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指导Term Paper八个最有效方案

论文价格: 免费 时间:2020-03-21 22:22:23 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
Term Paper,通常也被称为学期论文,是很多留学生在一学期即将结束时,为一学期学习进行总结的论文。Term Paper的难度相对于Essay来说要难得多,而且Term Paper篇幅很长,一般要在5000字以上。这也导致我们的留学生写的时候不知所措。但是,为什么指导们的分数就会很高呢,除了指导们本身技术就是过硬的,他们自身丰富的指导经验也是难以忽视的。其实一篇Term Paper无非包括以下内容:分析课题的(以及出身、用处、属于那种类型);课题研究所用到的方法、仪器、设备;详细论文,可以通过实例、实验或者调查报告等方式进行;结论和未来展望。

由于Term Paper可以帮助学生系统化的梳理、组织和应用所学的理论知识,并帮助老师检查学生掌握相关知识的程度和质量。当然如果你的Term Paper多的写不完,没有多余的时间去做更有意义的事情,我们指导网随时乐意为你进行服务。下面小编就为大家提供指导们的Team Paper八个有效的方案,详细介绍对大家的写作有很好帮助。
 
指导Term Paper方案1:注意文中句子以及段落之间的逻辑关系编排www.ukassignment.org

Paper写作是一个逻辑性很强的过程,当你写过很多Paper之后你会发现,英语写作有着严密的逻辑形式,比如用词上要求人称、数、格的一致;一个句子要有主谓结构;段落与段落句子与句子之间要多用关联词语;重视句子段落形式的对应和显性衔接。一篇优秀的Paper文中句子间和段落间的衔接肯定是十分恰当的。大家在进行paper写作的时候要注意:想靠句子的机械堆砌来完成的文章是觉得不允许的,一篇文章是一个有机整体,句子与句子之间,段落与段落之间是存在着严谨的逻辑关系的。举例来说:

①Every summer, I go to traveling with my family or my best friends. When the new term comes, I will surprisingly find my oral English is much improved. So Infirmly believe book is not only the source of knowledge.
我们很多留学生都能写出这样水平的句子,的确是没有语法问题,但读起来是否感觉总少点什么?没错,缺少逻辑关系:go to traveling with my family与后面的mayoral English is much improved并没有必然联系,逻辑上讲不通,大家再来看下面这个例子效果就截然相反:

②AIDS seems to follow a pattern of recognizable symptoms. First, after being exposed to the virus, the AIDS patients tend to complain of a fever, sore throat, sore muscles, and diarrhea. Then there seems to be a dormant period, which can last for three years or longer. Finally, after this period, more serious symptoms begin to emerge.
上面的句子之间在逻辑上环环相扣,每一个都不可或缺。效果是不是比第①句好得多?

单单做好句子与句子之间的逻辑衔接也是不够的,还要做好段落与段落之间的衔接。要写出逻辑清晰的Paper,就要必须要做到全文中句子以及段落的衔接和连贯。因此,大家在paper写作的时候用好连接词和语义承接就显得很重要了。在英文论文写作中常见的连接词有because, as, while, it, however, therefore, although, similarly, consequently, nevertheless等,它们属于“明连接”。“暗承接”即语义承接,通过上下文之间的承接关系行文,比如通过指示代词、人称代词等指代前一句中出现的内容,或转述、解释前一句的关键词,从而形成自然的承接关系。

指导Term Paper方案2:平时学习中要有意识地进行逻辑思维训练

由于中西方教育方式的差异,国内的中学甚至大学都没有进行很好的逻辑思维训练,这也是造成我们留学paper写作质量不高的原因之一。缺乏逻辑思维会导致文章语言不通,层次混乱,主题不明。要写出思维严谨,脉络清晰的paper,留学生小主们就必须掌握基本的逻辑学规律:排中律,同一律,矛盾律。

排中律是指文章的立意要明确,旗帜鲜明,不要拖泥带水。比如:Some people think that students should go to boarding schools instead of living at home. Do you agree or disagree?
这个thesis statement立意不够明确,应该直接表达出对上寄宿学校的赞同或者反对,而不是模棱两可,观点不清。

同一律是指在思考过程中,使用的概念或判断必须始终不变,保持同一。这也是文章立意符合要求、语体风格得体的必要条件。比如:Judging from the current tendency, I am inclined to believe that traditional shopping will disappear gradually and the reasons are as follows: For one thing, the online shopping can bring convenience to people's life…For another, the merchandizes in online shops are much cheaper than that in those real shops because... Everybody tends to choose the online shopping in this case.

上面这段话就违背了同一律的原则,前后不一致,前半部分给出的论点是传统购物会逐渐消失,后面的论证过程却在说网购的好处,两者失去了同一性,不能衔接,明显有自相矛盾的错误。
矛盾律是指文章论述必须首尾相贯,避免出现自相矛盾,跑题离题的现象。比如这样的题目:Asking students to evaluate their teachers is a good idea
大家在写作的时候就应该阐述学生评价老师带来的好处,而不应该把阐述重点放在学生评分带来的坏处上。

指导Term Paper方案3:通过大量阅读和大量思考来培养逻辑思维

如果大家想把自己的观点论述清楚,不仅仅要掌握语言技巧,更要有足够的知识储备。爱因斯坦说:“If you can't explain it simply, you don't understand it well enough.”试想,你对你自己确立的观点没有基本的知识储备,空谈语言技巧和逻辑思维方法没有任何意义。清晰的逻辑和有力的论证肯定是要建立在足够深入了解话题的基础上。

指导Term Paper方案4:
  1. 完全一边倒
彻底的只写自己支持的那一边的理由,每个段都是并列或者递进的关系,绝对可以让立场清晰,且贯穿始终。虽然,这么干有时候会因为缺少论点而捉急。整篇文章写两个或者三个主题段均可,段数的多少,取决于我们想到分论点的数量以及已写的论点的长度。适用范围有比较有限,很多 discuss 或者优缺点比较的题目,需要提到两边,就不能全文一边倒了。
适合问法:
Do you agree or disagree?
Is it a positive or negative development?
To what extent do you agree or disagree?
What is your opinion?
 
结构示范:
网购好不好?
开头:好
主体1:方便
主体2:便宜
主体3:更多选择
结尾:好
 
综合评价:
论证气势:☆☆☆☆☆
用范围:☆☆
操作容易度:☆☆☆☆
 
  1. 让步一边倒
相比于完全的一边倒,这个种结构增加一个让步的段落(注意,不是一句话 although,而是一整个段都在写自己观点的反面)。这样做的好处有很多,包括增加文章的思辨性,减轻自己支持的那一边的论证压力,凑字数。让步的位置可以放在自己支持理由的前面或者后面。个人建议,全文写成 5 段式,2 个自己的支持理由段,1 个让步段,这样主立场还是清晰的、有倾向性的。
适合问法:
Do you agree or disagree?
Is it a positive or negative development?
Does both views and give your own opinion. 
Do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages?
To what extent do you agree or disagree?
What is your opinion?
 
结构示范:
网购好不好?
开头:好
主体1:(让步)质量差
主体2:便宜
主体3:更多选择
结尾:好
或者:
网购好不好?
开头:好
主体1:方便
主体2:便宜
主体3:(让步)质量差
结尾:好
 
综合评价:
论证气势:☆☆☆☆
适用范围:☆☆☆☆☆
操作容易度:☆☆☆☆
 
  1. 平衡4 段
这个应该是最经典也是最好达到要求的方法了。正面和反面各占一半,两边都可以列举几个分论点。最后我们自己的观点,不论支持哪一边,都说得过去。唯一的不足是,因为有一半的篇幅给了反面,会显得立场不够有说服力。
 
适合问法:
Do you agree or disagree?
Is it a positive or negative development?
Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
Do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages?
To what extent do you agree or disagree?
What is your opinion?
 
结构示范:
网购好不好?
开头:好
主体1:(缺点)质量差、不能试穿
主体2:(优点)便宜、选择多
结尾:好
 
综合评价:
论证气势:☆☆
适用范围:☆☆☆☆
操作容易度:☆☆☆☆☆
 #p#分页标题#e#
4)平衡 + 折中

如果在上面的结构中,我们的主观点不倾向于任何一边,而是在题目看似冲突的两个观点中,找到了折中点,一种同时满足两边的方式。比如分不同人群适合不同方法,或者不同地区处理方式不同等,我们就可以单独再写一个主题段去表达自己的这个中立观点。
 
适合问法:
Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
Do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages?
To what extent do you agree or disagree?
What is your opinion?
 
结构示范:
网购好不好?
开头:看情况
主体1:(缺点)质量差、不能试穿
主体2:(优点)便宜、选择多
主体3:(折中)官网的产品值得信赖,淘宝商家太多,很难监管,部分产品确实质量太瞎,要非常谨慎。
结尾:看情况
 
5) 先抑后扬

有些时候,每一个让步的论点,都可以找到一个反驳的理由,借此更加凸显自己观点的可靠性。如果是这样,我们每个主体段都可以先说一点点对方的观点,然后立即否定掉,从而引出自己想说的理由。这个方法操作会非常困难,不是每一个点的引出,都正好可以找一个垫背的,并且段落逻辑会涉及多次转折,可能有些复杂。
 
适合问法:
Do you agree or disagree?
Is it a positive or negative development?
Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
Do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages?
To what extent do you agree or disagree?
What is your opinion?
 
结构示范:
网购好不好?
开头:好
 
指导Term Paper方案5: 首先要选择确自己的主题。
 
最好是要选择自己非常感兴趣的主题,这样对于后面的论文写作会容易很多。在写作之前要把主题缩小到你有把握可以在论文due前完成的程度。Termpaper写作始终要做到新颖的方法论、敏锐的洞察力,要有足够的吸引力抓住老师的眼球让他读文整篇文章。
 
确定主题之后就要想一个好题目,长度适中。
 
一个绝妙的题目,绝对是整篇Termpaper的点睛之笔。当然如果你苦于写不好好的题目,你可以去找老师寻求点灵感建议或者跟室友头脑风暴一下说,说不定会有意外收获哦。
 
指导Term Paper方案6: 做好你的Research & 提炼出你的中心思想
 
留学生们在做研究的时候,既要用原始资料(如原文、文件、法案、采访、实验等等),也要用二级资料(如他人对原始资料的批注和解释)。当然在实验室跟同学老师讨论可能会对你的研究有很大帮助,如果你不善于交流可以到网上找个相关性比较高的论坛去求助,这些都可以帮你分享观点、凝练思路,虽然不能作为文献中引用的资料,但是可以写入你的研究过程当中去。
 
当你做完了研究之后,再回头思考一下文章的主题。中心思想是支撑你整篇Termpaper的脊梁,这个中心思想是你在下文中通过研究结果来陈述证明的。
 
指导Term Paper方案7: 是时候写一份Outline了
在国内学习期间很多同学都养成了不写Outline的习惯,觉得是浪费时间,但是其实并不是这样。花点时间写一份Outline远比没有要好得多,因为它就相当于整篇Termpaper的结构骨架,一旦你在写作过程中开始迷茫失去方向,这份Outline就可以提示你文章的结构,让你不至于完全偏离文章的主题。

 
指导Term Paper方案8: 文章中心内容描述
 
  1. Introduction中告诉老师你的论点
 
写好Introduction也是很有挑战性的,但是请不要花费太多时间在这部分上面,因为你的Termpaper在研究方向、写作进度和研究结果的进度变化,Introduction部分是随时要去做出改动的部分。小编建议大家尝试用“HIT”模式来写Introduction部分:
 
“H”代表“Hook”(钩子),是指用问题或引述来吸引老师的注意力。
“I”代表“Introduce”(介绍),是指介绍你的确定主题。简明扼要,阐述有力。
“T”代表“Thesis statement”(中心思想),是指中心思想。
 
  1. Body Paragraph来征服老师
 
你要确保分几个段落从不同的角度去支持你提出的论点。一般不少于三个角度去阐述。Body Paragraph部分的写作尽量把文章真正的主题,与一个你正好有所涉猎的无关主题联系起来。然后再一步一步地切入主题,并且要对为什么书或课题中的这一部分吸引人或值得研究的原因做出概述。
 
  1. 高度概括
 
这里建议逛留学生小伙伴们试试“ROCC”方法:
R 代表“Restate”(重申),是指要反复重申你的中心思想。
O代表“One”(一个),是指通常你论文中的最后一段要有一个重要的细节。
C代表“Conclude”(总结),是指要学会总结。
C代表“Clincher”(证据),是指你要给读者留下可供他们思考的内容。
 
  1. Show your own style
 
首先你要搞清楚老师是要求MLA格式还是APA格式。每种格式都有不同文献标注方法。在Termpaper中贯穿In-Text Reference来支持自己的理论,注意不要让你的Termpaper看起来像是让别的作者在陈述观点。一定要引用这个领域的杰出思想家们的观点,来支持你自己的见解,但是切忌只提到A说了什么,B说了什么这样的引用方式,老师想从文章中看到的是“你”想说的是什么,而不是一味的在陈述别人的观点。从一开始就列出你的参考文献会很有帮助,这样可以避免你在最后一刻一片混乱。
 
  1. 把握篇幅,适当缩减
 
论文篇幅不论是在哪种评分准则中都尤为重要,所以篇幅过长过短都对分数有所影响。因此大家要准确运用精简却很有说服力的写作方式。注意检查每个句子,看看你是否存在重复赘述等基础错误。不妨可以把语气较弱的“将来时”时态都换成语气较强的“过去”时态,注意研究方法研究过程这部分一定要用过去式,因为你写论文在后,做研究在前。
 
  1. 别多对校正软件抱太大希望
 
在前面我们也给大家推荐了一些语法检测软件帮助大家写论文,但是我们提倡的是大家作为辅导工具使用,并不是要求大家对其抱以百分百信任。如果大家出现一些比较低级的错误,老师们会认为你没有花足够的精力或者不够认真在写Termpaper.
 
Term Paper 范文:本文主要从英国的就业政策方针分析及论述人力资源管理方案
 
“The term ‘collective laissez-faire’ may once have dominated UK policy approaches in the regulation of the employment relationship, but it has now been rendered increasingly redundant by a whole raft of statutory employment rights”. Trace and critically evaluate the reasons for this apparent shift in the regulation of the employment relationship. Would you conclude that collective laissez-faire is indeed a redundant concept?
 
Chapter I Introduction

Collective laissez-faire (CLF for short) may once have dominated UK policy approaches in regulating employment relationship, but it has now been rendered increasingly redundant by a whole raft of statutory employment rights. In terms of promotion of harmonious and stable labor relations, CLF plays a unique role. It was the most important means that UK uses to resolve conflicts between employers and employees, it was also used by the British government to balance the power of employers’ and employees. such principle of voluntary solution is in line with British gentle spirit and the UK's traditional culture which other countries don’t have (Deakin and Morris, 2005). But since the late 1990s, the role that CLF plays in resolving labor disputes in the UK has been undervalued increasingly. Why the way that has been proven to be very effective in the past has been criticized by people suddenly, which has caused the attention of relevant scholars and parties. Clark’s (1985), Kessler and Bayliss (1998) research indicates that this change is due to various reasons, the most important reasons are the emergence of the new economy, legislative changes and changes of ways of collective bargaining. In the following contents, this essay was from three aspects: the new economy, legislative adjustments and ways of collective bargaining to explore why CLF has now been rendered increasingly redundant. Then this essay tried to conduct a critical analysis towards the point of view.#p#分页标题#e#
 
Chapter II Body
2.1Cause
2.2 Analysis

Chapter III Conclusion

In summary, although CLF was an important means for Britain to adjust labor relations, it was not always so important. For example, In the 1970s, the restrictions towards rights of trade unions has led to the reduction of importance of CLF. As what Clark (1985) has mentioned that, whether CLF is important depends on the British government's leading role and whether the power of the two sides of labor relations is balanced. When labor unions are powerful, the government will be in favor of limiting the right of trade unions’, the importance of CLF decrease. When the rights of trade unions are limited too much, the government will relax the control towards trade unions, the importance of CLF will be increased. Since the late 20th century, the important reason that leads to the reduced importance of CLF lies in that the development of new economy has caused great changes in labor relations, and the own characteristics of CLF do not match with the new features of labor relations well. Therefore, the viewpoint which holds that CLF has now been rendered increasingly redundant by a whole raft of statutory employment rights is reasonable to some extent. But whether we can negate the role that CLF plays in the adjustment of labor relations in the future, the answer is no. As the ideological soul of CLF is the principle of voluntarism. Voluntarism reflects the UK's traditional culture, even if the approaches of CLF aren’t used to resolve disputes in future, the principle of voluntarism will be applied to the process of resolving disputes. Moreover, although modern economy has changed dramatically, numbers of companies like traditional coal mining enterprises have been reduced, in modern automotive manufacturing, mechanical engineering, metal and electronics industries, there are still a lot of labor, these companies still need the forms of CLF in resolving disputes. Therefore, it is certain that the importance of CLF has been reduced, but it isn’t redundant, it still plays a coordinating role in the settlement of labor relations. 
References
Clark, J. (1985). 'The Juridification of Industrial Relations: A Review Article. Industrial Law Journal, 14(2), pp. 69-90.
Davies, P. and Freedland, M. (1993). Labour Legislation and Public Policy. Oxford: OUP, pp. 384.
Deakin, S. and Morris, G., (2005), Labour Law, London: Hart Publishing, pp.13.
Fosh, P., Morris, H., Martin, R. and Undy, R. (1993). Politics, Pragmatism and Ideology: the “Wellspring” of Conservative Union Legislation. Industrial Law Journal, 22(1), pp. 14-31.
Freund, K. O. (1954). The System of Industrial Relations in Great Britain. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 44.
Kessler, S. and Bayliss, F. (1998). Contemporary British Industrial Relations. London: Macmillan, pp.14.
Turner, H. A. (1969). The Donovan Report. The Economic Journal, 79(313), pp.1-10. http://www.51lunwen.org/AmericaThesis/2011/0523/1151529322.html
Anonymous. (1999). Carmichael and Another v. National Power Plc [1999] UKHL 47; [1999] 1 WLR 2042; [1999] 4 All ER 897 (18th November 1999). Available online:  http://www.bailii.org/uk/cases/UKHL/1999/47.html (Accessed Nov 11, 2011).
Anonymous. (1984). Cresswell v. Board of Inland Revenue. Available online:  http://pntodd.users.netlink.co.uk/cases/cases_c/cres_irc.htm (Accessed Nov 12, 2011).
Nick, W. (2003). Diversity in the Management of Employee Relations in the Hotel Sector in South West England. Available online:  http://www2.uwe.ac.uk/faculties/BBS/BUS/Research/CESR/ESRU%20Archiveewp8.pdf (Accessed Nov 14, 2011).
 
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