和领导权的争夺以及经理、主管和部门的战略控制。组织中的这些管理者、主管和部门将执行这些活动,目的是获得权力,培养个人的重要性或地位,获取敏感和有价值的信息,隐藏真实意图,建立联盟。
Browsing through the bulk of management literature one gets the impression that organizational management is a straightforward consensual performance unit, where concurrences on institutional goals readily abide and where managers, supervisors and subordinates freely communicate and merge their individual or departmental interests with those of entire organization. Some of these literatures claim that conflicts in the workplace can be totally eliminated by communication and transparency, or by laying off sections of the workforce that exhibit dissenting opinions. Such perceptions of organizations are diametric to the research findings of activities and processes within institutions, which reveal the existence of conflicts at all levels.
浏览大量的管理文献,人们会得到这样的印象:组织管理是一个直截了当的协商一致的绩效单位,在这里,对机构目标的一致意见很容易得到遵守,经理、主管和下属可以自由地沟通,并将其个人或部门利益与整个组织的利益相融合。其中一些文献声称,工作场所的冲突可以通过沟通和透明,或者通过解雇一些持不同意见的员工来彻底消除。这种对组织的看法与机构内活动和进程的研究结果背道而驰,这些研究结果揭示了各级存在的冲突。       
Indeed, Henry Mintzberg (1989) posits that organizational politics is not an upshot of structure but power, and therefore communication and transparency cannot deracinate politics. Mintzberg goes ahead to assert that organizations only function on the foundation of influential systems like politics, authority, expertise and ideology. He adds “authority, ideology, or expertise-have some basis of legitimacy. But sometimes those means are used to pursue ends that are illegitimate” (Mintzberg 1989, p. 249). It is clear therefore that the organization management is not a rational process.
事实上,亨利·明茨伯格认为,组织政治不是结构的结果,而是权力的结果,因此沟通和透明度不能使政治混乱。明茨伯格继续断言,组织只有在政治、权威、专业知识和意识形态等有影响力的体系的基础上才能发挥作用。他补充道:“权威、意识形态或专业知识有一定的合法性基础。但有时这些手段被用来追求不合法的目的”。因此,组织管理显然不是一个合理的过程。
It is easy to understand the root of an organization’s politics once we understand the diverse values existent in the system. Different values by different departmental managers in an organization can foster divergent notions as to which part the organization should follow to realize development. This is always the primary cause of organizational conflict; divergent values. It is factual that departmental managers sometimes make arbitrary choices in the workplace and they always cover up their choices by politics. Politics will be used by some managers to ‘rationalize’ some of their choices when a review into their decisions holds that their choices lacked empirical backing. In short, when a manager’s decision appears to lack empirical and supportive evidence, the manager will attempt frame the problem in a different way and rally colleague who are sympathetic to him or her. Framing a problem differently is always advised by the values of the people who the manager will be hoping to get backing from.
一旦我们了解了系统中存在的各种价值观,就很容易理解组织政治的根源。一个组织中不同部门经理的不同价值观可能会在组织应该遵循哪一部分来实现发展方面产生分歧。这始终是组织冲突的主要原因;发散值。事实上,部门经理有时会在工作场所做出武断的选择,他们总是用政治来掩盖自己的选择。当对他们的决策进行审查认为他们的选择缺乏经验支持时,一些经理会利用政治来“合理化”他们的一些选择。简言之,当经理的决定似乎缺乏经验和支持性证据时,经理会尝试用不同的方式来界定问题,并召集同情他的同事。经理希望得到支持的人的价值观总是建议以不同的方式构建问题。
Other than values, special interests subsist in every organization from the top to the bottom. The diversity in special interests is exhibited in aspects like funding for projects, allocation of resources to departmental units and career outlooks. Employees, especially managerial ones, are always ambitious in their career outlooks and this creates rivalry within the hierarchical ladder. But the rivalry over career interests is not as clearly manifested as the scramble for funding and resources (Bacharach &Lawler 1980). The division of labor in the organization means a firm is partitioned into functional units also called departments. These demarcated departments are a sure source of political alignments as they line up employees against functional goals, which may not necessary go parallel with each other.
除了价值观,从上到下,每个组织都存在着特殊的利益。特殊兴趣的多样性表现在项目资金、部门单位资源分配和职业前景等方面。员工,尤其是管理层员工,在职业前景上总是雄心勃勃,这在等级阶梯中造成了竞争。但对职业利益的竞争并不像对资金和资源的争夺那样明显。组织中的分工意味着公司被划分为多个职能单位,也称为部门。这些划分的部门是政治结盟的可靠来源,因为它们将员工与职能目标相联系,而职能目标可能不必相互平行。
To illustrate the causal political influence of departments on organizational set up, let us consider a scenario where the marketing department seeks to boost sales by improving delivery time and diversifying company products, while the production department endeavors to reduce the variety of products and having the least possible inventory. Such a scenario can only result in the alignment of employees in the two departments to the interests of their departments. Pfeiffer observes that “the subunit differences that emerge from the division of labor are reinforced by differences in the training, backgrounds, and prior socialization of individuals recruited into different subunits” (Pfeiffer 1981, p 73). Intrinsically, employees will subliminally have their allegiance to their departments and will side with it in case conflicts arise in the overall set up.
为了说明各部门对组织设置的因果政治影响,让我们考虑一个场景,其中营销部门试图通过改善交付时间和使公司产品多样化来提高销售额,而生产部门则努力减少产品种类并尽可能减少库存。这种情况只能导致两个部门的员工与其部门的利益保持一致。Pfeiffer观察到,“劳动分工产生的亚单位差异因被招募到不同亚单位的个人的培训、背景和先前社会化的差异而加强”。从本质上讲,员工会在潜意识中忠于自己的部门,并在整体设置中出现冲突时会站在一边。
The differences that exist between line and staff can also cause conflicts. R.D Aragwal notes that the relationship between line and staff are “often characterized more by conflict than cooperation. Staff specialists complain that line managers are resistant to their ideas and line managers complain that staff managers are sky-gazing specialists with no comprehension of practical solutions” (Agarwal 1983, p. 151). These posturings in the workplace are prevalent because of a number of reasons. Agarwal lists these reasons as: the evident ambition and idiosyncratic behaviors of the staff managers; the apprehension of the staff in justifying its organizational survival and get the appreciation for its efforts; the dependency of senior staff employees on line staff for their incumbent positions; indistinct designation of staff roles; and ignorance by higher management.
直线智能和员工之间存在的差异也可能导致冲突。R、 D Aragwal指出,直线智能和员工之间的关系“往往以冲突而非合作为特征。员工专家抱怨直线经理对他们的想法持抵触态度,直线经理抱怨直线经理是望天而不懂实际解决方案的专家”。由于许多原因,这些姿势在工作场所很普遍。阿加瓦尔列举了这些原因:员工管理者明显的野心和特殊行为;工作人员在为其组织生存辩解时的担忧,并对其努力表示赞赏;高级职员对现有职位的一线职员的依赖性;工作人员角色指定不明确;以及上级管理层的无知。
Another source of conflict could be the reality that top managers seek to place themselves in positions that seem very approving in the eyes of the chief executive officers, directors or heads of departments. It is clear, like mentioned previously, that managers are very ambitious and seek promotions. But it is also crystal clear that as the hierarchical organization ladder goes up, the number of plum positions gets fewer and fewer. This fuels competition and rivalry among employees seeking a similar position. Because of the simple fact that promotions require credibility of a candidate, prospective promotion employees will attempt to outdo each other and triumph in small ‘competitive conflicts’. It is the attempts to prevail in smaller conflicts that reveal hidden agendas, which later set the stage for larger political battles. The small conflicts always result in underlying alliances and unspoken networks that are the basis of attaining power.
另一个冲突的根源可能是,高层管理人员试图将自己置于在首席执行官、董事或部门负责人看来非常认可的职位上。很明显,如前所述,经理们雄心勃勃,寻求晋升。但也很明显,随着等级组织阶梯的上升,梅花职位的数量越来越少。这加剧了寻求类似职位的员工之间的竞争和竞争。由于晋升需要候选人的可信度这一简单事实,潜在的晋升员工会试图在小型“竞争冲突”中超越对方并取得胜利。正是试图在较小的冲突中获胜,才暴露出隐藏的议程,这后来为更大的政治斗争奠定了基础。小冲突总是导致潜在的联盟和隐性网络,而这些网络是获得权力的基础。
Positively Exploiting Organizational Politics 积极利用组织政治
The comprehension of an organization’s political set up is extremely important for management to steer the firm towards its objectives. Internally trained managers, supervisors and departmental heads will have a plus of acquaintance with general political circumstances existing in the company (various alliances and networks of influence, which can unlock an impasse or create one). Poached managers-those brought trained by other firms-ought to apply significant efforts to study and appreciate the prevailing organizational politics, by careful observation and conscientious interaction with various factions of employees. Buchannan and Badham (2008) hold that some of the pointers accessible for managers, supervisors and department heads for assessing the political environment are: overall employee satisfaction in organizational role, positive reaction to inventive ideas, decision-making efficiency and swift and speedy discharging of decisions. Insight is fundamental for management to take advantage of open channels and repress retrogressive organizational politics, and equally boost their personal credibility. 
理解一个组织的政治架构对于管理层引导公司实现其目标至关重要。经过内部培训的经理、主管和部门负责人将更熟悉公司现有的一般政治环境(各种联盟和影响力网络,可以打破僵局或创造僵局)。那些被其他公司培训过的被解雇的管理人员应该通过仔细观察和认真与不同派别的员工互动,努力学习和欣赏当前的组织政治。Buchannan和Badham认为,管理人员、主管和部门负责人评估政治环境的一些指标是:员工对组织角色的总体满意度、对创造性想法的积极反应、决策效率以及决策的快速执行。洞察力对于管理层利用公开渠道、压制倒退的组织政治,同时提高个人信誉至关重要。
Buchannan and Badham also hold that outstanding managers make use of political influence accessible to them in various situations so as to uphold the overriding interests of the organization. The moment a manager comprehensively appreciates the unique settings that cause the employees in an organization to shift loyalties towards particular special interests; the leaders can use the information about the nature of these politics to the benefit of the organization. A manager with an understanding of the politics of the organization surely has leverage that can enable him use the politics and graduate to higher headship position, with excellent orientation of institutional politics. With proper political orientation; a manager can proficiently time an opening to bring to light his or her contribution to the organization; guarantee that higher management will back delicate initiative or choices; utilize apposite personnel to communicate their message across; and respect the pecking order regardless of the hurdles it produce. Political insight is always tested when handling aspects like changes in the management or management crises. It is imperative a leader identifies the factions that are going to back him against those that will try to undermine his or her credibility.
Buchannan和Badham还认为,杰出的管理者在各种情况下都可以利用政治影响力,以维护组织的最高利益。当一个管理者全面认识到一个组织中的员工将忠诚转向特定特殊利益的独特环境时;领导者可以利用有关这些政治性质的信息为组织造福。一个了解组织政治的管理者肯定有能力运用政治,毕业后担任更高的领导职位,并具有良好的制度政治导向。具有正确的政治取向;经理可以熟练地安排一个空缺时间,以展示他或她对组织的贡献;保证高级管理层支持微妙的主动性或选择;利用合适的人员传达信息;尊重等级制度,不管它产生了什么障碍。在处理管理层变革或管理危机等方面时,政治洞察力总是受到考验的。当务之急是,一位领导人必须找出支持他的派系,以对抗那些试图破坏其信誉的派系。
Unquestionably, managers are source of organizational influence, power and obviously politics. Because people inherently have needs and wishes and leaders possess the capability to offer these needs and wishes, leaders who accomplish or deliver these wants have power. Dennis Wong writes, “The most general use of the word ‘power’ in English is as a synonym for capacity, skill, or talent. This use encompasses the capacity to engage in certain kinds of performance…” (1979, p. 1). Managers can greatly repress political environment that has a negative effect on the attitude of employees and organizational outputs by linking employee wants and organizational objectives, in such a manner that realization of shared objectives also causes routine realization of personal needs. Managers, supervisors, and heads of departments must recognize that organizational politics is a result of the traditions of trust in the institution, which is created through rationalized values and promoted by communication and transparency. Communication and transparency in processes and duties is crucial in generating a climate where cut-throat organizational politics does not completely replace progressive traditions that place importance on achievement of organizational goals.
毫无疑问,管理者是组织影响力、权力和政治的源泉。因为人们天生就有需求和愿望,而领导者有能力提供这些需求和愿望。实现或实现这些愿望的领导者拥有权力。Dennis Wong写道,“英语中‘power’一词最常用的用法是能力、技能或天赋的同义词。这个用法包括从事某种表演的能力……”。管理者可以通过将员工需求和组织目标联系起来,极大地抑制对员工态度和组织产出产生负面影响的政治环境,这样,实现共同目标也会导致个人需求的日常实现。管理者、主管和部门负责人必须认识到,组织政治是对机构的信任传统的结果,这种信任是通过合理化的价值观创造的,并通过沟通和透明度促进的。流程和职责中的沟通和透明度对于营造一种严酷的组织政治无法完全取代重视实现组织目标的进步传统的氛围至关重要。
Politics in the organizational setting has rules and the sooner a manager or leader deciphers the basics, the sooner he or she will build alliances and networks that serve his or her interests. Organizational politics has pros and cons and can sometimes result in loss of job or can alternatively result in promotion, depending on who is calling the shots. Organizational politics is not confined to the higher management as every member of the firm from senior chief executive, department heads, supervisors and normal employees participates in power games at one point. Gilbert Fairholm nevertheless observes that “Older group members use it more than those newly inducted into the organization. It is beyond doubt an instrument for securing organizational rewards” (2009, p.38). The basics are simple: respect the chain of command, seek favoritism by appearing credible, improve on speed of decision making and avoid stepping on too many peoples’ shoes. To be the best; be driven by factual data, create alliances, admit mistakes, unravel motives of allies and rivals, align your interests with the organization’s goals, seek common ground in stand-offs, and always agree to disagree (Forster & Browne 1996).
组织环境中的政治是有规则的,管理者或领导者越早破译基本原则,他或她就越早建立起符合他或她的利益的联盟和网络。组织政治有利弊之分,有时可能导致失业,也可能导致晋升,这取决于谁在发号施令。组织政治并不局限于高层管理层,因为公司的每一位成员,包括高级首席执行官、部门负责人、主管和普通员工,都曾一度参与权力博弈。吉尔伯特·费尔霍姆指出,“老年团队成员比新加入该组织的成员更多地使用它。毫无疑问,它是获得组织奖励的工具”。基本原则很简单:尊重指挥链,通过表现可信来寻求偏袒,提高决策速度,避免踩到太多人的鞋子。成为最好的;受事实数据驱动,建立联盟,承认错误,解开盟友和对手的动机,使你的利益与组织的目标保持一致,在对峙中寻求共同点,并始终同意不同意见。       
Conclusion 结论
Organizational politics is a contentious issue in many firms and has been the subject of studies by academic writers who have sought to understand the impact of organizational politics in the running of modern organizations. Once considered a hidden power dynamic, many organizations are now embracing the reality that human are inherently political animals and possess diverse values and notions regarding what aspects of organizational life are rational and what are not. Empirical data from renowned sociologists like Dennis Wong to management academician like Jeffery Pfeiffer all agree that suppressing organization culture is futile because human intrinsically compete for supremacy and survival. The workplace, being an area where most humans spend averagely 8 hours of their lifetimes has been transformed into a political arena. In an arena where dependencies prominently subsist, where there exist divergent targets and beliefs regarding innovation and technology use and where scarcity of resources may exist, it is hard not to find competition for resources and stature. While a host of literatures on the subject of organizational politics might spend a considerable volume of their analysis on the merits or demerits of the contentious subject, most of them conclusively appreciate the reality that it is difficult to circumvent politics. Politics is about power and influence, and so is the organization.
Assignment范文总结组织政治在许多公司中是一个有争议的问题,也是学术作家研究的主题,他们试图了解组织政治在现代组织运作中的影响。曾经被认为是一种隐藏的权力动力,现在许多组织正在接受这样一个现实,即人类天生就是政治动物,在组织生活的哪些方面是理性的,哪些方面不是理性的方面拥有不同的价值观和观念。丹尼斯·黄等著名社会学家和杰弗里·菲弗等管理学院士的经验数据都一致认为,压制组织文化是徒劳的,因为人类本质上是在争夺霸权和生存。工作场所,作为一个大多数人一生平均花费8小时的领域,已经转变为一个政治舞台。在一个依赖性显著存在的领域,在创新和技术使用方面存在不同的目标和信念,并且可能存在资源稀缺的情况下,很难不发现对资源和地位的竞争。尽管许多关于组织政治主题的文献可能会花大量时间分析有争议主题的优缺点,但大多数文献都明确认识到很难回避政治这一现实。政治关乎权力和影响力,组织也是如此。本站提供各国各专业留学生Assignment写作指导服务,如有需要可咨询本平台。

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