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澳大利亚指导assignment范文:The Comprehensive Analysis of the Ancient

论文价格: 免费 时间:2019-03-07 14:04:18 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

导读:澳洲指导assignment范文推荐,本文是一篇澳大利亚媒体与传播(选修课:Sport in Hostory)的本科作业,这篇文章是写sport in history,重点写的是体育在历史中的对各方面影响,它所扮演的角色,地位等。

Introduction介绍
古希腊的体育运动可以成为一个很好的证据,反映了科学和艺术等领域的民主和思想观念。古希腊由两个独立的城邦组成:斯巴达和雅典。他们是古希腊最强大的国家,都配备了自己的政府和军​​队。尽管斯巴达和雅典在地理位置上彼此接近,但仍然存在一些戏剧性和本质的差异,例如意识形态,社会,管理风格和基本生活方式。他们甚至将对方视为最强大的竞争对手。
Sport in Ancient Greece can be a great evidence reflecting the concept of democracy and ideas in some fields like, science and art. Ancient Greece was constituted  bytwo independent city-states: Sparta and Athens. They were the most powerful states of ancient Greece which were all equipped with their own government and army. Even though Sparta and Athens were close to each other in geographical location, there were still some dramatic and essential differences, such as ideology, society, management styles and the basic ways of life. They even regarded each others as their strongest competitors.
1 The Reasons of Emergence of Ancient Greek Athletics古希腊田径运动产生的原因
古希腊的体育被认为是广泛传播的自由传统的标志,它也是整个人类历史上最令人惊叹的文明之一的核心(Plato,1981)。这种深远而持久的影响表明,体育不仅是生产力发展和社会进步的结果,也是提高精神意识传统的必然结果(Dimitrios P. Panagiotopoulos,2004)。一些体育项目,如篮球,摔跤,水球,田径,举重,其中许多来自希腊,现在已成为世界上非常受欢迎的运动项目。
Sport in Ancient Greece was considered as a sign of a widely spread tradition of liberty, it also stood at the heart of one of the most amazing civilizations in the whole human’s history (Plato, 1981). This profound and long-lasting influence indicates that sport was not only the outcome of the development of productivity and the progress of society, but also an inevitable result of a tradition of increasing spiritual awareness (Dimitrios P. Panagiotopoulos, 2004). Some sport programs like basketball, wrestling, water polo, athletics, weightlifting, many of them which originated from Greece now have been very popular sports in the world.
This paper pays attention to dig a more comprehensive understanding on sport in the two representative city-states of ancient Greece: Sparta and Athens. To a large extent, sport in Sparta was military-oriented, Sports militarization, military sport, it is core of Spartan’s lives. However, sport in Athens was fairly human-oriented, stressing the harmonious development and improvement of an individual (McNulty, Phil,2004). This bifurcation initiated from some significant aspects in two city-states, such as geography, economy, politics and so on. The history of civilization in the world, especially the athlete civilization with its elegance and outstanding achievements known to all the human beings. Therefore, the study of Ancient Greek civilization and the Ancient Greek sports on the development of our study was of essential (Wang Yingxin, 2011).
2. The Development of Ancient Greek Athletics
2.1 Athens Athletics
Athens is not only the largest city of Greece in the first millennium, but also a center for economy politics, finance and culture in Greece. In the meantime, it is a symbol of freedom, art, and democracy in this civilized world. The name of Athens came from the Athena, which is a goddess represents wisdom and knowledge (Carl Zetie,2015). Thus, we want to specify the development and difference of Athens and Sparta Athletics in three aspects: economy, politics and culture, 
First, from the aspect of Economy, On the basis of class division, slave-owning economy gradually appeared in the Athens. Since the special geographic position, farming is not available in Athens. At that time economy heavily depends on trade and fishing. Athens gradually became the paramount trade center among all the cities in Mediterranean by the 5th century B.C. It was because the cottage industry increasingly played a key important role in both urban and rural areas at that time, it pushed the prosperous of business and increase advancement of economy. Therefore, the sport of Athens which is based on slaves tends to be more open and diversity, and resulted in rich forms of sport activities. For instance, some paragraphs came from Odessa described that at the grand banquet which was held by the king of Philippians, Odysseus saw different kinds of rodeo of Phoenician, including racing, wrestling, high jump, boxing, archery and other sport games. That is to say, some features and charters of Athens athlete are closely linked with pluralism of economy.
Second, in terms of politics, Freedom and equality for political life laid a solid foundation of sport (Carl Zetie, 2015).When Greece was conquered and invaded by Macedonianbefore 338 B.C.  Athens was the most prosperous city, the existence of sports was to develop great talents whose physical body should be coordinated with mentality, and the contents and forms of sports tended to be rich, flexible, aesthetic. They regarded the fitness and robust of body as the highest criterion of beauty, many artistic manifestations drew on this standard to create powerful body and strong muscle (Parul Solanki, 2012). With the constantly establishment and development of slavery system in city-state, it resulted in direct democracy in Athens.  In Athens, in daily political affair, taking turns to take control of country can be a brilliant way for citizen to participate in the political affairs. Citizens can freely take part in political activities and give their advice. Namely, the essence of sport is direct communication and equal rights, which is based on equal status and equitable rules of the game. Only under this regulation, the spirit of sport can be developed. Therefore, we can say the democracy and freedom created effective influence on sport of Athens.
Thirdly, regarding of culture, Athens was home for some of the most outstandingachievements of philosophy, art, and science in human history. Compared with Sparta, the Athenian lifestyle can be a creative wonderland where the male members of the society can access to good education and were free to pursue any of the several kinds of arts or sciences. 
At the same time, in Athens, children who were younger than 7, were accepted education at home. After 7, children were guided to do exercise after class, the sport they do was similar to game, The main sport activities were playing dice, playing ball, etc.It is benefit for developing their body and intelligence. Under the guidance of teachers, they spent plenty of time practicing five athletes: (including running, jumping, discus, javelin, wrestling) swimming, archery, horse riding and driving chariots, in addition, there were accompanied by some singing and dancing entertainment games. When their age is more than 18, They had to attend the official institutions-Ephebe, which is the representative of the highest education in Greece for two years’ military training. That is to say, based on this kind of education, people in Greece were engaged in sport in their whole life, sport of Athens focus on strengtheningphysical fitness, beautiful posture, as well as developing the tough and brave character (Wang Yingxin, 2011).
2.2 Sparta Military Athletics
As we all know, Greece was the hometown of Ancient Olympic Games. During the 140 years after720 B.C, and most of winners and achievers recorded in victory lists were Spartans. The ambitious for occupying the gold is not only a personal behavior, but also reflects collective sense of honor. That is to say, in Sparta, the only profession and mission of citizen was being a soldier, the primary education is also focus on military and physical education. In order to achieve a clearly clue why Sparta has a such a difference with Athens whose sport is used to build strong physical body, thus we discover it also from three aspect: economy, politics and culture.
In terms of economy, geographical position determines economical mode, Sparta is located in the region of Laconia, which is in the south-eastern Peloponnese. This geographic environment determines this city-state heavily rely on agriculture. Slaves were widely used in every department of production and every aspect of life. Generally speaking, small workshop is made of 5-15 slaves, bigger one is 20 to 30, slaves created too much profit for slave owner, which made slave owners escape from physical work and engaged in doing exercise. In conclusion, because of the high stability of agriculture-based economy, and Sparta in order to protect their own profit, sport is inevitably marked with symbol of militarization. 
When it refers to politics, Sparta was the Dorian Greek military state which was hierarchical, authoritarian and ruled by tyrannical kings and aristocrats., considered as the protector of Greece as it was providing large army to Greece for many years.In Sparta, as an authoritarian and military city-state, education here was also to produce soldier-citizens. In ancient Sparta, the purpose of education was to produce a well-drilled, well-disciplined marching army. Spartans believed in discipline, self-denial, and simplicity (Wang Yingxin, 2011). They were very loyal to the state of Sparta. Since war needs people with a powerful physique, quick action and cruel personality, since the destiny of the war is finally decided by soldiers whether have the characters of endurance, strength, experience, dexterity, and mental strength. The war forced the Spartans to make efforts to enhance its military capability.#p#分页标题#e#
In terms of culture, it's greatest cultural values were discipline and conformity, it is believed that in Sparta, the old people tested a newborn baby for making sure if the baby had possibilities to be a strong soldier, if not, his fate was threw into a cliff. For the rest babies,when they were 7, the children ware taken from their home and put under control of the state. They need to be trained and enrolled in the regular army at the age of 20. Despite after getting married, a Spartan soldier would keep staying in the army. At the age of 30 a Spartan was able to vote and would be allowed to stay at home. Spartan women were independent and enjoyed enough freedom which was not different from other places in Greece. They were encouraged to exercise and train so that their baby would be suitable for being a solider in the army. As a matter of fact, this social phenomenal is also caused by the political systems.
 
Reference:
[1]Plato’s Lesser Hippies:A Neglected Document in Sport History,Journalof Sport History,Vol.8,No.1(Spring,1981)
[2]Dimitrios P.Panagiotopoulos,The Greek Transfer System of Athletes,International Sports Law Journal,2004(1 - 2),at 37 - 44.
[3]Wang Yingxin:  The Flame of Olympus. On Ancient Greek Sports, 2011.
[4]Sun Fangwang; Sport in Ancient Greece from the Perspective of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. 2013
[5]McNulty, Phil (2004-07-04). "Greece win Euro 2004". BBC Sport (news.bbc.co.uk). Retrieved 2010-07-04.
[6]Roberto BraneoMartins,Social Dialogue in the European Professionalfootball sector 一 A European legal football match heading for extra time, International Sports Law Journal,2004 ,1 一 2,at 26.
[7]Parul Solanki: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/sparta-vs-athens.html,July 16, 2012
[8]Carl Zetie: Athens and Sparta: An Open Source Parable, June 10th 2015.
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