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Term paper写作格式:Tesco Plc Management and Success

论文价格: 免费 时间:2023-05-20 21:11:08 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

Term paper写作格式-乐购的管理与成功。本文是一篇美国留学生常见的学期论文Term paper写作范文,主要内容是关于乐购的管理方法和政策,乐购过去适应的文化变化,乐购的员工和零售业的成功,有大量的文献。将其与变革管理的管理理论和标准进行了比较,并进行了讨论,以了解乐购的员工管理机制与实际理论的联系有多紧密。简要概述了乐购的历史,并详细介绍了该公司逐步取得的进展——还准确地讨论了特易科的战略、价值观和政策、利益相关者和客户。还介绍了乐购与其他顶级零售商的未来计划和比较分析。以下就是这篇Term paper范文的具体内容,供参考。

Term paper格式范文

A large amount of literature is available on the management methods and policies of Tesco, the culture change it has adapted in its past, its workforce and its retailing success. This has been compared to the management theories and criteria of change management, and discussed to find out how closely do Tesco’s employee management mechanisms link with the actual theory. A brief overview of the history of Tesco with detailed step by step progress made by the company the strategies, values and policies, stakeholders and customers of Tesco are also precisely discussed. The future plans and a comparative analysis of Tesco with other top retailers is also presented.

Tesco PLC:乐购公司

Based in United Kingdom ever since 1920, Tesco has to date expanded itself into several countries across the European Union as well as in Asia (EMMC, 2007). Such success of Tesco has been possible due to its focus on growth strategy, and its core competencies which are basically its brand reputation and the value-added services it provides through the brand experience. In addition, Tesco has shown a wide potential to capture foreign markets with variable environmental, cultural and political factors. It is highly sensitive to external environment, and adjusts on a need basis. It is also important to consider the factors of Tesco’s internal environment which add to its competencies (Clark, 2008).

自1920年以来,乐购一直总部设在英国,迄今已将业务扩展到欧盟和亚洲的几个国家。乐购之所以能够取得如此成功,是因为它专注于增长战略,其核心竞争力基本上是其品牌声誉和通过品牌体验提供的增值服务。此外,乐购在利用各种环境、文化和政治因素占领外国市场方面表现出了巨大的潜力。它对外部环境高度敏感,并根据需要进行调整。同样重要的是要考虑乐购内部环境的因素,这些因素会增加其竞争力。

Tesco has gained its current position as one of the major retailers of the United Kingdom by adapting to the needs of its customers. One of the major shifts of the organization culture and strategy came in 1990 when the organization transformed itself by focusing on its human resource management. This was done by a process of strategic and cultural change (Clark, 2008).

乐购通过适应客户的需求,获得了目前作为英国主要零售商之一的地位。组织文化和战略的重大转变之一发生在1990年,当时组织通过专注于人力资源管理进行了转型。这是通过战略和文化变革的过程实现的。

Retail industry and Tesco:零售业和乐购

Retail refers to ‘sale in small quantities’, the retail industry is an important sector of the economy; it comprises of individuals and companies which are engaged in the selling of finished products to end users. The retailer buys the products in large quantities from the manufacturers either directly or through a wholesaler, and then sells smaller quantities to the end-user. Retail is usually classified according to the type of product; divided mainly in three categories that are; food products, soft goods ,which includes clothing accessories etc and hard goods, which includes electric appliances, electronic items, sports goods, furniture et cetra (Akehurst and Alexander, 1997). Tesco PLC is a United Kingdom based global departmental store, it is the third largest retailer in the world. Tesco started as a food retailer but after the success in food business the company expanded its business activities by retailing a variety of products, targeting different markets and creating interest in customers of different sectors. At present with over 2,500 stores worldwide and more than 450,000 peoples employed, Tesco is ruling all around the world with its business which covers retailing, distribution, logistics, telecommunication and financial services (Tesco case study, 2011).

零售业是指“小批量销售”,零售业是经济的重要部门;它由从事向最终用户销售成品的个人和公司组成。零售商直接或通过批发商从制造商那里大量购买产品,然后向最终用户销售少量产品。零售业通常根据产品类型进行分类;主要分为三类:;食品、软质商品(包括服装配件等)和硬质商品(包括电器、电子产品、体育用品、家具等)。乐购是一家总部位于英国的全球百货公司,是世界第三大零售商。乐购最初是一家食品零售商,但在食品业务取得成功后,该公司扩大了业务活动,零售了各种产品,瞄准了不同的市场,并对不同行业的客户产生了兴趣。目前,乐购在全球拥有2500多家商店,超过45万人就业,其业务涵盖零售、分销、物流、电信和金融服务,在世界各地占据主导地位。

Tesco PLC History 乐购的历史

Tesco was founded in 1919 by Jack Cohen; he started off by selling surplus groceries on a stall at the East End of London. The company’s name was penned from the initials of T.E. Stockwell, who was at that time a partner, and CO from Cohen’s name. Cohen’s motto was “pile it high, sell it cheap”, it referred to the fact that customers wanted inexpensive products at a convenient location and an optimum volume that would be profitable. After initial ten years of foundation finally the first store was opened by Cohen in 1929 at Burnt Oak, Edgware, North London. Jack Cohen introduced a new concept of food ware house when, in 1934, he built a new headquarters and a warehouse for central stock control. The success story of Tesco PLC continued and as a result by 1965, Tesco owned a chain of 212 stores in North of England and by 1965, the count was increased to 356 stores. By this time, Tesco was becoming a prominent retailer in all of Europe and this fact was highlighted when the name of Tesco was entered in Guinness Book of World Records as the largest store in Europe (Tesco PLC, 2011).

乐购由杰克·科恩于1919年创立;他一开始在伦敦东区的一个摊位上卖多余的杂货。该公司的名字是由当时的合伙人T.E.Stockwell的首字母缩写写的,CO是由Cohen的名字写的。科恩的座右铭是“堆得高,卖得便宜”,它指的是客户希望在方便的地点获得便宜的产品,并获得盈利的最佳数量。在最初的十年基础上,科恩于1929年在伦敦北部埃奇韦尔的Burnt Oak开设了第一家商店。杰克·科恩在1934年建立了一个新的总部和一个仓库,用于中央库存控制,他引入了食品仓库的新概念。乐购的成功故事仍在继续,因此到1965年,乐购在英格兰北部拥有212家连锁店,到1965年这一数字增加到356家。此时,乐购已成为全欧洲著名的零售商,当乐购作为欧洲最大的商店被列入吉尼斯世界纪录时,这一事实就突显出来了。

Tesco initiatives over the years:乐购多年来的举措

Tesco started off as a retailer for foods but expanded its spectrum to other products; in 1975 Tesco broadened the concept by opening petrol stations at different major sites. The idea behind this launch was to provide customers everything that they need, in one location. They initially started selling branded petrol but in the late 80s their own brand fuel went on sale. To attract customers, a price cutting campaign under the banner of “Checkout at Tesco’ was enunciated by the company in 1977. Tesco introduced yet another new concept and became the first major retailer to emphasize the nutritional value of its own-brand products by launching its ‘Healthy Eating’ initiative, ‘Healthy Eating’ was launched to show commitment of the company in providing customers not just healthy good quality food but also to promote a healthy life style. The year 1992, was a very happening year at Tesco, as many new products were launched this year, these launches included a whole organic range and computers for schools. Other than this, the campaign of “Every Little Helps” was also launched this year, this campaign basically developed the company’s philosophy, Tesco refers to ‘Every Little Helps’ as an expression of their values, and the values are that no one tries harder for customers than Tesco and the company treats its customers as they would like to be treated (Tesco PLC, 2011).

乐购一开始是一家食品零售商,但后来将其范围扩大到了其他产品;1975年,乐购通过在不同的主要地点开设加油站来扩大这一概念。此次发布的理念是在一个位置为客户提供他们所需的一切。他们最初开始销售品牌汽油,但在80年代末,他们自己的品牌燃料开始销售。为了吸引客户,打着“在乐购结账”是该公司在1977年宣布的。乐购推出了另一个新概念,并通过推出“健康饮食”计划,成为第一家强调自有品牌产品营养价值的大型零售商。推出“健康膳食”是为了表明该公司在为客户提供而非食品方面的承诺健康优质的食物,同时也促进健康的生活方式。1992年是乐购非常成功的一年,因为今年推出了许多新产品,这些产品包括一系列有机产品和学校电脑。除此之外,今年还发起了“每一个小小的帮助”活动,这一活动基本上发展了公司的理念,乐购将“每一点帮助”作为其价值观的表达,价值观是,没有人比乐购更努力地为客户服务,该公司以客户希望得到的方式对待他们。

Tesco PLC was prospering at an accelerated rate, and to ensure this, the Tesco team was making every possible effort to engage the customers and maintain the consumer’s loyalty with the company, for this purpose Tesco launched another initiative by the name “Would I Buy It”; the purpose of this campaign was to guarantee that the products offered to the customers were always of the highest quality. Tesco’s club-card was also launched this year. The club-card was UK’s first customer loyalty program; the sole purpose was to give something back to the loyal customers. According to Lord MacLaurin, former chairman of Tesco, customer loyalty is not how customers demonstrate their loyalty to the company; it is about how the company demonstrates their loyalty to their customers. By this time Tesco was not only the largest retailers, but was also the market leader of food retailers and dominated the English market in food retailing, and thus, started expanding the business beyond the boundary across the world (Tesco PLC, 2011).

乐购公司正以加速的速度蓬勃发展,为了确保这一点,乐购团队正在尽一切可能吸引客户并保持消费者对公司的忠诚度,为此乐购推出了另一项名为“我会买吗”的倡议;这次活动的目的是保证向客户提供的产品始终是最高质量的。乐购的俱乐部卡也于今年推出。俱乐部卡是英国第一个客户忠诚度计划;唯一的目的是回馈忠诚的客户。根据乐购前董事长麦克劳林勋爵的说法,客户忠诚度并不是客户展示对公司忠诚度的方式;这是关于公司如何向客户展示他们的忠诚度。此时,乐购不仅是最大的零售商,也是食品零售商的市场领导者,并在英国食品零售市场占据主导地位,因此开始在世界各地拓展业务。

Tesco’s international markets reach:乐购的国际市场覆盖范围

Globally, Tesco PLC was first introduced in Hungary and later entered Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia and also Ireland. The business was also launched in Thailand and South Korea. Parallel to all these across border business growth, 24 hours trading was also introduced In the year 1998, Tesco launched its Finest premium brand of foods; the Finest included fresh and prepared food ranging over 100 products which change with the season. In 1999, Tesco took another initiative and published supermarket prices comparison on the internet and also launched an on-line bookstore and on-line banking. By 2000 tesco.com was launched (Tesco PLC, 2011).

在全球范围内,乐购公司最初在匈牙利推出,后来进入波兰、捷克共和国、斯洛伐克和爱尔兰。该业务也在泰国和韩国开展。在所有这些跨境业务增长的同时,24小时交易也被引入。1998年,乐购推出了其最优质的食品品牌;最佳食品包括新鲜和预制食品,种类超过100种,随季节变化。1999年,乐购采取了另一项举措,在互联网上发布了超市价格比较,还推出了网上书店和网上银行。到2000年, tesco.com推出。

The success of Tesco was mainly because of its customer satisfaction strategy and in order to continue this journey the emphasis was always on customer care, and so in 2001 Tesco launched “Customer Champions” in many stores which implemented a new labor schedule to further improve services to the customers, the company also followed a continuous replenishment of policy to ensure at least 99% of stock availability. The very same year Tesco also achieved the landmark of becoming the leading organic retailer in the United Kingdom. In 2003, Tesco steps into the business world of Malaysia, Japan and Turkey. In the same year, Tesco started a new offering “Free-From” product; these products were especially designed for customers having special dietary needs. Peoples who are susceptible to any kind of allergies or food intolerance were able to entertain themselves with this new developed food range and restricted diets was not any more an obstacle to enjoy food of respective interest. All the Tesco’s ‘Free from’ products are made gluten free, wheat free and in some cases milk free; all the ingredients that usually are the most common causes of food allergies. The free from product range included over 150 products (Tesco PLC, 2011).

乐购的成功主要是因为其客户满意度战略,为了继续这一旅程,重点始终放在客户关怀上。因此,2001年,乐购在许多商店推出了“客户冠军”,实施了新的劳动计划,以进一步改善对客户的服务,该公司还遵循了持续补货政策,以确保至少99%的库存可用。就在同一年,乐购也取得了成为英国领先有机零售商的里程碑式成就。2003年,乐购进军马来西亚、日本和土耳其的商业世界。同年,乐购推出了一款新的“免费”产品;这些产品是专门为有特殊饮食需求的顾客设计的。易患任何过敏或食物不耐受的人都可以用这种新开发的食物范围自娱自乐,限制饮食不再是享受各自感兴趣的食物的障碍。乐购的所有“免费”产品都不含麸质、小麦,在某些情况下还不含牛奶;所有这些成分通常是引起食物过敏的最常见原因。免费产品系列包括150多种产品。

Tesco entered United States of America business in 2007, by opening ‘Fresh and Easy’ a chain of local grocery stores whose focus was on fresh foods. Tesco introduced own-label products rather than the usual vast range of US brands of heat and eat meals. This local food chain used a straightforward everyday low price strategy and offered cheaper rates to the American customers (Tesco PLC, 2011).

乐购于2007年进入美国业务,开设了一家专注于新鲜食品的当地杂货连锁店“Fresh and Easy”。乐购推出了自有品牌的产品,而不是通常的各种美国品牌的热餐和快餐。这家当地食品连锁店采用了简单的日常低价策略,并向美国客户提供了更便宜的价格。

Tesco PLC Strategies and Policies 乐购公司战略和政策

Tesco entered the world of retailing business and gradually ranked highest among the largest and best retailers in United Kingdom, now by twentieth 乐购进入了零售业的世界,并逐渐在英国最大和最好的零售商中排名第一。到了20世纪,零售业的概念越来越流行,因此,零售商之间的竞争也大大加剧。

Customer focused strategy of Tesco:乐购以客户为中心的战略:

Every company is working on developing new strategies and business policies in order to attract new customers and keep old customers loyal to the company. At the present situation when business is so customer oriented, the key to remain in business is customer satisfaction and this stabilizes the company’s economy (Ma and Ding, 2010). Tesco has always paid considerate attention to its customer and this is the biggest reason of their success, the core purpose of the company is to create value for customers and earn their lifetime loyalty. Tesco has achieved its goal and the business of Tesco PLC has flourished throughout its journey because the company has religiously focused on its four strategies and strictly implemented upon them. The first key strategy is to grow the core United Kingdom business by establishing Extras, Superstore, Metro and Express. The second strategy is to expand the business internationally, while the third strategy emphasizes on become equally strong in its non-food retailing business as it is in its food retailing business (Tesco CSR, 2005).

每家公司都在努力制定新的战略和商业政策,以吸引新客户并保持老客户对公司的忠诚。在目前的情况下,当业务以客户为导向时,保持业务的关键是客户满意度,这会稳定公司的经济。乐购一直对客户给予周到的关注,这是他们成功的最大原因,公司的核心宗旨是为客户创造价值,赢得他们终身的忠诚。乐购实现了目标,乐购公司的业务在整个发展过程中蓬勃发展,因为该公司虔诚地专注于其四大战略并严格执行。第一个关键战略是通过建立Extras、Superstore、Metro和Express来发展英国的核心业务。第二个战略是在国际上扩大业务,而第三个战略强调在非食品零售业务和食品零售业务中同等强大。

Retail services offered by Tesco:乐购提供的零售服务

The final strategy is to provide new retailing services in response to changing customer demand, the retailing services includes online shopping, Tesco Personal Finance(TPF) and telecom industry. The team of Tesco has tirelessly worked upon its strategies and that is the reason they are on top not only in food retailing but also in other retail businesses. Tesco understands and anticipates the needs and requirements of the customer and this is why it has always been successfully responding to changing lifestyles and demand of the customer and this has become the key drive of the company ever since it was established (Tesco PLC, 2011).

最终策略是提供新的零售服务,以应对不断变化的客户需求,零售服务包括网上购物、乐购个人金融和电信行业。乐购的团队不知疲倦地制定战略,这就是他们不仅在食品零售业,而且在其他零售业都处于领先地位的原因。乐购了解并预测客户的需求和要求,这就是为什么它一直成功地应对客户不断变化的生活方式和需求,这已成为该公司自成立以来的关键驱动力。

Products offered by Tesco:乐购提供的产品

In order to make its mark in the non-food retailing business Tesco has developed and introduced a wide range of products in different varieties making its business as versatile as possible. From food stuff to all soft goods such as clothes, footwear, accessories, jewelries, beauty products, household item, kitchen items etc, and also hard goods such as sports goods furniture, appliances and electronic items, are made accessible to the customer under the roof of Tesco PLC, this has provided the customer not just with ease but also with a good shopping experience to take home with. Providing with a variety of goods is not the only objective it is essential to maintain the quality to ensure brand loyalty with the customers. Constant innovations of ideas and development of products and services is required to keep competitors on their toes, that is the reason that Tesco keeps launching new campaigns, product and services ideas (Tesco CSR, 2005).

为了在非食品零售业务中崭露头角,乐购开发并推出了各种不同品种的产品,使其业务尽可能多样化。从食品到所有软质商品,如衣服、鞋类、配饰、珠宝、美容产品、家居用品、厨房用品等,以及体育用品、家具、电器和电子产品等硬质商品,都可以在乐购的屋顶下让客户接触到,这不仅为顾客提供了方便,而且还为他们提供了带回家的良好购物体验。提供各种商品并不是唯一的目标,保持质量以确保品牌对客户的忠诚度是至关重要的。需要不断创新理念,开发产品和服务,以保持竞争对手的警觉,这就是乐购不断推出新活动、产品和服务理念的原因。

The marketing department has made the understanding of customers better than anyone. The management of Tesco reports that the reason as to why it is necessary to understand customers is because championing the customer voice in the business helps in guiding and measuring the business, that is why any new product, service, campaign or business idea is launched after extensive site research which determines and obliges to meet customer needs by matching the store format to the location. Market research is done to monitor and track the healthy business, identify changing customer needs, understand current customer issues, and ensure initiatives that the company has taken are right for customers, moreover strategic insight is developed which guides business strategy through customer perceptions and concerned people views. Analysis on the insight is done to get feedback from customers and keep a check and balance of the company’s performance. Further research is done on customer lifestyles and the shopping experience that is being offered by the company in order to guarantee that the business is reflecting the needs of customers. According to the management team going through these five steps enables them to fully understand the scenario and this makes them achieve a competitive advantage (Tesco PLC, 2011).

市场营销部门比任何人都更能理解客户。乐购的管理层报告称,之所以有必要了解客户,是因为在业务中倡导客户的声音有助于指导和衡量业务,这就是为什么任何新产品、服务,活动或商业理念是在经过广泛的网站研究后发起的,该研究确定并有义务通过将商店形式与地点相匹配来满足客户需求。进行市场研究是为了监测和跟踪健康的业务,识别不断变化的客户需求,了解当前的客户问题,并确保公司采取的举措适合客户,此外,还开发了战略洞察力,通过客户感知和相关人员的观点来指导业务战略。对洞察力进行分析是为了获得客户的反馈,并对公司的业绩进行制衡。对客户的生活方式和公司提供的购物体验进行了进一步的研究,以确保业务反映客户的需求。根据管理团队的说法,通过这五个步骤,他们能够充分了解情况,从而获得竞争优势。

Tesco and its Stakeholders 乐购及其利益相关者

Suppliers 供应商

Tesco has managed to flourish a stabilized relationship with its suppliers. Tesco supports the British Farm Assurance Mark; this is because of the Tesco Farming Initiative taken by Tesco with the suppliers and farmer organizations. In 2001, during the crisis of foot and mouth, Tesco donated a large amount for the British farmers that were affected by the disease. Also through Tesco Codes of Practice, the company takes interest in the welfare of the animals; these codes specify the kind of husbandry expected by the farmers and suppliers from the company. The company also takes part in researches regarding the problems and issues of husbandry (Tesco PLC, 2011).

乐购成功地与供应商建立了稳定的关系。乐购支持英国农场保证标志;这是因为乐购与供应商和农民组织采取了乐购农业倡议。2001年,在口蹄疫危机期间,乐购为受该疾病影响的英国农民捐赠了大量资金。此外,通过乐购行为准则,该公司对动物的福利感兴趣;这些规范规定了农民和供应商对公司期望的畜牧业种类。该公司还参与了有关畜牧业问题的研究。

Employees 员工

The prospect of expanding business has enabled Tesco to entertain people with proper job offers all around the world. Tesco has around 200,000 employees in United Kingdom and about 65,000 in Ireland, South-East Asia and Europe. Employees enjoy benefits such as pensions, profit share schemes, shopping discounts and other save money schemes. Tesco launched a career site which helped a great number of graduates and other workers in finding suitable jobs within the organization. A large number of employees are share holders in the company (Tesco PLC, 2011).

扩大业务的前景使乐购能够为世界各地的人们提供合适的工作机会。乐购在英国有大约20万名员工,在爱尔兰、东南亚和欧洲有大约6.5万名员工。员工享受养老金、利润分成计划、购物折扣和其他储蓄计划等福利。乐购推出了一个职业网站,帮助大量毕业生和其他员工在组织内找到合适的工作。大量员工是公司的股份持有人。

Customers 顾客

Tesco PLC has a huge range of customers that belong to entirely different sectors and cultures. The wide spectrum of the goods whether food or non-food items offered by the company makes customers from every age of life. The good quality of the products and the continuous innovations of the products, have made the brand loyalty of customers possible (Tesco PLC, 2011).

乐购拥有大量客户,他们属于完全不同的行业和文化。该公司提供的商品种类繁多,无论是食品还是非食品,都吸引了各个年龄段的顾客。产品的良好质量和产品的持续创新使客户的品牌忠诚度成为可能。

Strategic and cultural change in retail sector:零售业的战略和文化变革

Strategic change refers to using strategy in order to successfully implement change, to achieve the long-term goals and objectives of the organization. Culture change is a link between organization culture and key company performance variables such as return-on-investment (ROI), sales growth, innovation, employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction. Thus, the strategic change may be viewed as a mechanism of bringing about change in the company, be it a culture change, empowerment or total quality (Balugan, 2001). In order to bring about the change at Tesco, it is crucial to see that this change is properly managed and administered throughout the organization.

战略变革是指利用战略成功实施变革,实现组织的长期目标和目的。文化变化是组织文化与关键公司绩效变量之间的联系,如投资回报率、销售增长、创新、员工满意度和客户满意度。因此,战略变革可以被视为公司变革的一种机制,无论是文化变革、授权还是整体质量。为了实现乐购的变革,至关重要的是要确保整个组织对这一变革进行适当的管理和管理。

According to Kennen (2007), organizations can induce culture change by uncovering the core values and beliefs of the employees, by discussing and communicating the process of change, and by establishing new behavioral norms. There are two views to any type of organization change: the manager’s top-down view (that is how the change impacts the managers) and the employee bottom-up view (that is how the change impacts employees). The latter can be termed as individual change management, using techniques to help employees transition through the change. This is important because employees are the people that ultimately implement the change at its very basic level (Hiatt and Creasy, 2003). Also, when change is initially introduced employees tend to feel doubtful about their ability to change which results in decreased confidence and performance, inducing resistance (Balugan, 2001). Change management can thus become a significant crucial issue, which if not implemented properly can result in loss of employee trust in management. Successful organizations inspire a strong organization culture into their employees. Change management also depends on the incorporation of several factors in the change model, including timing of change, scope of change, diversity capacity of employees, and readiness of employees to change (Balogun, 2001).

根据Kennen(2007)的说法,组织可以通过揭示员工的核心价值观和信念,通过讨论和沟通变革过程,以及通过建立新的行为规范来诱导文化变革。任何类型的组织变革都有两种观点:经理自上而下的观点(即变革如何影响经理)和员工自下而上的观点(也就是变革如何影响员工)。后者可以被称为个人变革管理,使用技术帮助员工在变革中过渡。这一点很重要,因为员工是最终在最基层实施变革的人。此外,当最初引入变革时,员工往往会对自己的变革能力感到怀疑,这会导致信心和绩效下降,从而引发阻力。因此,变革管理可能成为一个重要的关键问题,如果实施不当,可能会导致员工对管理层失去信任。成功的组织激发了员工强大的组织文化。变革管理还取决于在变革模型中纳入几个因素,包括变革的时间、变革的范围、员工的多样性能力和员工的变革准备程度。

Bedingham (2000) has described how strategic change was implemented by Tesco in 1987. According to the article, Tesco came across the performance lapse of the organization in a research done by Verax for Coca Cola to study retail buying (Cummings, 2011). The research findings revealed that the performance of the retail store managers at Tesco was very low compared to the competitors. In response, Tesco decided to review its management practices to improve customer satisfaction. In this process, it took retail lessons of training and transforming its front-line staff that come in direct contact with the customers every day. The need for training Tesco employees had also emerged due to the diverse ethnic, racial, social and economic backgrounds of its employees. All these employees have different skills and shortcomings, and hence require training specifically customized to their different personalities. Another need for employing these training programs is due to the fact that recruiting new employees is much more costly to any organization than retaining the same employees (The Times 100) The growth and transformation of the retail industry itself and the concept of retailing are also responsible for the growing need of bringing about a change in employees at Tesco. Factors affecting this include changing needs of the customers and the society, as well as from the changes in supply of labor.

Bedingham描述了乐购在1987年是如何实施战略变革的。文章称,在Verax为可口可乐研究零售购买的一项研究中,乐购发现了该组织的绩效失误。研究结果显示,与竞争对手相比,乐购零售店经理的表现非常低。作为回应,乐购决定审查其管理实践,以提高客户满意度。在这个过程中,它吸取了零售业的经验教训,培训和改造了每天与客户直接接触的一线员工。由于乐购员工的种族、种族、社会和经济背景不同,因此也出现了对其员工进行培训的需求。所有这些员工都有不同的技能和缺点,因此需要针对他们不同的个性进行专门定制的培训。雇佣这些培训项目的另一个需求是,招聘新员工对任何组织来说都比留住相同的员工成本高得多。零售业本身的增长和转型以及零售业的概念也导致了带来变革的需求越来越大在乐购的员工中。影响这一点的因素包括客户和社会需求的变化,以及劳动力供应的变化。

Another factor leading to this management change is the transformation of the retail structures over the years. The layouts are now professionally developed, with vast amount of support systems and skilled staff required to handle them. Previously, employees in a retail store were meant simply for assisting the customer, however today with the presence of modern technology, databases and finger-tip market knowledge, employees are expected to serve the customers with all the tools for decision making. Social changes brought about the need of extending business hours, and hiring employees more on a flex-time basis to accommodate the employees varying lifestyles. Whilst decades ago, retail employees were hired on a permanent basis, having a specialty in retail service, today employees are drawn from a pool of part-time workers, such as students, who take up jobs to earn some extra money. This has decreased the element of specialty and skill, which is in contrast with the fact that more expertise is now demanded by customers from the retail staff (Akehurst and Alexander, 1996)

导致这种管理变革的另一个因素是多年来零售结构的转变。这些布局现在已经经过专业开发,需要大量的支持系统和熟练的工作人员来处理。以前,零售店的员工只是为了帮助客户,但今天,随着现代技术、数据库和指尖市场知识的出现,员工应该为客户提供所有的决策工具。社会变革带来了延长营业时间的需要,并在弹性工作时间的基础上雇佣更多的员工,以适应员工不同的生活方式。虽然几十年前,零售业员工是长期雇佣的,他们的专业是零售服务,但今天的员工是从学生等兼职工人中抽调出来的,他们从事工作是为了赚一些外快。这减少了专业和技能的因素,这与客户现在要求零售员工提供更多专业知识的事实形成了鲜明对比

With respect to Tesco and its strategic change, individual change management has even a greater role, as its employees are the front-line staff, playing a major role in the image and success of the retail organization. According to Akehurst and Alexander (1996), in retail companies it is not the managerial staff, or external marketing activity that determines the image of a retail company in a consumer’s mind. Instead, it is the way customers are treated and the behavior of the retail store staff that determines this element. Even in outlets which are made for self-service, retail staff can affect customer satisfaction by their role in assistance, giving advices and greeting customers.

就乐购及其战略变革而言,个人变革管理发挥着更大的作用,因为其员工是一线员工,在零售组织的形象和成功中发挥着重要作用。根据Akehurst和Alexander的说法,在零售公司中,决定零售公司在消费者心目中形象的不是管理人员或外部营销活动。相反,是对待顾客的方式和零售店员工的行为决定了这一因素。即使是在自助服务的门店,零售员工也会通过他们在帮助、提供建议和问候客户方面的作用来影响客户满意度。

One example of an employee-oriented retail company is Umpqua Bank in California, which has been able to provide excellent customer service due to its employee focus. At Umpqua, employees are empowered to fully satisfy a customer rather than perform specific tasks. This means that every employee learns every task regarding customer service, and can satisfy customer to his or her full potential. Employees are free to do whatever they can to provide customer satisfaction even without the consent of the supervisor. Hence, many branches keep dog bowls for the clients’ dogs, arrange yoga lessons and movie nights to retain customers (Berman, 2007). Thus, this shows that employee empowerment can lead to innovation even at the retail staffing levels. This becomes important when considering the possible implications that such culture changes can bring in a retail environment such as Tesco.

以员工为导向的零售公司的一个例子是加利福尼亚州的Umpqua银行,由于其以员工为中心,该银行能够提供卓越的客户服务。在Umpqua,员工有权完全满足客户,而不是执行特定任务。这意味着每个员工都能学习与客户服务有关的每一项任务,并能充分发挥客户的潜力。即使没有主管的同意,员工也可以自由地尽其所能为客户提供满意的服务。因此,许多分支机构为客户的狗保留狗碗,安排瑜伽课和电影之夜来留住客户。因此,这表明,即使在零售员工层面,员工赋权也可以带来创新。当考虑到这种文化变化可能给乐购等零售环境带来的影响时,这一点就变得很重要了。

Spurlock is another organization which induced organizational change by altering work standards, procedures and culture. The organization brought about a change in the way resources and time is managed, reallocating everything from staff to plant timings. One important lesson from their change management was the inclusion of staff in the process. The change process coupled with the employee training to meet the needs of the new system, eventually led to an entire work culture change. In the end, there was more teamwork and collaboration increased through the organization due to the shifting and reallocation of employees (Vonderhaar et al, 2010).

Spurlock是另一个通过改变工作标准、程序和文化来引发组织变革的组织。该组织改变了资源和时间的管理方式,重新分配了从员工到工厂时间的一切。从他们的变革管理中得到的一个重要教训是将工作人员纳入这一过程。变革过程加上员工培训以满足新系统的需求,最终导致了整个工作文化的变革。最终,由于员工的转移和重新分配,整个组织增加了更多的团队合作和协作。

However, despite the fact that the employees have such crucial significance, employee management is a considerably under-searched area in retail management (Akehurst and Alexander, 1996).

然而,尽管员工具有如此重要的意义,但在零售管理中,员工管理是一个研究不足的领域。

In the book “Value-based human resource strategy: developing your consultancy role”, Grundy and Brown (2003) assert that in 1990, Tesco decided to undergo a culture change to “enhance its responsiveness throughout the organization”. However, this change came on quite gradually rather than abruptly. This is because when the organization hired an HR consultant, it discovered that the term ‘culture change’ had an inherent risk of failing. It was too overwhelming a concept, indicating a huge change in the organization’s function which made it incomprehensible for its stakeholders. Hence Tesco underwent change in the name of ‘customer service’ instead, because the term described exactly what kind of change was going to be targeted. Similarly, when BP introduced its cultural change, it put an economic value that came from the change to motivate the employees to adopt it. Thus, organization culture change can be adopted in several steps, namely ‘value change’ which lead to ‘behavioral change’ in employees.

Grundy和Brown在《基于价值的人力资源战略:发展你的咨询角色》一书中断言,1990年,乐购决定进行文化变革,以“提高其在整个组织中的响应能力”。然而,这种变化是逐渐发生的,而不是突然发生的。这是因为当该组织聘请人力资源顾问时,发现“文化变革”一词有失败的内在风险。这是一个过于压倒性的概念,表明该组织的职能发生了巨大变化,使其利益相关者无法理解。因此,乐购更名为“客户服务”,因为这个词准确地描述了目标是什么样的变化。同样,当英国石油公司引入其文化变革时,它将变革带来的经济价值观用于激励员工接受变革。因此,组织文化变革可以分几个步骤进行,即“价值观变革”,这会导致员工的“行为变革”。

Recruitment:招聘

According to the report of Datamonitor (2003) Tesco Plc is recruiting almost three million employees for the product manufacturing and services. It is the biggest private employer of UK. (EFILWC, 2007) Tesco is a heavily customer oriented organization, with a focus on its external environment.

根据Datamonitor的报告,乐购公司正在为产品制造和服务招聘近300万名员工。它是英国最大的私人雇主。乐购是一家以客户为导向的组织,专注于其外部环境。

Since its cultural shift in 1990’s Tesco has been able to empower its staff and provide them with benefits and motivational tools that have positively impacted overall employee satisfaction. It has even extended its gradual cultural shift on to managerial and corporate level (Bedingham, 2000).

自20世纪90年代文化转型以来,乐购一直能够赋予员工权力,并为他们提供福利和激励工具,这些都对员工的整体满意度产生了积极影响。它甚至将其逐渐的文化转变扩展到了管理和企业层面。

Training for employees:员工培训

Tesco has established six or seven levels of store employees, and provides training to whoever desires it (Garry, 2010). The training program is not simply an adaptation for the internal organization; it also provides an external qualification and a degree to employees for working at Tesco. Since the program is so significant from the aspect of employees themselves, they are more closely involved with the organization and develop a bond with the company. The training program has become a huge aspect of the organization’s culture and vision itself. It has left the employees feeling more connected, confident and customer-oriented. Moreover, the personal development results in homogenous values of employees throughout the organization (Garry, 2010).

乐购已经建立了六到七个级别的商店员工,并为任何想要的人提供培训。培训计划不仅仅是对内部组织的调整;它还为在乐购工作的员工提供外部资格和学位。由于该计划从员工自身的角度来看非常重要,他们与组织的联系更加紧密,并与公司建立了联系。培训计划已经成为组织文化和愿景本身的一个重要方面。它让员工感到更加紧密联系、自信和以客户为导向。此外,个人发展导致整个组织员工的价值观同质化。

Training program at Tesco involves several different types of trainings such as Introduction training, First class serve, Hygiene Training, Multi skills training et cetra. Introduction training is given the very first day, and involves introduction, discussing the organization’s history, values and functioning. The First Class serve teaches how to interact with the customer and properly greet him or her. Hygiene training as the name indicates refers to training about the employee hygiene practices as required in the store. Multi skill tasking prepares employees for job rotations (Gulyas, 2007).

乐购的培训计划包括几种不同类型的培训,如入门培训、一流服务、卫生培训、多种技能培训等。介绍培训是在第一天进行的,包括介绍、讨论组织的历史、价值观和运作。头等舱服务教授如何与客户互动并恰当地问候他或她。顾名思义,卫生培训是指根据商店要求对员工进行的卫生实践培训。多技能任务为员工的工作轮换做好准备。

According to Gulyas (2007) there is a significant difference between training and management development, though the terms are often used in same context. Training is the process by which people are taught skills to perform specific tasks, whereas management development refers to giving people knowledge and skills to enable them to undertake greater responsibility. Also, culture change at an organization is not merely a question of skills development of employees (Gerber and Lankshear, 2000). Organizations have a tendency to view skills of employees as end in themselves whilst skills in fact induce only surface level change, which does not translate into the deeper level of culture change (Lokshin, Gils, and Bauer, 2009). However, at Tesco, there is training of employees and management development for the managers. Therefore, employee training at Tesco is not merely a question of skill development, but also has the entire 360-degree personality development of its employees as its focus. Employees are constantly expected to improve their behavior, to bring about personality changes that get reflected in their overall performance, and to develop themselves into empowered, inquisitive individuals who can take greater responsibility. Tesco enhances three major aspects of the employee behavior which are customer focus, ability to work with others and personal behavior. For this purpose, Tesco also arranges leadership workshops for its employees (The times 100).

根据Gulyas的说法,培训和管理发展之间存在显著差异,尽管这两个术语经常在相同的上下文中使用。培训是向人们传授执行特定任务的技能的过程,而管理发展是指向人们传授知识和技能,使他们能够承担更大的责任。此外,组织的文化变革不仅仅是员工技能发展的问题。组织倾向于将员工的技能视为自己的目的,而技能实际上只会引起表面层面的变化,而不会转化为更深层次的文化变化。然而,在乐购,有员工培训和管理人员的管理发展。因此,乐购的员工培训不仅仅是一个技能发展的问题,而是以员工的整个360度人格发展为重点。员工不断被期望改善自己的行为,带来反映在整体表现中的性格变化,并将自己发展成为有能力、有好奇心、能够承担更大责任的人。乐购增强了员工行为的三个主要方面,即以客户为中心、与他人合作的能力和个人行为。为此,乐购还为其员工安排了领导力研讨会。

Tesco regularly evaluates the characteristics and performance of its employees to keep identifying skill shortages and new job demands. Based on the results, it adds on to its Personal Development program so that it is catered to meet the upcoming needs of training (The Times 100) Tesco also gives employees ‘a steering wheel’ which shows them how their performance is creating a difference in the organization, by providing specific measures for employees, managers, country and the entire organization (Garry, 2010).

乐购定期评估员工的特点和表现,以不断发现技能短缺和新的工作需求。根据研究结果,乐购增加了个人发展计划,以满足即将到来的培训需求。乐购还为员工提供了“方向盘”,通过为员工、经理、,国家和整个组织。

In the current era, core Human Resource practices tend to encourage an innovation-oriented team based environment where employees are empowered. This is based on theories of motivation in management such as Hierarchy of Needs theory by Maslow (1943) and Hygiene Theory by Herzberg (1959). According to Abraham Maslow, human beings have varying levels of needs that have to be satisfied in a given order from basic physiological need of food and clothing, to higher level needs, such as drive for self-esteem and self-actualization. Hence, good working conditions, general praise and appreciation and an empowered working environment are essential features when it comes to fulfilling the needs of employee. Also, according to Herzberg (1959), there are certain factors the absence of which leads to an overall dissatisfaction of employees with their work. These are different from the factors that increase satisfaction and include company policy, supervision, working conditions etc. These are known as Hygiene factors. In order to keep employees motivated, maintaining good working standards and conditions are essential.

在当前时代,核心人力资源实践倾向于鼓励以创新为导向的团队环境,让员工获得授权。这是基于管理中的动机理论,如马斯洛的需求层次理论和赫兹伯格的卫生理论。根据亚伯拉罕·马斯洛的说法,人类有不同程度的需求,这些需求必须按照给定的顺序得到满足,从基本的生理需求(如食物和衣服)到更高层次的需求,如自尊和自我实现。因此,在满足员工需求方面,良好的工作条件、普遍的赞扬和赞赏以及赋权的工作环境是必不可少的。此外,根据Herzberg的说法,有一些因素会导致员工对自己的工作总体上不满意。这些不同于提高满意度的因素,包括公司政策、监督、工作条件等。这些被称为卫生因素。为了保持员工的积极性,保持良好的工作标准和条件至关重要。

The Times 100 research has shown that, keeping in view the “Maslow’s Hierarchy Model of Needs”, Tesco seeks to fulfill all the level of needs, from basic to the highest through its various employee motivation programs. It provides basic pay and locker room facilities and health security and pension. In addition it addresses the higher needs of the individuals by empowering them in a team based environment, providing them feedbacks and appraisals, and motivating them through encouragement and respect (Bent and Freathy, 1997).

《泰晤士报》的研究表明,考虑到“马斯洛的需求层次模型”,乐购试图通过其各种员工激励计划来满足从基本到最高的所有层次的需求。它提供基本的工资和更衣室设施以及医疗保障和养老金。此外,它还通过在团队环境中赋予个人权力,为他们提供反馈和评估,并通过鼓励和尊重激励他们,来满足个人的更高需求

According to Parish (2007) Tesco PLC managers listen to their staff, spend time with them and build direct one-to-one relationships which boost the overall employee motivation. The management found through surveys that one of the basic needs of their employees were to be listened to with respect. Therefore, at the organization, employees are treated with trust and respect and included in the decision making of the store, their voice and opinions are given due considerations and the problems they face in dealing with the customers are reflected upon and solved. In fact, the technique has been so successful that it is being replicated by a nursing hospital for the management of nursing staff.

根据Parish的说法,Tesco PLC的经理们倾听员工的意见,与他们共度时光,并建立直接的一对一关系,这可以提高员工的整体动力。管理层通过调查发现,员工的基本需求之一是得到尊重。因此,在组织中,员工受到信任和尊重,并参与商店的决策,他们的声音和意见得到了应有的考虑,他们在与客户打交道时面临的问题得到了反映和解决。事实上,这项技术已经非常成功,一家护理医院正在复制这项技术,用于护理人员的管理。

One of the benefits of training at Tesco was the greater teamwork and improved customer service. The major reason behind this improvement was the visible change in the confidence level of Tesco employees that has come from the training activities. The challenges in training employees came from the initial unwillingness of employees to enroll, because they were reluctant or shy (Garry, 2010).

在乐购培训的好处之一是加强了团队合作,改善了客户服务。这一改善背后的主要原因是培训活动使乐购员工的信心水平发生了明显变化。培训员工的挑战来自于员工最初不愿意报名,因为他们不愿意或害羞。

According to European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (2007), Tesco seeks employees from different cultures, background through different sources, including government programs and campaigns. Its recruitment system allows the employers to consider people from diverse cultural and local groups, and fit them into particular jobs depending on capabilities and tendencies. It also participates in the government ‘regeneration’ programs which look for employees amongst those that have been chronically unemployed. It also makes sure that its managers work shoulder-to-shoulder with its workforce, and are aware of the technical aspects of the work. Tesco provides its employees’ salaries based on the nature of work, and additional benefits, both monetary and personal in the form of flexible work hours. As of 2003, Tesco has a 94% employee retention rate with its socially inclusive policies. Tesco’s management of employees plays both roles of a company facilitator and corporate social responsibility. Through employee training and personal development, Tesco has enabled people unemployed for several years to be successfully employed (Gateway, 2003).

根据欧洲改善生活和工作条件基金会的说法,乐购通过不同的来源,包括政府项目和活动,寻找来自不同文化、背景的员工。它的招聘系统允许雇主考虑来自不同文化和当地群体的人,并根据他们的能力和倾向将他们适合特定的工作。它还参与了政府的“再生”计划,在长期失业者中寻找员工。它还确保其管理人员与员工并肩工作,并了解工作的技术方面。乐购根据工作性质为员工提供工资,并以弹性工作时间的形式提供额外的金钱和个人福利。截至2003年,乐购的社会包容性政策使员工留任率达到94%。乐购对员工的管理既扮演着公司促进者的角色,也扮演着企业的社会责任。通过员工培训和个人发展,乐购使失业数年的人能够成功就业。

Ma and Ding (2010) have also described the customer-orientation of Tesco.com, by asserting that customer value and customer satisfaction are amongst the core values of the organization. They have a clearly defined purpose, and they fulfill it through their excellent customer and delivery service. According to the work, 67% of the people take Tesco as their favorite supermarket.

Ma和Ding也描述了乐购的客户导向。com,声称客户价值和客户满意度是组织的核心价值之一。他们有明确的目标,并通过出色的客户和交付服务来实现这一目标。根据调查,67%的人将乐购作为他们最喜欢的超市。

Thus, we see that in the past, Tesco employed tools and techniques of strategic change management in order to successfully bring behavioral change in its employees. The change however was more focused on the behavioral aspects such as employee professionalism rather than employee values, however Tesco ensured that both training and development were used as mechanisms for this change to make it long-term and effective.

因此,我们可以从这篇Term paper范文看到,在过去,乐购采用了战略变革管理的工具和技术,以成功地改变员工的行为。然而,这一变化更侧重于员工专业精神等行为方面,而不是员工价值观,但乐购确保将培训和发展作为这一变化的机制,使其长期有效。本站提供各国各专业Term paper写作指导服务,如有需要可咨询本平台。


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