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Politics Coursework范文:Why Was The First Gulf War Faught?

论文价格: 免费 时间:2023-12-14 11:01:14 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

Politics Coursework范文-为什么第一次海湾战争是虚假的?本文是一篇留学生政治课程作业写作范文,本篇coursework将讨论为什么老布什在1991年参加海湾战争。海湾战争(1990年8月2日至1991年2月28日)是伊拉克军队与来自34个国家的联军之间的军事冲突。这场战争的目的是在1990年伊拉克入侵科威特后将伊拉克军队驱逐出科威特。Coursework将讨论以下问题:海湾战争背后的原因是什么?乔治·H·W·布什总统为什么要卷入战争?为了回答这些问题,本篇coursework将首先讨论伊拉克和伊朗之间发生的第一次海湾战争以及第一次海湾大战如何导致第二次战争。第二:伊拉克军队入侵科威特。第三:美国卷入战争。第四:海湾战争的结果。下面就一起来看一下这篇Politics Coursework范文的具体内容。

Coursework格式范文

This coursework will discus why George H.W. Bush fought the Gulf War in 1991. The Gulf War (2 August 1990 – 28 February 1991) was a military conflict between the Iraqi forces and coalition force from 34 nations. The purpose of the war was to expel Iraqi forces from Kuwait after the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1990. This coursework will discus the following: What are the reasons behind the Gulf War? Why did the president George H.W Bush involve in the war? To answer these questions the coursework will discus first: the first gulf war which accrued between Iraq and Iran and how the first Gulf war lead to the second war. Second: the invasion of the Iraqi forces to Kuwait. Third: the United States involvement in the war. Fourth: the results of the Gulf war.

The first Gulf War which accrued in 1980 -1988 [2] between the Iranian and the Iraqi forces lead to the second Gulf war which accrued between Iraq and Kuwait. The first Gulf War officially began on Sep. 22, 1980, with and Iraqi land and air invasion of western Iran. The main reasons behind the war followed by a long history of border disputes d fears of Shia insurgency among Iraq’s long suppressed Shia majority influenced by Iran’s Islamic revolution. For the previous reasons Iran and Iraq were fighting for 8 years, and involving other countries to the bloody war. The war caused an economic damage and caused a lot of dead bodies among the two countries, a half a million Iraqi and Iranian soldiers as well as civilians are believed to have died in the war, with many more injured and wounded people. At the same time did not bring any reparation nor change in borders, it has been compared to World War [3] . Iraq been supported by the rich gulf countries such as Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, the previous countries were supporting Iraq with a lot of money to help Iraq to stop the Persian invasion. Saddam Hussein claimed victory in the Iran – Iraq war, creating heightened expectations within the military and among the populace for some sort of victory dividend. Saddam Hussein viewed Kuwait as rich source of oil, which will give Iraq an addition to its own substantial oil reserves. Saddam Hussein realized that he will be controlling 21 percent of the world’s proven oil reserves. A significant portion of the Iraqi national debt was owed to Kuwait, which supported Iraq against Iran. The Iraqis felt that the Kuwaitis should just ignore the debt, since Iraqis fought for the Kuwaitis and they protected them from the Persian invasion. Kuwait declined the Iraqi’s offer, and did not forgive the debt.

伊朗和伊拉克军队于1980年至1988年爆发的第一次海湾战争[2]导致了伊拉克和科威特之间爆发的第二次海湾战争。第一次海湾战争于1980年9月22日正式开始,伊拉克对伊朗西部进行了陆空入侵。这场战争背后的主要原因是长期的边界争端,以及受伊朗伊斯兰革命影响,伊拉克长期被压制的什叶派多数派对什叶派叛乱的担忧。由于之前的原因,伊朗和伊拉克交战了8年,并卷入了其他国家的血腥战争。这场战争造成了经济损失,在两国之间造成了大量尸体,据信有50万伊拉克和伊朗士兵以及平民在战争中死亡,还有更多的人受伤。同时,它没有带来任何赔偿,也没有改变边界,被比作第二次世界大战。伊拉克得到了沙特阿拉伯和科威特等富裕海湾国家的支持,此前这些国家都在用大量资金支持伊拉克,帮助伊拉克阻止波斯入侵。萨达姆·侯赛因宣布在两伊战争中获胜,这在军方和民众中引发了对某种胜利红利的更高期望。萨达姆·侯赛因认为科威特是丰富的石油来源,这将使伊拉克在其大量石油储备的基础上增加石油储备。萨达姆·侯赛因意识到,他将控制世界已探明石油储量的21%。伊拉克国债的很大一部分是欠科威特的,科威特支持伊拉克对抗伊朗。伊拉克人认为科威特人应该无视债务,因为伊拉克人为科威特人而战,他们保护他们免受波斯入侵。科威特拒绝了伊拉克的提议,也没有免除债务。

Kuwait had been part of the Ottoman Empire, and although it’s ruling dynasty, the al-Sabah family, had concluded a protectorate agreement in 1899 that assigned responsibility for its foreign affairs to Britain, it did not make any attempt to secede from the Ottoman Empire. For this reason, Iraqi governments had always refused to accept Kuwait’s separation, and its borders were never clearly defined or mutually agreed. The British High Commissioner drew lines that deliberately constricted Iraq’s access to the ocean so that any future Iraqi government would be in no position to threaten Britain’s domination of the Persian Gulf. In late July 1990, as negotiations between Iraq and Kuwait stalled, Iraq massed troops on its border with the emirate and summoned U.S. ambassador April Glaspie to a meeting with Iraqi President Saddam Hussein. Two transcripts of that meeting have been produced, both of them controversial. In them, Saddam Hussein outlined his grievances against Kuwait, while promising that he would not invade Kuwait before one more round of negotiations. Perhaps the main reason behind the invasion of Kuwait by the Iraqis is that Saddam Hussein thought he could get a way with it. The strong relationship which had been built between Saddam Hussein and the United States during the first Gulf War, gave Saddam Hussein the green light to think that he will be able to get a way from invading Kuwait. Saddam Hussein also thought that the Unites States was still affected by the Vietnam War, and it had as little problem to involve in another conflict. Even though Iraq was considered a Soviet client state, there was no rationale, and there would be a little public or congressional support, for the U.S to send half million troops halfway across the globe as it had done in Korea (1950-1953) and Vietnam (ending 1975) during the height of the Cold War [4] .

科威特曾是奥斯曼帝国的一部分,尽管其统治王朝萨巴赫家族于1899年签署了一项保护国协议,将其外交事务的责任交给了英国,但它没有试图脱离奥斯曼帝国。出于这个原因,伊拉克政府一直拒绝接受科威特的分离,其边界也从未明确界定或相互同意。英国高级专员划定了界限,故意限制伊拉克进入海洋,这样未来的任何伊拉克政府都无法威胁英国对波斯湾的统治。1990年7月下旬,随着伊拉克和科威特之间的谈判陷入停滞,伊拉克在与阿联酋的边境集结军队,并召见美国大使阿普里尔·格拉斯皮与伊拉克总统萨达姆·侯赛因会面。已经制作了两份会议记录,这两份记录都存在争议。萨达姆·侯赛因在信中概述了他对科威特的不满,同时承诺在下一轮谈判之前不会入侵科威特。也许伊拉克人入侵科威特的主要原因是萨达姆·侯赛因认为他可以找到办法。萨达姆·侯赛因与美国在第一次海湾战争期间建立的牢固关系为萨达姆·侯赛因开了绿灯,让他认为他可以从入侵科威特中找到办法。萨达姆·侯赛因还认为,美国仍然受到越南战争的影响,卷入另一场冲突也没有什么问题。尽管伊拉克被认为是苏联的附庸国,但美国没有理由,也不会得到公众或国会的支持,像冷战高峰期在朝鲜(1950-1953年)和越南(1975年结束)那样,向半个地球派遣50万军队。

In August 2, 1990 the infantry, armor, and tank units of the Iraqi Republican Guard invaded Kuwait and seized control of that country. The invasion triggered the United States response, Operation Desert Shield, to deter any invasion of Kuwait’s oil rich neighbor, Saudi Arabia. On August 7 deployment of the United States forces began. United Nations Security Council Resolutions 660 and 662 condemned Iraq’s invasion and annexation and called for the immediate and unconditional withdrawal of Iraqi forces. On August 20 President Gush signed National Security Directive 45,”U.S policy in response to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait,” outlining the U.S. objectives – which included the “immediate, complete, and unconditional withdrawal of all Iraqi forces from Kuwait,” and the “restoration of Kuwait’s legitimate government to replace the puppet regime installed by Iraq.” A U.N. ultimatum, Security Council Resolution 678, followed on November 29, 1990. It stipulated that if Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein did not remove his troops from Kuwait by January 15, 1991 a U.S – led coalition was authorized to drive them out. Early in the morning of January 17, Baghdad time, the U.S. – led coalition launched air attacks against Iraqi targets. On February 24, coalition ground forces begin their attack. On February 27, Kuwait city was declared liberated, and with allied forces having driven well into Iraq, President Bush and his advisers decided to halt the war. King Hussein devised a possible Arab solution to the crisis. Even though this way was very generous to Saddam, allowing him to take enormous wealth from Kuwait and retain the Radiating oilfield as well as Warba and Bubiyan, the King’s proposal failed to gain the support of either President Mubarak of King Fahd [5] .

1990年8月2日,伊拉克共和国卫队的步兵、装甲和坦克部队入侵科威特,夺取了该国的控制权。这次入侵引发了美国的“沙漠盾牌行动”,以阻止对科威特石油资源丰富的邻国沙特阿拉伯的任何入侵。8月7日,美国军队开始部署。联合国安理会第660号和第662号决议谴责伊拉克的入侵和吞并,并呼吁伊拉克军队立即无条件撤出。8月20日,古斯总统签署了第45号国家安全指令。1990年11月29日,联合国发出最后通牒,即安理会第678号决议。它规定,如果伊拉克独裁者萨达姆·侯赛因不在1991年1月15日前将其军队撤出科威特,美国领导的联军有权将其驱逐出去。巴格达时间1月17日凌晨,美国领导的联军对伊拉克目标发动空袭。2月24日,联军地面部队开始进攻。2月27日,科威特城被宣布解放,盟军已经深入伊拉克,布什总统和他的顾问们决定停止战争。侯赛因国王为这场危机设计了一个可能的阿拉伯解决方案。尽管这种方式对萨达姆非常慷慨,使他能够从科威特获得巨额财富,并保留Radiating油田以及Warba和Bubiyan,但国王的提议未能获得穆巴拉克总统或法赫德国王的支持。

The United States wanted Saddam Hussein to invade Kuwait to be involved in the Middle East. Saddam Hussein was really comfortable when he invaded Kuwait because he did not think that the United States will involve. The United Sates response ambassador responded in the Middle East, that the United States has no opinion on the Arab-Arab conflict [6] . Saddam Hussein believed that the United States not going to involve in his was, since the United States supported him in his war against Iran. The story was really different in the Second Gulf War, since Iraq start to create a threat to Israel which one of the allies to the Unites States.

美国希望萨达姆·侯赛因入侵科威特参与中东事务。萨达姆·侯赛因入侵科威特时真的很舒服,因为他认为美国不会介入。美国驻中东反应大使回应称,美国对阿阿冲突没有意见。萨达姆·侯赛因认为,美国不会参与他的战争,因为美国支持他对伊朗的战争。第二次海湾战争的情况真的不同,因为伊拉克开始对美国的盟友之一以色列构成威胁。

The condemnations of Iraq’s aggression came from national leaders around the globe; the invasion forces occupied Kuwait so quickly that it was a fait accompli. [7] After announcing that Iraq’s aggression to Saudi Arabia to convince it’s leaders that Iraq “will not stand” and after drawing, as he put, ” a line in the sand ,” Bush sent emissaries to Saudi Arabia to convince its leaders that Iraq might attack their country as well. The Saudis were reluctant to have foreign troops stationed on their oil, and in launching his invasion, Hussein probably counted on this reluctance, anticipating that it would prevent foreign military response to his aggression. However, the Saudis allowed themselves to persuade, and the Unites States and several other nations were permitted to move troops to their country to deter and Iraqi incursion, they and other-oil producing states also agreed to increase their output to compensate for the shortfall in international oil supplies cause by the boycott of Iraq and occupied Kuwait. Meanwhile, Iraq annexed Kuwait as it nineteenth province and proclaimed that “there is not a single chance for retreat … this battle is going to become the mother of all battles” (Woodward 1991a, 297).

对伊拉克侵略的谴责来自世界各地的国家领导人;入侵部队占领科威特的速度如此之快,这已成为既成事实。在宣布伊拉克对沙特阿拉伯的侵略以说服其领导人伊拉克“不会站得住脚”后,正如他所说,在“划清界限”后,布什派遣特使前往沙特阿拉伯,说服其领导人,伊拉克也可能袭击他们的国家。沙特人不愿意让外国军队驻扎在他们的石油上,在发动入侵时,侯赛因可能指望着这种不情愿,因为他预计这将阻止外国对他的侵略做出军事回应。然而,沙特允许自己说服,美国和其他几个国家被允许向本国派遣军队以阻止伊拉克入侵,他们和其他产油国也同意增加产量,以弥补抵制伊拉克和被占领的科威特造成的国际石油供应短缺。与此同时,伊拉克吞并了科威特,成为其第十九个省,并宣布“没有任何撤退的机会”——这场战斗将成为所有战斗之母。

The Iraqis took some western people as hostages, which was still the American concern. In October of the same year, American public attention was shifted from the War on Iraq some certain issues which revolves around the budget. This was eventually resolved in a compromise in which Bush broke his repeated election pledge, “Read my lips: no new taxes.” Although this battle fostered considerable hostility towards Washington, almost all incumbents were returned in the Congressional election on November 6 (Alford and Hibbing). [8] The basic and the general idea behind the United States involvement in the first Gulf War is the oil resorts in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. [9] 

伊拉克人劫持了一些西方人士作为人质,这仍然是美国关注的问题。同年10月,美国公众的注意力从伊拉克战争转移到了一些围绕预算的问题上。这最终在一项妥协中得到了解决,布什打破了他一再做出的选举承诺,“读我的嘴唇:不征收新税。”尽管这场斗争激起了对华盛顿的相当大的敌意,但几乎所有现任总统都在11月6日的国会选举中当选。美国参与第一次海湾战争背后的基本和总体思想是科威特和沙特阿拉伯的石油度假胜地。

President George H.W. Bush fought the gulf war mainly to protect the oil resorts in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. Also to have a foot in the region to support Israel from Iran. Iran was creating a threat towards Israel, since Iran was a big supporter to certain organizations such as Hamas, which it was an organization against the Israeli government. At the same time Iran was a supporter to Hizb – Allah which is a Shia organization in Lebanon, also fought the Israeli government. The Middle East oil production is essential to the modern industrialized countries of the world, so anything that threatened its availability became a concern for the United States [10] . Therefore the United Stats wanted Saddam Hussein to invade Kuwait to have an excuse to control the oil in the oil in the Middle East.

老布什总统打海湾战争主要是为了保护科威特和沙特阿拉伯的石油胜地。还想涉足该地区,从伊朗支持以色列。伊朗正在对以色列构成威胁,因为伊朗是哈马斯等某些组织的大力支持者,哈马斯是一个反对以色列政府的组织。与此同时,伊朗是真主党的支持者,真主党是黎巴嫩的什叶派组织,也与以色列政府作战。中东石油生产对世界现代工业化国家至关重要,因此任何威胁其供应的事情都成为美国的担忧。因此,美国国家统计局希望萨达姆·侯赛因入侵科威特,以获得控制中东石油中石油的借口。

It is no surprise that the United States decision makers were concerned about Iraqi control over Kuwait oil. As Quandt noted,” If Saddam controlled Iraqi and Kuwaiti oil supplies directly, and if he kept troops on the Saudi border, he would in fact dominate the Gulf’s vast reserves of oil and would become a one man OPEC, able to manipulate the supply of oil and to achieve whatever price he wanted.” In fact, Present Bush noted the “vital economic interests” of oil in his 11 September 1990 address to the joint of Congress [11] . Saudi Arabia not only had been a longtime friend of the United States, but the oil reserves under the Saudi sands could not be allowed to fall under Saddam Hussein control [12] .

毫不奇怪,美国决策者对伊拉克对科威特石油的控制感到担忧。正如Quantt所指出的,“如果萨达姆直接控制伊拉克和科威特的石油供应,如果他在沙特边境驻军,他实际上将主导海湾地区庞大的石油储备,并将成为一个人的欧佩克,能够操纵石油供应,实现他想要的任何价格。”事实上,现任布什在1990年9月11日的国会联席会议讲话中指出了石油的“重大经济利益”。沙特阿拉伯不仅是美国的老朋友,而且不能让沙特沙漠下的石油储量落入萨达姆·侯赛因的控制之下。

On September 11th 1990 President George H.W. Bush went before a joint session of Congress and explained his reason for pursuing war in the Middle East: Our objectives in there Persian Gulf are clear, our goals defined and familiar: Iraq must withdraw from Kuwait completely. Most countries share our concern for the principle. And many have a stake in the stability of the Persian Gulf. This is not, as Saddam Hussein would have it, the United States against Iraq. It is Iraq against the world. [13] 

1990年9月11日,老布什总统出席国会联席会议,解释了他在中东发动战争的原因:我们在波斯湾的目标是明确的,我们的目标是确定的和熟悉的:伊拉克必须完全撤出科威特。大多数国家和我们一样关心这一原则。许多人与波斯湾的稳定息息相关。这并不像萨达姆·侯赛因所说的那样,是美国对抗伊拉克。这是伊拉克对抗世界。

This coursework discussed why did George H.W Bush fought the Gulf War in 1991. The topic posted several questions which the paper sought to address. The coursework focused on the fact that the war against Iraq, was mainly to protect the United Sates not Kuwait. This war introduces the Unites Sates as the most powerful country.

本篇coursework讨论了为什么布什在1991年参加海湾战争。该主题提出了该论文试图解决的几个问题。这篇论文的重点是,对伊拉克的战争主要是为了保护美国而不是科威特。这场战争使美国成为最强大的国家。本站提供各国各专业留学生coursework格式范文以及coursework写作辅导,如有需要可咨询本平台。


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