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澳大利亚媒体专业课程assignment

论文价格: 免费 时间:2019-03-19 14:03:15 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
导读:这篇澳洲assignment是一个媒体与传播专业的课后作业,要求是请从下面列出的五篇文章中选择一篇进行作业1的分析。
https://d2l.deakin.edu.au/d2l/le/content/347368/viewContent/2527169/View
选择其中一篇作为你的作业文章并回答问题:
1.调查
Beavis,C,Muspratt,S&Thompson,R 2015.“电脑游戏可以让你的大脑发挥作用”:学生在课堂上体验和对数字游戏的看法。学习,媒体与技术,40(1),21-42。
2.内容分析:
Burkalter,J N&Thornton,C G 2014.广告节拍:分析嘻哈音乐视频中的品牌位置。 Journal of Marketing Communications,20(5),366-382。
3.面试
Huey,L 2010.“我在CSI上看过这个问题”:刑事调查人员对该领域公众期望管理的看法。犯罪媒体文化,6(1),50-68。
4.焦点小组
Loch,S 2015。看芭蕾舞的未来:四位学生芭蕾舞演员的故事情节。话语:教育文化政治研究,36(1),53-68。
5.实地研究
Makley,C 2014年。壮观的同情。亚洲重要研究,46(3),371-404。
 
Questions: 问题:
a)确定作者给出的进行本研究的理由。(一般在文章的前面给出。)
a) Identify the rationale given by the author for doing this study. (Generally given early in the article.)
讨论了警察对警察程序电视节目(特别是CSI和类似节目)对其调查过程和专家地位的影响的看法。多数人认为,调查工作的公众期望受电视节目的影响,其中只有少数警察把不切实际的公众期望作为角色紧张的根源,其余人则认为,作为教育公众真正的警务调查工作是什么的机会(p.60)。
It discusses the perceptions of police to the influence caused by police procedural television programs (especially CSI and similar programs) to their investigative process and expert status. The majority hold that public expectations of investigative work are influenced by TV program; among them only a few of police officers take unrealistic public expectation as a source of role strain, the rest hold that as an opportunity to educate public what the real policing investigative work is(p.60).  
b) What is/are the research question/s or hypothesis/es used in this study? (List a maximum of two.)b)本研究中使用的研究问题或假设是什么?(最多列出两个。)
研究问题包括:1)公众对警察调查工作的期望是否受到CSI等电视节目和其他警察程序电视节目的影响?2)是否影响了公众的期望,导致了对警官专业知识和工作方法的质疑,进而导致了他们的角色紧张?
The research questions include: 1) whether public expectations of police investigative work are influenced by television programs like CSI and other police procedural TV programs? 2) whether influenced public expectations result in doubts of expert knowledge and work methods of police officers, and further result in role strain of them?
c) Name the epistemology/ies used in the study? (eg. Objectivism, constructionism or subjectivism).  Why do you think so?c)说出研究中使用的认识论?(如客观主义、建构主义或主观主义)。你为什么这么认为?
本研究采用主观主义。主观主义是以人的心理活动、主观经验和个人知识为基础的。在本研究中,公众对警察调查工作的期望,以及警察的心理活动和行为,以及在这方面的角色紧张,都取决于他们的主观意识。
In the study, subjectivism is used. Subjectivism is based on one’s mental activity, subjective experience and individual knowledge. In the study, the public expectations to police officers’ investigative work, and police officers’ mental activities and behaviors, as well as role strain in this regard all depends on their subjective awareness. 
d) Name the research paradigm/s used in the study (e.g. Positivism, systems theory, interpretivism, critical theory or functionalism).  Explain why this study falls under that/those paradigm/s.
Interpretivism is used in this study. Interpretivism is also called antipositivism, which is an important paradigm in social science. Interpretivism rejects empiricism and relevant scientific methods, it emphasizes that the researchers should concentrate on the interpretations of people’s social actions. In this study, police forces’ social actions are influenced by public expectations, and public expectations are easily influenced by police procedural television program. Public expectation of policing work influenced by crime program has effect on the interactions of police officers and the public. 
Functionism: Page 60, para.3 - public queries and demands of policing investigative work can be an opportunity to dispel negative influence caused by crime programs. 
e) What is/are the covering law/s or specific theory/ies used as starting points in the study?
Social identity (Goffman, 1959, 1963) theory is the covering law of the study. In regard to policing, ‘knowledge work’ is the main focus. (Manning, 1977; 2003; Ericson and Haggerty, 1997)
f) What specific research / data collection method/s (eg. Interviews,  field  studies, surveys, focus groups, content  analysis, case studies etc.), has/have been used in the study?
Semi-structured interview has been used in the study, 31 police officers’ experience and points are collected. 
g) Has this study used multiple methods of data collection? If so, what are they? If not, what other methods of data collection could have been used in addition to the one/s used in the study and why? What would be their uses and advantages?
The study doesn’t use multiple methods. It mainly uses qualitative method to collect data. Though qualitative method is subjective and easily influenced by persons’ prejudice, it helps to understand the interviewees’ true feelings and ideas, and can always get the first-hand materials. 
Some other quantitative methods can also be used to collect data, such as questionnaire survey. Questionnaire survey is a good complement to semi-structured interview, which can identify problems and interpret phenomena. 
h) What other research paradigm/s could have been used to study the same phenomenon and why? 
The study mainly uses interpretivism to study the phenomenon. Positivism is opposite to interpretivism, however it can also be used to study the phenomenon. Positivism is mostly quantitative, which employs questionnaire survey and other qualitative methods to collect data. Generally speaking, positivism collects a large amount of data, through strictly statistic and analysis the conclusion can be made. Speicifically, the purpose of this study is to investigate police officers’ perceptions of unrealistic public expectations, the study could be designed according to representative attitudes of police officers. Through collecting a large amount of data, the analysis of data can explain what kind of attitude is prevail among police officers and can further explain the reasons. 
i) Is this study deductive or inductive? Explain why you think so.
This study is inductive. It mainly uses qualitative method, namely semi-structured interview; 31 police officers of Canada are chosen as interviewees. Semi-structured interview is free talk between interviewer and respondents, no quantitative analysing involved. Conclusions got from interviews are something general. 
j) What are the variables of this study? Which of them is/are independent and dependent? (List at least one of each.)
Different types of investigators are independent variables in this study. Specifically, types of investigators include: major crimes investigator, homicide investigator, sex crimes investigator, property crime investigator and forensic identification officers (p.50), these types involve different policing knowledge and investigative procedures,and will not be influenced by other variables of this study.
Perceptions of police officers toward public expectation to the policing investigative work are dependent variables.Perceptions of police officers are subjective, which are easily influenced by a lot of factors. For example, expectations of victims and that of ordinary people are different, their attitudes and expectations have different impact on the perceptions of police officers. 
k) How are the variables operationalised? (What are the operational definitions used?) (list at least one.)
Public expectation to the investigative work of police officer: Page 50, para.2 – “Two sources have been identified that suggest that CSI and similar television crime programs might have such effects.” The first source is earlier studies with this regard. (Stenrossand Kleinman, 1989)The second source is published police anecdotes. (CBC, 2006; see alsoHouck, 2006)Through literature review and observation, the operational definition gives “public expectation to the investigative work of police officer” meaning within the particular study (p.50). 
l) What is the unit of analysis of this study?
 The unit of analysis of this study is individual police officer’s opinion. 
m) What was/were the sample size/s?
Page 54, para.5 – “This paper is informed by data drawn from interviews conducted with 31 Canadianpolice investigators”.#p#分页标题#e#
n) What kind of sampling method/s had been used? (e.g. random, convenience etc.)
Non-probability sampling method has been used in this study. Specifically, purposive sampling method has been used. The sampling was chosen with specific characteristics, they are all police officers, which fit the purpose of the study. 
o) What kind/s of measurement/s was/were involved? (e.g. Nominal,  ordinal,  interval  or ratio  and name the relevant variable/s as applicable.)
The study categorizes police investigators involved in this study. (p.55) The technical term of this type of measurement is nominal level variable. It names the relevant variables, including major crimes investigator, homicide investigator, sex crimes investigator, property crimes investigator, and forensic identification officers; these variables are just names or labels, and mutual exclusive. 
p) What are the findings and conclusions of this study?
Unrealistic public expectations are experienced by all the interviewees. Three different strategies are identified through analyzing of police officers’ responses. The majority takes such an experience as a routine element of their work, only the minorityreports an increased sense of role strain. 
q) What is the heuristic value of the study?
Public expectations of police investigative work are easily influence by TV shows such as CSI and other similar program. That’s because there are not many formal channels from which the public can get real policing investigative knowledge. Communication channels are important, effective communication channels can alleviate misunderstandings between the public and police officers. How to build such a channel in between would be an interesting and meaningful topic. 
r) What alternative explanations can you suggest for these findings and conclusions?
For the public, they have no idea what the real police investigative work is and they don’t have many chances and reliable channels to learn some, that’s why police officers tend to educate the public when encountered unrealistic public expectations. The closer connections between police officers and the public may smooth the investigative policing work and alleviate the role strain of police officers. To sum up, fewer opportunities to know each other, informal channels of information lead to these findings and conclusions. 
s) Find five items of scholarly literature related to the same topic area as your selected article.  Provide a short summary of these five studies and their findings and conclusions, as a collective, somewhat similar to a short literature review. Indicate your sources of reference within the body of this summary according to the Harvard system of referencing (Author, year). List the five readings in alphabetical order by first author’s last name according to the Harvard System of referencing, in the reference list for the essay at the end. Indicate these five articles in the reference list using asterisks (*).
The contents of TV shows have impact on ordinary audiences’ mental activities and behaviors. A lot of studies are supporting the conclusions, and scholars further study this topic from different perspective of views. Some study focuses on certain behaviors’ influences, for example, Mozafari, Afsaneh etc.(2010) discusses the violence on TV shows and its effects on behavior patterns of adolescents, they took that in Zahedan province of Iran as an example, and results found that adolescents of 11-17 years old exposure to TV violence are more likely to commit violence. Some study focuses on reality TV shows on civic behaviors, for example, Fanning Elizabeth (2011) compared audience voting for and participation in American Idol and other reality TV shows with audience sense and attitude to 2008 US presidential elections, and results found that in real-time TV shows and in a real election, a sense of self efficacy and participation are transferred equally. Another similar study conducted by Itazhak Y. and Joseph N. C. (2011) is from another angle. In their study, the effect of political talk radio shows during US 1996 presidential election are discussed, and results found that the impact of PTR on the attitudes of audiences is quite small. Some studies pay attention to other kind of reality shows, such as the effects of reality childbirth shows, to analyze its effect on the perceptions of birth of young women. Results found that, e reality portrays of childbirth significantly increase anxiety of young women, which may have public health implications. (Rink, Lauren, 2010) Some studies are interested in audiences’ psychological activities. An interesting study examines black/white audiences’ response to black entertainment. (Omotayo O. Banjo, 2013) It discusses race relations in a multicultural media landscape. Results found that blacks’ enjoyments or perception of bias would not be influenced even they are watching black films with a racially Mixed group; however blacks concern that portrayals in the film may negatively influence whites’ attitudes toward blacks. From the above literature review, it’s easy to find that, the mental activities and behaviors of audiences are easily influenced by TV shows, considering from different perspectives, a lot of thought-provoking results can be found. 
t) What would have been the ethical issues involved with this study? What precautions should have been required to protect the subjects?
The study involves personal information of police officers therefore must collect and use the data cautiously. To protect personal information, first the study needs to get permissions of organizations and individuals, informing the individuals they could voluntarily decide to take part in this study, their consents are necessary and there is no any harm to the subjects.Second it must guarantee the confidentiality of the data collected from participants, not only the data collection, but also all analyzing and reporting work are strictly confidential. 
Reference list
Fanning Elizabeth. (2011) The Effect of Reality TV on Civic Behaviors. In 
Proceedings of TCC Worldwide Online Conference 2011 (pp. 61-70).
Mozafari, Afsaneh and Mohammadi Sadegh, Saeed. (2010)The Study of Violence on 
TV Shows of Channel 3 and Its Effects on Behavior Patterns of Zahedan 
Adolescents.
Rink, Lauren. (2012) "Even More Scared": The Effects of Reality Childbirth Shows on 
Young Women's Perceptions of Birth. 
Omotayo O. Banjo. (2013) For Us Only? Examining the Effect of Viewing Context on 
Black Audiences’ Perceived Influence of Black Entertainment. In Race and Social Problems, Volume 5, Issue 4, pp 309-322.
Yanovitzky, Itzhak; Cappella, Joseph N. (2011) Effect of Call-In Political Talk Radio Shows on Their Audiences: Evidence from A Multi-Wave Panel Analysis. In International Journal of Public Opinion Research, Vol. 13 Issue 4, p377
 
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