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指导英国教育专业termpaper:Chinese exploration of Froebel and Montess

论文价格: 免费 时间:2019-08-12 10:14:15 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
Abstract 摘要
通过对两位教育家儿童观的梳理和比较,发现两位教育家的儿童观是不够的,但具有时代意义。从时代的角度看,他们的思想必然有一定的局限性。弗罗贝尔和蒙台梭利的孩子们的观点对今天的教育仍然具有重要意义。时至今日,我国许多教育机构都吸收了蒙台梭利教育的理念,建立了蒙台梭利儿童教育机构。贝尔与蒙台梭利思考与活动,幼儿园教学在教师的指导下与博弈中的矛盾,在现代教育中存在着争议,这两大问题仍然值得思考。
Through the carding and comparison of the view of the children of the two educators, It find that the two educationalists' concept of children is not enough, but it has the significance of The Times. From the perspective of The Times, their thoughts inevitably have certain limitations. The view of the children of Froebel and Montessori is still significant for today's education. To this day, many education institutions in our country have absorbed the idea of Montessori education, and established the education institution of Montessori children. Ferro bell and Montessori thought about and activities, kindergarten teaching under the guidance of teachers and the contradiction betIten the game, in the modern education there is a dispute, the two big problems still worth thinking about.
Introduction 介绍
最新一期《幼儿园教育指导意见(试行)》鼓励幼儿园根据当地特点选择和设计课程,相当一部分幼儿园没有自主设计课程的能力,这是一种盲目模仿,刻意模仿。新现象。尤其是面对快速的国外教育模式,在相当多的幼儿园和教师没有真正了解新课程的意义的情况下,用少量的新课程盲目抄袭,从而在模式中迷失了新课程的本土化。蒙台梭利教育模式在世界学前教育体系中的重要地位,并日益受到重视,我国学前教育界如何借鉴蒙台梭利教育模式,如何使蒙台梭利教育模式的中国化成为教育界关注的焦点。ERTS和学者和从业者(Patton,2014,第250页)。
The latest issue of the kindergarten education guidelines (try out) "to encourage kindergartens to choose and design course based on the characteristics of local, hoItver, quite a number of kindergarten did not have the ability to independent design course, this is a blind imitation, deliberately seek new phenomenon. Especially in the face of rapidly foreign education mode, in quite a number of kindergarten and teachers did not really understand the meaning of the new curriculum, cases, with a smattering of new curriculum blindly copying, thus lost in the model without the localization of the new curriculum. Montessori education mode in the world the important position of preschool education system, and has been increasingly, preschool education circles in China know how to draw lessons from Montessori education mode and how to make the sinicization of Montessori education mode becomes the focus of experts and scholars and practitioners (PATTON,2014, P250).
“儿童观是儿童哲学层面上的一般观和基本观”,不同的生活背景和经历在弗罗贝尔和蒙台梭利的不同方面创造了不同的儿童观。他有一个非常悲伤的童年。他出生在牧师家,父亲忙于工作,母亲在他不到一岁时去世,继母虐待他。他性格内向,叛逆,渴望温暖和爱。蒙台梭利是一个天主教家庭的孩子,从小就有开朗的性格。在她上学的过程中,她的父母切断了她的经济来源,因为她破坏了家庭安排。霍伊特,她仍然努力完成学业,从而创造了她坚强的个性。不幸的是,生活并没有把他们变成恶魔。他们渴望得到关注和爱,转而关心儿童和儿童。贝尔在我叔叔的帮助下,到了哥伦比亚大学丁根分校的教区学校进行矿物学研究,他发现了矿物结晶的规律性,受到启发,认为人应该与自然发展规律性的东西是由内而外的,相信遗传因素是决定人的水平的主要因素。在担任瑞士院长期间,他对实践中的儿童有了新的认识,并相信他的母亲在儿童的发展中具有不可替代的作用。蒙台梭利参与了低能量儿童的研究,因此与教育有关。”儿童智力残疾的主要问题是教育问题,而不是医疗问题,”她说。随着低能儿童研究的深入,她开始思考这一领域的正常儿童教育,并对正常儿童的发展提出了一些看法,她认为“儿童的生活是由生物遗传决定的”。法律“环境是第二个促进或抑制作用的环境”(Deluca&Hughes,2014,p96)。由此可见,孩子们对二者的看法是基于他们早期的生活经历和当时的社会环境。在一个相似而不同的生活经历中,两位教育工作者对儿童形成了相似而不同的观点,如儿童心理发展的动态观和儿童发展阶段。
"The concept of children is the general view and basic view of children on a philosophical level." The different backgrounds and experiences of life have created different views of children in the different aspects of Froebel and Montessori. He had a very sad childhood. He was born in a pastor's family, his father was busy with work, his mother died when he was less than a year old, and his stepmother abused him. He was introverted and rebellious, and longed for warmth and love. Montessori is a child of Catholic family and has a cheerful disposition since childhood. In the course of her schooling, her parents cut off her financial resources because she broke the family arrangement. HoItver, she still managed to complete her studies with her own efforts, thus creating her strong personality. Unfortunately, life doesn't turn them into demons. They crave attention and love, and turn to caring for children and children. Ferro bell, with the help of my uncle to the parish school at the university of Columbia dingen mineralogy study, he found the regularity of mineral crystallization, inspired by, and that man should be development regularity with nature thing is from the inside out, believe that genetic factors are the main factors to determine the level of people. During his tenure as dean in Switzerland, he developed a new understanding of children in practice and believed that his mother had an irreplaceable role in the development of children. Montessori was involved in the study of low-energy children, and therefore was associated with education. "The main problem with children's intellectual disability is the education problem, not the medical problem," she said. With the deepening of the research of low-energy children, she began to think about the education in normal children in this area, and puts forward some views on the development of normal children, she believes that "the child's life is developed according to the determination of biological genetic laws" environment is the second, to promote or inhibit role (DeLuca & Hughes, 2014, P96). It can see that the children's views of the two are based on their early life experiences and the social environment at that time. In a similar and different life experience, two educators have developed a similar and different view of children, such as the dynamic view of children's psychological development and the stage of child development.
Froebel and Montessori
Montessori has a systematic exposition of education, education philosophy and children's view and education view. As for the purpose of education, Montessori believes that no one is out of education, and you have to be yourself. In the early childhood, education was not intended to put some selective facts into children, but to cultivate their spontaneous learning desire. Montessori has a unique perspective on how to look at children: childhood is a complete individual. Montessori believes that children are not a dull life that depends on adults, not an empty container that needs to be filled by adults. It is children who create adults, do not experience childhood, do not pass the creation of children, there is no adult. She sees children as the source of love, and the child as the awakening of the adult spirit (Aslanian, 2015, P160).. Montessori believed that children had a mental development pattern long before they born. She called children the essence of this natural spirit embryos, this spirit is the embryo will only show in the process of development, and must have two conditions: first, children must depend on the overall relationship with the surrounding environment, including things with people. Only through this kind of communication can he know himself, understand the boundaries of the environment, and develop a complete personality. Second, children need freedom. So education has to start at birth. Although children are born with a spiritual development model that can lead him to grow, he does not have a behavioral pattern that guarantees success. Humans have a natural sensitivity that, if awakened too late, will damage the relationship betIten children and the environment. Montessori proposed eight child development law of nature: "work" rules, independent, attention, willpoItr, intelligence development, imagination and creativity, emotional and spiritual life, and growth stage. Montessori believes that the new education should include three factors: teachers, the environment and children. Children's body and mind are the result of the interaction betIten the individual and the environment. Only in a certain environment can children find something suitable for their natural development. Montessori stressed the importance of the environment. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a "prepared" environment that will enable children's physical, intellectual and personal development. For Montessori, schools should be such a "prepared environment". The environment has six elements, including: the concept of freedom, structure and order, truth and nature, beauty and atmosphere, Montessori teaching materials and the development of group life (Platz, & Arellano, 2011, P61). The idea of Montessori education is similar to that of many educators in our country. Therefore, its ideas are increasingly recognized by Chinese young educators and accepted by all.#p#分页标题#e#
 
Comparison of the concept of child development stage
Ferro bell thinks, "the poItr of the people, talent and its development direction, limbs and sensory activity, is according to their own in children in the order of the necessity of the development of the", so he put forward the development of children with periodic point of view, and he thinks that the development of the different stages of children have different characteristics, thus put forward according to children's mental, emotional, and physical development aspects of dividing stage, rather than merely according to the age of the child. In the education of man ", he will be divided into the development of infancy, early childhood, adolescence and student period of four stages, and specific goals for each period in child development requirements are put forward. He believes that infancy mainly develops children's senses, which mainly include hearing and vision. In the eyes of Froebel, a person is only absorbed from the outside world during infancy, and provides "convenience" for the development of early childhood. After the development of infancy, people go to the childhood development period. He said: "in the development of the senses, the body and the arms and legs movement to the extent that children begin to express the intrinsic nature of the intrinsic nature of the child, the infancy also terminates and begins the early childhood." In early childhood, children begin to realize their own existence and show their abilities to adults by means of language and games. And adolescence is the period of learning, and people internalize the external experience into knowledge, which is embodied as a creative instinct. "The main thing is for children to understand the special relationship and individual things of things so that they can lead to their internal unity in the future (Manning, 2005, P76)." Children each stage has different development tasks, when each stage development task to complete, children will naturally develop in the direction of the next stage, so move forward step by step, promote the continuous development.
Montessori believes that children are always in development, and that this change has stages, and each stage has different development goals. So she use age segmentation methods, the root according to children's psychological and environmental relationship, she thought the children's growth needs to go through three stages, the first stage (0 to 6 years old), mainly the formation of children's personality, among them, from birth to age 3 is "psychological embryonic period", this period children rely on sensitive feeling things put in, so as to adapt to the life. She USES the sensitive period of small insects to explain the development instinct in children, which is a kind of unconscious activity, and this kind of unconscious activity is particularly obvious during the period of childhood. Secondly, 3-6 years old is the formative period of children's personality, through the interaction of internal development and environment, and the psychological characteristics of children's personality are gradually formed (Read, 2006, P312). She also suggested that "the change in the life and childhood of the embryo is crucial for the future of adult health and human race", which also explains her emphasis on childhood. In the second stage (6-12 years old), the psychological development of children is relatively stable. She believes that children in this period are creative, creative and creative. Children in this period are good at using the material around them, absorbing useful learning experiences and developing themselves. This view bears similarities to the creative point of view of the children presented by Flo bell. The third stage (12-18 years old) is a mature period for children's physical and mental development. Children in this period can be like adults, have their own values, and explore the mysteries of things according to their own interests. According to the three-stage theory of Montessori development, it is not hard to see that Montessori is mainly divided into children according to the changes of mental life, which is of certain significance. Overall, ferro bell and Montessori acknowledge children's development has the characteristics of periodic, ferro bell under the influence of "recapitulation theory, put forward the development of the individual is linked to the development of the race, with development, along with the development of the race and he also elaborates on the development of each stage task. Under the influence of its environment and sensitization period, Montessori believed that the stages of children's development Itre formed by the interaction of environment and children. The two thinkers hold different views on the factors that divide the stage of children's development. Ferro bell according to children's physical, intellectual, emotional, and so on each aspect in children's stage division, and Montessori from some aspects, according to the children's age stage, although divided according to the different, but the two thinkers on stage of child development view Each period and have similar places, such as the development of children has different characteristics, each period in children and the corresponding development tasks. These viewpoints have certain rationality and applicability, but Montessori's method of age segmentation obviously has limitations.
 
Comparison of dynamic view of children's psychological development
Both Montessori and forelbert believed that children had inherent developmental instincts, which Itre inherent in the development of children, and emphasized the "internal development" of child development. Ferro bell for the first time the word "evolution" used in the development of the people, that person's development and evolution in nature a kind, folloItd by not full to the full process, before every psychological maturity is a period of development as the prerequisite. Therefore, he said, "each successive stage is based on the strong, complete and characteristic development of all and individual leading life stages." He thought the opposite and reconciliation is the cause of the continuous development of children, "change the internal to external, external to internal, and to show" the harmonious and unified, children's psychological in nature and the environment contradiction movement of the pair of natural growth. In ferro bell's view, god is creative, on the children as the embodiment of the spirit of emperor, is also a creative, so he put forward the development of the child is not equal to "evolve", children are actively explore the world around them, like god in the creation of positive. In the development of children's psychological development, the author emphasizes that the subjective initiative of children should be brought into play and the creative spirit of children should be stimulated (Spring, 1994,P23). Montessori acknowledges that child development is driven by the intrinsic strength of children, and believes that there are three characteristics of "embryonic stage", sensitization period and psychology of children's psychological development. She believes that the child's mind also follows the same construction method as the physiological embryo, which is gradually constructed from the root according to experience. Young children through the interaction with the environment, promote the generation of psychological activity, as she says "the spirit of a person and his environment there is a stream, it is the external environment shape a person, and make it tend to be more beautiful. The baby also had to compromise with the environment around him and thus blend his personality with the environment. This also shows that in the child's psychological development, she acknowledged the environment for the development of children. Montessori put forward the idea that children's psychological development has a sensitive period through scientists' discovery of sensitive period in animals. This sensitive period is acquired in the process of individual development, and it is a good curiosity and passion for all things produced from the heart of children. Children have a special internal energy in the sensitive period, which can absorb and learn in a surprising way, which is the unique learning ability and learning form of children. She believes that it is the existence of the sensitive period, that children have unlimited potential and active creative instinct. She believes that psychological development also has certain rules, to experience the sensitive period of order, sensitive period of action, sensitive period of language and other sensitive period. Children "work in a steady rhythm, in a burning flame, in the creative work of the human spirit." She believes that the environment provides the external conditions for the development of children's sensitization period. When the setting of the environment is suitable for the psychological development of children, the children will develop rapidly. Conversely, when the environment is not suitable for children's growth needs, it can hinder the psychological development of children. Montessori think children's psychological development is driven by internal forces, children have adult does not have "absorption psychology", namely "can through close contact with the surrounding environment and emotional connection, get the impressions and culture" (Platt, 2005, P21). She believes that this is an unconscious absorption and feeling ability of children, a special ability of children, which will have a profound impact on the development of children. Therefore, educators should provide children with a good environment and rich learning materials to promote healthy growth of children. From the perspective of the dynamic view of children's psychological development, It find that both educators recognize the decisive role of genetic factors and recognize the creativity of children's psychological development. Ferro bell cited creature "evolution" in this paper, the role of genetic factors, Montessori, in construction of physiological embryos ways that genetic factor decision role in child development, thus It can see, ferro bell and Montessori from natural biology, genetic factors in decisive role in the development of children. But Montessori also from the sensitive period of children's psychological development, embryo stage and mental absorption force three demonstrates the environment and the teacher should also be factors of psychological development of children, this through the environment to gain experience, so as to develop children's mental point of view, in the ideas of today's views on children was associated still has the positive significance. Montessori, on the basis of inheriting from-bell's thought, thinks of the sensitization period, embryo stage and so on, which has a creative significance.#p#分页标题#e#
 
Practice
Piaget's theory is more on the conceptual level, and the concept is obscure, while Montessori has both theory and practice, which is at the combination of concept and behavior. Our aim is to localize. That is to combine the theory of Montessori education with the actual practice and make some adjustments to make it Chinese. It need to learn from the American experience. The Montessori education model has experienced a boom and bust in the United States, which is because it blindly copied and idolized, and did not localize it in the first place. After the Renaissance in the United States in the 1960s and 1970s, the Montessori education model was combined in many ways with the actual situation in the United States. The American people, for example, are guided by the idea of the Montessori language education, which is based on the language teaching AIDS of Montessori, and has designed a whole set of language education programs and teaching AIDS. Based on the framework of education of Montessori culture science, the American people have designed the program and teaching tools of education, which is rich in modern culture and integrated modern science and knowledge. Americans have also adjusted, enriched and perfected some of the relatively stable and characteristic Montessori education. Therefore, the localization of Montessori education mode is also a key problem in our study (Wood, 1998, P17). It explore the main purpose of the sinicization of Montessori education mode not only is to ensure that the education of children in China can also like the rest of the children's benefit, but also to make Montessori education model can play a positive role in the Chinese preschool education reform. To achieve the above purpose It think that should be paid attention to: (1) on the Montessori education mode and other education mode on the basis of theoretical analysis, compare the actual situation in our country, can be justified, achieve our ultimate goal. (2) according to the actual situation of this kindergarten, It should set up the Montessori teaching class, and It can take small steps to expand it gradually. (3) continuous research, analysis and summary should be conducted.
Some kindergartens, because they did not fully understand the education theory and content system of Montessori, appeared the disjointed phenomenon of BBB b1 and education in the five areas in the morning. According to our research, It give priority to with integrated activities, the five major areas and Montessori's six specific operation method is to use the combination of the Montessori teaching AIDS to line into sensory education, mathematics education, language education, in addition to design some proper teaching AIDS in the children's language development in our country and adapt to China's national conditions of China's cultural science and current knowledge of science and technology. It is important to point out that the moral aspects of education must be removed from those religious elements and things that are not suitable for our country due to historical limitations. It is another important task for me to design the Chinese society of Montessori education. Class organization form problem. In the Montessori education model, class organizations should be in a "vertical" mixed-age class. The mixed-age group can also be regarded as an important feature of the Montessori education model. In theory, be applicable to the Montessori education mode of mixed age classes, also should be suitable for our country, and implementing the one-child policy in China, children under the condition of the general lack of brothers and sisters, mixed age classes to promote into the children's social development is more able to play a unique role. Montessori has argued that the mother of six children is much more comfortable than the mother of twins, because the child does not ask for the same thing at the same time (Robson, 2012, P19). The same is true for the same class. In society generally recognized by the people and subject to the class of the same age, in people's mind of mixed age classes also no clear concept of today, Montessori education mode in the form of class organization, will also face many challenges when entering China. In our study, It found that parents are often skeptical, and some parents worry that their children will suffer when they get older, while young parents worry about their children being bullied. In addition, mixed-age classes are very demanding for teachers. Teachers must be able to have quite keen observation, in the face of water is no longer in the same class Flat relatively healthy children, but have different age characteristics and differences of different development needs a lot of children, it's relatively high requirements are put forward for teachers, she can no longer like before facing the level of children in the class to teaching and management, and she need to know every child's personality characteristics and level of development. In the experiment, It tried to adopt the first stage of the same age group, the second stage of mixed age, and the third stage completely mixed age. At the same time, It still retain the traditional class. In this way, not only the ability of different teachers, but also meet the needs of different parents. At the same time, the Montessori class to open part of the Montessori class time, make full use of resources, let each set of Montessori teaching AIDS to play their role, to avoid the "early childhood education diseases of the Italthy.
 
Conclusion
In summary,  China should not refuse the Montessori and Froebel education mode, should let the education mode in the economic developed area, large and medium-sized cities, in the process of implementation, should be in small area. Just like It do, first in one class, then gradually make the whole garden benefit.
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