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留学生International Business Assignment格式范文:Socio Cultural Environment in India

论文价格: 免费 时间:2024-01-13 11:12:52 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

留学生assignment格式范文-印度的社会文化环境。本文是一篇留学生国际商务管理assignment写作范文,主要内容是讲述印度已经成为西方公司和其他外国投资者的一个潜在的多元化市场。早些时候在印度建立企业是一项具有挑战性的任务,但印度不同政府在一段时间内实施的经济改革为西方跨国公司和其他商业磁石的进入铺平了道路。尽管如此,在印度或与印度做生意仍然被认为是困难的,也是一个不同的提议,主要是因为印度不同的商业和社会经济文化。到目前为止,与印度打交道的西方跨国公司/投资者不得不对其商业风格进行重大变革,以便有效地为客户服务。这篇文章详细探讨了西方跨国公司在印度必须面对的普遍的商业、社会经济和文化环境,以及它们为在印度取得成功而采取的商业实践重大变革的影响。以下就是留学生International Business Assignment格式范文的具体内容,供参考。

留学生assignment格式范文

Introduction 引言

India has emerged as a potential and a diversified market for the Western firms and other foreign investors. Earlier establishing a business in India was a challenging assignment, but economic reforms, brought in by different Indian governments over a period of time, have smoothen the course of entry for Western multinationals and other business magnets. Still it is considered difficult and a different proposal to do business in or with India, mainly because of its different business and socio- economic culture. Western multinationals/ investors dealing with India so far had to adopt major changes in their business style in order to serve effectively to their customers. This write up examines in detail the prevalent business, socio- economic, and cultural environments that western multinationals have to face in India, as well the implications of their adopted major changes in business practices to succeed in India.

Business, socio- economic and cultural environments of India 印度的商业、社会经济和文化环境

Family Business and non corporate culture 家族企业与非企业文化

Despite revolutionary changes since India’s independence, the basic business style has remained the same as of family controlled businesses. Leading business families, from Birlas and Tatas to Reliance, keep total control on business of companies promoted by them. Major management posts in these business houses are always held by responsible family members. Though joint family system is slowly disappearing, but still there is a common tendency in Indian families to own a business.

尽管自印度独立以来发生了革命性的变化,但基本的商业风格与家族企业保持一致。从Birlas、Tatas到Reliance,领先的企业家族完全控制着他们所推动的公司的业务。这些企业的主要管理职位总是由负责任的家庭成员担任。尽管联合家庭制度正在慢慢消失,但在印度家庭中,拥有企业的趋势仍然很普遍。

Another prominent feature of the Indian economy is that non- corporate sector has the largest share of the total business of the country. They are the largest employment providers. Growth in non- corporate sector is much faster than even in the corporate sector. Non- corporate sector is engaged in wide spread manufacturing and service industries, and these are again mostly family business. Non corporate sector work according to available conditions and develop their business models suiting prevalent conditions and systems. This way India is a high powered distant society. Western businesses will have to accept family authority while negotiating business deals with non- corporate as well as family controlled corporate sector.

印度经济的另一个突出特点是非企业部门在该国总业务中所占份额最大。他们是最大的就业提供者。非企业部门的增长甚至比企业部门的要快得多。非企业部门从事广泛的制造业和服务业,这些行业也大多是家族企业。非企业部门根据现有条件开展工作,并发展适合普遍条件和制度的商业模式。这样一来,印度就是一个权力强大的遥远社会。西方企业在与非企业以及家族控制的企业部门谈判商业交易时,将不得不接受家族的权威。

Multi Linguistic and cultural market with political challenges 面临政治挑战的多元语言和文化市场

The business language in urban India is local language mixed with English. It is also mixed with Hindi and state dialects making it difficult for a casual business operator to negotiate. There are wide ranges of languages spoken in diverse India. Accordingly, perfection in one language by a Western business negotiator does not mean that he or she can represent his/ her business deals effectively in all parts of India.

印度城市的商业语言是当地语言和英语的混合。它还夹杂着印地语和州方言,这使得临时经营者很难进行谈判。印度的语言种类繁多。因此,西方商业谈判代表在一种语言上的完美并不意味着他或她可以在印度各地有效地代表他/她的商业交易。

Though middle class rules the roast in India, but this class mostly believes in eastern culture, making it imperative for Western multinationals to adopt eastern tastes in their goods and services being marketed in India. At the same time it is difficult for foreign companies to standardize their products on national basis because of diversity in regional culture; but it may be possible in India on regional basis. Also foreign MNCs need to find out the consumers’ tastes in India before launching their products or services in Indian markets.

尽管中产阶级统治着印度的烤肉业,但这一阶层大多信奉东方文化,这使得西方跨国公司在印度营销的商品和服务中必须采用东方口味。同时,由于地区文化的多样性,外国公司很难在全国范围内对其产品进行标准化;但这在印度可能是区域性的。此外,外国跨国公司在印度市场推出产品或服务之前,需要了解印度消费者的口味。

One thing is necessary to understand that economic growth in India has brought up its middle class to the fore front; and at the same time rural poor are largely isolated from the achievements of growth.”With a robust and working democratic system, India is a federal republic where bulk of executive power rests with prime minister and his or her cabinets. As a nation state, India presents a vast mosaic of hundreds of different ethnic groups, religious sects, and social castes. About one third of population lives in urban areas; an overwhelming majority of the remainder is engaged in the agricultural sector.”(Michael F. Martin and K.Alan Kronstadt, August 31, 2007) [i] An Indian is so politically informed or connected that it would not be wrong to say that every Indian treats himself/ herself as a politician in one sense or the other. With the result every political event in India has great impact on consumer markets.

有一件事是必须理解的,即印度的经济增长使其中产阶级走到了前列;与此同时,农村贫困人口在很大程度上与增长成果隔绝。”印度是一个联邦共和国,拥有强大而有效的民主制度,大部分行政权力掌握在总理及其内阁手中。作为一个民族国家,印度呈现出数百个不同种族、宗教派别和社会种姓的巨大马赛克。大约三分之一的人口生活在城市地区;其余绝大多数从事农业部门。”一个印度人是如此了解政治或与政治有联系,所以说每个印度人在某种意义上都把自己视为政治家是不对的。因此,印度的每一个政治事件都会对消费市场产生巨大影响。

Politically there is a relaxed atmosphere at present for foreign direct investments (FDIs). But businesses often get disturbed with unwanted political rallies and events. Very frequently opposite national political parties call for nation- wide strikes (called bandh in Indian dialect) on any hot issue. The entire economic process gets disturbed and with the result corporations and other businesses suffer huge losses. For example “on July 5, India went on strike. The country closed down at several places after opposition parties protested an increase in the price of petrol or gasoline. (In India, the government controls petrol prices). The Associated Chamber of Commerce and Industry estimated that nationwide strike caused a production loss of US $ 2.8 billion” (Human Resources, July 29, 2010) [ii] .

从政治上看,目前外国直接投资的氛围较为宽松。但企业往往会因不必要的政治集会和活动而受到干扰。对立的国家政党经常呼吁在任何热点问题上进行全国范围的罢工(在印度方言中称为bandh)。整个经济过程受到干扰,企业和其他企业因此遭受巨大损失。例如,“7月5日,印度举行罢工。在反对党抗议汽油或汽油价格上涨后,该国关闭了多个地方。(在印度,政府控制汽油价格)。联合工商会估计,全国罢工造成28亿美元的生产损失”。

Indian economy is also badly bitten by the inflationary bug. Even necessities of life have become costlier for public at large. Average citizens find it difficult to save something for luxuries. Still luxuries like cars, foreign tours etc are being sold at rates that envy other economies of the world. But this is a fact of urban India only, where black marketing and corruption is rampant. Corrupt politician and business people make ugly display of their wealth.

印度经济也受到通货膨胀的严重影响。甚至连生活必需品对广大公众来说也变得更加昂贵。普通市民发现很难为奢侈品储蓄。尽管如此,汽车、外国旅游等奢侈品的销售速度仍令世界其他经济体羡慕不已。但这只是印度城市的一个事实,那里的黑色营销和腐败猖獗。腐败的政客和商人把他们的财富丑化了。

There is no doubt that Indian economy is growing, but this growth is lopsided. The required growth in infrastructural sector is lagging behind. This has created a real bottleneck for long term growth and economic expansion. This information is necessary for Western MNCs to decide about their target sector as well the type of market available in India for their products and services. India is a free economy and taking advantage of this, many Western MNCs are also raising part of their capital investment from India itself.

毫无疑问,印度经济正在增长,但这种增长是不平衡的。基础设施部门所需的增长滞后。这给长期增长和经济扩张造成了真正的瓶颈。这些信息对于西方跨国公司决定其目标行业以及其产品和服务在印度的市场类型是必要的。印度是一个自由经济体,利用这一点,许多西方跨国公司也从印度本身筹集了部分资本投资。

BPO business brought in by multinationals in India succeeded because the MNCs exploited the conditions to best of their advantage. The shortage of infrastructure for BPO business was a matter of concern for MNCs. But MNCs found that building infrastructure in India is much cheaper than developing the same in western countries. India is a developing country with huge populations. Naturally the availability of educated labor force at lower prices was a distinct advantage that MNCs exploited to enhance their overall profitability. Indian young population has proved to be more hospitable and courteous than their counterparts in Western countries. Educated young people have a lot of command in English language making it very easy and economical to get the customer convinced about the product being marketed by BPOs. The result is that BPO business in India has become not only a profitable for MNCs, but a bread earner for thousands and lakhs of its staff without pressing government resources.

跨国公司在印度引入的BPO业务之所以成功,是因为跨国公司充分利用了这些条件。BPO业务基础设施的短缺是跨国公司关注的问题。但跨国公司发现,在印度建设基础设施比在西方国家开发基础设施便宜得多。印度是一个人口众多的发展中国家。自然,受过教育的劳动力以较低的价格提供是跨国公司用来提高整体盈利能力的一个明显优势。事实证明,印度年轻人比西方国家的同龄人更热情、更有礼貌。受过教育的年轻人精通英语,这使得让客户相信BPO正在营销的产品变得非常容易和经济。其结果是,在没有紧迫政府资源的情况下,印度的BPO业务不仅成为跨国公司的利润来源,而且成为成千上万员工的生计来源。

Changes adopted by international firms to serve customers in India 国际公司为印度客户服务所采取的变化

Adoption with local conditions or changing of business rules provide international business to grow firmly. Western multinationals have taken many rational and objective decisions keeping in view marketing and other conditions prevalent in India. Changes in business style are necessary as the risks in the international business are not the same as in domestic markets. Some of changes adopted by Western MNCs to serve their Indian customers are discussed hereunder.

因地制宜或商业规则的变化为国际业务提供了稳固的发展。西方跨国公司考虑到印度的市场营销和其他普遍情况,做出了许多理性和客观的决定。业务风格的改变是必要的,因为国际业务的风险与国内市场的风险不同。下文将讨论西方跨国公司为服务印度客户而采取的一些变革。

Organized Retailing and direct marketing 有组织的零售和直销

Barring exceptions like Bata stores and few others, retailing in India so far has been fragmented and not organized. Organized retail stores and trendy chain stores to catch the young customer is be one of the major changes brought in India by Western MNCs to serve and attract their customers. Though the trend is same as in western countries, but organization style has changed. Family owned businesses are being attracted to own retail stores and develop a chain of stores as franchisee or under other arrangements with MNCs. A few successful examples are McDonalds, Levis Strauss and others.

除了巴塔商店等少数例外,印度的零售业迄今为止一直是分散的,没有组织。有组织的零售店和时尚连锁店吸引年轻顾客是西方跨国公司为服务和吸引顾客而在印度带来的重大变化之一。虽然这一趋势与西方国家相同,但组织风格发生了变化。家族企业正被吸引来拥有零售店,并作为特许经营商或根据与跨国公司的其他安排发展连锁店。一些成功的例子是麦当劳,莱维斯施特劳斯和其他人。

Organized retailing is growing in India. With the results manufacturers are loosing their positions. Even local brands like Pantloons and Shoppers Stop are offering competitions to manufacturers’ owned stores. An organized franchisee style of retailing has ushered. It is also seen that family owned businesses seek franchisees of western MNCs. Many multinationals are entering Indian market though partnerships with local giants in the organized retail sector.

有组织的零售业在印度正在发展。结果是,制造商正在失去他们的地位。甚至像Pantloons和Shoppers Stop这样的本土品牌也在为制造商拥有的商店提供竞争。一种有组织的加盟商零售风格已经出现。还可以看到,家族企业寻求西方跨国公司的特许经营商。许多跨国公司正通过与当地有组织零售业巨头的合作进入印度市场。

Direct marketing is another change brought in by the MNCs. Earlier joint venture technique of marketing has changed to direct marketing. Products are not being sold on agency basis. Goods are not manufactured but traded by MNCs in chain stores either owned by them or their franchisees. Earlier the trend was to find low cost manufacturing location in India for producing goods in India, and then marketing the goods by entering into joint venture agreements with local giants. No doubt MNCs are still benefitting from low cost production, but the trend has changed to offer the products and services directly to customers.

直销是跨国公司带来的另一个变化。早期的合资营销技术已经转变为直接营销。产品不是在代理的基础上销售的。商品不是由跨国公司制造的,而是由跨国公司或其特许经营商拥有的连锁店进行交易。早期的趋势是在印度寻找低成本的制造地点,在印度生产商品,然后通过与当地巨头签订合资协议来营销商品。毫无疑问,跨国公司仍然受益于低成本生产,但趋势已经改变,直接向客户提供产品和服务。

Creating products to serve Indian markets 创造服务于印度市场的产品

One of the major changes that western MNCs have made is the introduction of products and services that suits Indian style of consumption. “This means not only developing affordable products and services that deliver value to the customer, but also finding right kind of distribution channels and designing credit systems to permit the access of the poor to financial services.” (Michael John Baker and Susan Hurt, 2007) [iii] In fact MNCs are taking full advantage of availably of large number of engineers, technicians, and other experts to introduce products as per Indian tastes of consumptions. Take the case of US Pizza Hut selling pizzas through its outlets in India. “What they have brought to India is not an American style pizza but a way of serving food in a nice, clean, bright place at a price an ordinary family can afford. But the food they serve is what Indians like. In many cities in India, Domino’s offers a 100 percent vegetarian pizza, cooked in a separate kitchen where no meat items are allowed.” (Subash C. Jain, 2003) [iv] 

西方跨国公司所做的主要改变之一是推出适合印度消费风格的产品和服务。“这不仅意味着开发价格合理的产品和服务,为客户提供价值,还意味着找到合适的分销渠道和设计信贷系统,让穷人能够获得金融服务。”]事实上,跨国公司正在充分利用大量的工程师、技术人员,以及其他专家根据印度人的消费口味介绍产品。以美国必胜客通过其在印度的门店销售披萨为例。“他们给印度带来的不是美式披萨,而是一种以普通家庭能负担得起的价格在一个漂亮、干净、明亮的地方提供食物的方式。但他们提供的食物正是印度人喜欢的。在印度的许多城市,达美乐提供100%素食的披萨,在一个单独的厨房里烹饪,不允许有肉类。”

In fact marketing style the product has also changed by Western MNCs. For example creating small packs with simple designs and less volume at affordable prices will not only boost sale but also create brand awareness among a particular section of consumers. Introduction of financing schemes with marketing of products create an urge to buy among those who cannot afford the goods temporarily. This is certainly not unethical if the interest rates are reasonable. This is because reasonability is the basic rule of marketing.

事实上,西方跨国公司也改变了产品的营销风格。例如,以负担得起的价格打造设计简单、体积较小的小包装,不仅能促进销售,还能在特定消费者群体中提高品牌知名度。通过产品营销引入融资计划,在那些暂时买不起商品的人中产生了购买冲动。如果利率合理,这当然不是不道德的。这是因为合理是营销的基本原则。

Another marketing idea floated by MNCs is to provide products and services on rental or lease basis instead of making a direct sale. This may take shape of hire- purchase sale or simple renting if the consumer does not want to purchase the product.

跨国公司提出的另一种营销理念是以租赁或租赁的方式提供产品和服务,而不是直接销售。如果消费者不想购买该产品,这可能采取分期付款销售或简单租赁的形式。

Conclusion 结论

Indian market has peculiar characteristics. Owning family business is still the rage in Indian society that is multi linguistic with Hindi or English as link language. Inflation is very high and the conditions in India always remain political charged. Abundant educated labor force is available at reasonably cheaper wages. Corrupted people flaunt the use of money in an ugly way. Under such circumstances different democratically elected Indian governments created liberalized conditions for MNCs and other foreign investors to enter the Indian market. Businesses like BPO units succeeded immensely in India. Foreign investments also established varied businesses for their customers in India. For satisfying customers in India, these MNCs made concessions and changes in their traditional style of operations. Direct marketing and organized retailing are the major changes bought in by MNCs to satisfy their Indian clientele. Products also changed to suite Indian tastes of consumptions. Leasing and hire- purchase selling have become style of MNCs to satisfy their customers in India.

印度市场有其独特的特点。在以印地语或英语为纽带的多语言印度社会中,拥有家族企业仍然很流行。通货膨胀率很高,印度的情况总是充满政治色彩。有大量受过教育的劳动力,工资相对便宜。腐败的人以丑陋的方式炫耀金钱的使用。在这种情况下,不同的民选印度政府为跨国公司和其他外国投资者进入印度市场创造了自由化的条件。像BPO部门这样的企业在印度取得了巨大成功。外国投资也为其在印度的客户建立了各种各样的业务。为了满足印度的客户,这些跨国公司做出了让步,并改变了传统的经营方式。直销和有组织的零售是跨国公司为满足其印度客户而进行的主要变革。产品也发生了变化,以适应印度人的消费口味。租赁和租购售楼已成为跨国公司满足印度客户需求的方式。本站提供各国各专业assignment格式范文以及assignment写作辅导,如有需要可咨询本平台。


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