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英国assignment格式:Innovation, Change and Enterprise in the UK

论文价格: 免费 时间:2023-08-14 08:52:26 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

英国assignment格式-英国的创新、变革与企业。本文是一篇英国留学生assignment写作范文,主要内容是讲述制定创新战略需要明确定义“创新”的含义。创新是对新思想的有效商业利用。它指的是科学、技术、组织、财务和商业成就,这些成就导致引入新的或大幅改进的产品、实践、服务或整个商业模式。以下内容就是一篇英国assignment格式范文,供参考,并一起学习英国assignment写作技巧。

英国assignment写作范文

1 (a) Critically evaluate why innovation and enterprise is so important for the UK and global economy and what can be done to encourage it?批判性地评估为什么创新和企业对英国和全球经济如此重要,以及可以做些什么来鼓励它?

Developing an innovation strategy requires a clear definition of what is meant by ‘innovation’. Innovation is the effective commercial utilisation of new ideas. It refers to the scientific, technological, organisational, financial, and business accomplishments that lead to the introduction of new or substantially improved products, practices, services or entire business models.

Innovation can be incremental or extreme. It ranges from small improvements in existing products, processes and services at one end of the spectrum to extreme changes associated with breakthrough products, disruptive change and brand new ideas at the other end. A great deal of innovation takes place in the middle of the scale where organisations develop and produce new products, processes and services for existing markets and consumers. Innovation is not always determined by new technology. An organisation can develop completely new products – such as Apple’s iTunes and iPad platform – using recognised technologies. Innovation involves varying degrees of risk and needs different resources and processes for its successful implementation. Incremental innovation encourages less risky enhancements by extending existing processes, products or services. Innovation almost always involves change.

创新可以是渐进的,也可以是极端的。它的范围从现有产品、流程和服务的微小改进,到与突破性产品相关的极端变化,再到颠覆性变化和全新想法。大量创新发生在组织为现有市场和消费者开发和生产新产品、流程和服务的规模中间。创新并不总是由新技术决定的。一个组织可以使用公认的技术开发全新的产品,比如苹果的iTunes和iPad平台。创新涉及不同程度的风险,需要不同的资源和流程才能成功实施。增量创新通过扩展现有流程、产品或服务来鼓励风险较小的增强。创新几乎总是伴随着变化。

The word enterprise describes the actions of someone who shows some initiative by taking a risk by setting up, investing in and running a business.

“企业”一词描述的是通过建立、投资和经营企业来承担风险,从而表现出一定主动性的人的行为。

This person can seem to be willing to take a risk and making things happen. The person will show initiative by seeing a potential business opportunity and tries to make it work. This can be seen as a bold or risky move for example investing in an opportunity with the potential of losing the investment should it all go wrong.

这个人似乎愿意冒险,让事情发生。这个人会通过看到潜在的商业机会来表现出主动性,并努力使其发挥作用。这可以被视为一个大胆或冒险的举动,例如,投资一个机会,如果一切都出了问题,可能会失去投资。

Most of the time it will be a decisive person that shows enterprise.大多数时候,它将是一个果断的人,显示企业精神。

There is a need to innovate especially in UK/Global public service organisations due to their importance and size in developed countries. In the past century public service organisation have grown at a great pace. Such organisations as the NHS and American Education for example have grown and to survive it’s vital that they take the lead in innovation. Drucker (2007) expresses that pubic service institutions face similar situations, the knowledge is there and the need to innovate is clear. They now have to learn how to build the entrepreneurship and innovation into their own system. Otherwise they will find themselves superseded by outsiders who will create competing entrepreneur public service institutions and so render the existing one obsolete Drucker (2007)

由于英国/全球公共服务组织在发达国家的重要性和规模,因此需要进行创新。在过去的一个世纪里,公共服务组织以惊人的速度发展。例如,英国国家医疗服务体系和美国教育等组织已经发展壮大,为了生存,它们在创新方面处于领先地位至关重要。Drucker表示,公共服务机构面临着类似的情况,知识是存在的,创新的必要性是明确的。他们现在必须学会如何将创业和创新融入自己的体系。否则,他们将发现自己被局外人所取代,他们将创建相互竞争的企业家公共服务机构,从而使现有的公共服务机构过时。

There is an increasing attention or support to Innovation, that innovation development is key to create/maintain/improve economic/organisation competitive advantage and secure organisation sustainability growth. “Innovation is driven by the ability to see connections, to spot opportunities and to take advantage of them” Tadd, Bessant (2009, p1).

人们越来越关注或支持创新,创新发展是创造/保持/提高经济/组织竞争优势和确保组织可持续发展的关键。Tadd,Besant表示:“创新是由发现联系、发现机会并加以利用的能力驱动的。”。

The key link between Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Change is that you cant really do one without involving the other is some form.An Innovation is the main source for an entrepeuneur, and its usally an innovation or entrepenuer that forces change within an organisation.

创新、创业和变革之间的关键联系是,如果不涉及另一个,你就无法真正做到这一点。创新是企业家的主要来源,它通常是一种创新或企业家,迫使组织内部发生变革。

Importance of Innovation and Enterprise 创新与企业的重要性

Drucker (2007) refers to innovation and enterprise as a venture that can result in the creation of new wealth from making effective use of existing resources. Innovation commences with analysing opportunities, systematically reviewing these and exploiting these to gain maximum economic returns for organisations. Drucker (2007) has identified seven sources of opportunity that can lead to innovation. These include the enterprises own unexpected successes and failures and of its competition, incongruities (particularly in a process, for instance, production, distribution, or incongruities in customer behaviour), process needs, changes in industry and market structures, demographic changes, changes in meaning and perception and new knowledge (Drucker, 2007).

Drucker将创新和企业称为一种风险投资,可以通过有效利用现有资源创造新的财富。创新始于分析机会,系统地审查这些机会,并利用这些机会为组织获得最大的经济回报。德鲁克已经确定了七个可以带来创新的机会来源。其中包括企业自身的意外成功和失败及其竞争、不协调(特别是在一个过程中,例如生产、分销或客户行为的不协调)、过程需求、行业和市场结构的变化、人口变化、意义和感知的变化以及新知识。

Schumpeter (1934, 1939) classified innovation into five types; new products, new manufacturing processes, new sources of supply, exploration of new markets and new methods of organising business activities. Product innovation is the invention and commercialisation of completely new products and services. Process innovation involves bringing considerable improvements in the way products are made. Process innovation takes place by adopting new technologies (Schumpeter (1934, 1939).

熊彼特将创新分为五种类型;新产品、新制造工艺、新供应来源、新市场探索和组织商业活动的新方法。产品创新是指全新产品和服务的发明和商业化。工艺创新涉及到产品制造方式的显著改进。工艺创新是通过采用新技术来实现的。

Inauen and Schenker-Wicki (2012) innovation has become essential for companies as it is resulting in the availability of knowledge, is facilitating technology transfer and fusion and is reducing innovation cycles. It is helping organisations in developing and maintaining their competitiveness and achieving success. It is assisting companies in exploring and exploiting new opportunities for commercialization. Innovation is a critical driver of economic change (Inauen and Schenker-Wicki, 2012).

Inauen和Schenker-Wicki创新对公司来说至关重要,因为它带来了知识的可用性,促进了技术转让和融合,并缩短了创新周期。它帮助组织发展和保持竞争力并取得成功。它正在协助公司探索和利用新的商业化机会。创新是经济变革的关键驱动力。

The views of Inauen and Schenker-Wicki (2012) are consistent with Joly et al (2010). According to Joly et al (2010) innovation is essential for organisations as it helps them in the creation of new products that can solve their customers everyday life problems. Innovation creates wealth and is a major driver of economic growth and development. Von Schomberg (2011) research also states that innovation is the key driver for organisational improvement and success. Niu et al (2013) believes that innovation and enterprise helps organisations in effectively exploiting new opportunities and using their resources to transform innovative ideas into successful outcomes (Niu et al, 2013).

Inauen和Schenker-Wicki的观点与Joly等人的观点一致。根据Joly等人的说法,创新对组织来说至关重要,因为它可以帮助他们创造新产品,解决客户的日常生活问题。创新创造财富,是经济增长和发展的主要驱动力。Von Schomberg的研究还指出,创新是组织改进和成功的关键驱动力。Niu等人认为,创新和企业有助于组织有效利用新的机会,并利用其资源将创新理念转化为成功成果。

Whilst there is no doubt that innovation and enterprise is important for the growth of companies, national and international economies, yet it does suffer from some risks. The key risks of innovation and enterprise are that it requires considerable investment in financial and human resources. There is the risk that innovation can be copied by competitors. Innovation can be risky and lead to uncertain commercial returns (Hayes, 2014).

尽管毫无疑问,创新和企业对公司、国家和国际经济的增长很重要,但它确实存在一些风险。创新和企业的主要风险是,它需要在财政和人力资源方面进行大量投资。创新存在被竞争对手复制的风险。创新可能具有风险,并导致不确定的商业回报。

Innovation and enterprise can be encouraged by understanding and applying the principles of change management in organisations. Furthermore, using open innovation, understanding national cultures, customers’ needs, crowdsourcing, user innovation, recruiting and training people, developing leaders can greatly assist organisations in effectively encouraging innovation. To compete effectively in intensely competitive business environments, organisations need to treat innovation as an essential part of their corporate strategy and not as a one off event. Continuous and consistent innovation is the key to organisational success in the global economy.

通过理解和应用组织中的变革管理原则,可以鼓励创新和企业。此外,利用开放式创新、了解民族文化、客户需求、众包、用户创新、招聘和培训人员、培养领导者,可以极大地帮助组织有效鼓励创新。为了在竞争激烈的商业环境中有效竞争,组织需要将创新视为企业战略的重要组成部分,而不是一次性事件。持续不断的创新是组织在全球经济中取得成功的关键。

Change Management 变更管理

Change Management is key to effective innovation and enterprise. It can be used to help employees go through the transition of accepting and implementing change within an organisation. Successful change management enables employees to understand the reasons for change. Part 2 of this essay goes into depths of why Change management is so important.

变革管理是有效创新和企业发展的关键。它可以用来帮助员工在组织内接受和实施变革。成功的变革管理使员工能够理解变革的原因。本文的第2部分深入探讨了为什么变革管理如此重要。

Types of Change 变更类型

Harvard Business School (2003) states that businesses respond to challenges of new technology, new markets new competitors and consumer demand with four programs to overcome these obstacles. These four categories of change are:

哈佛商学院指出,企业通过四个项目来应对新技术、新市场、新竞争对手和消费者需求的挑战,以克服这些障碍。这四类变化是:

Structural Change – Where the business is treated as a machine style model that are set up of different functions. During this change high level managements usually with the help of external consultants attempt to change these functions so they are able to accomplish a greater overall performance. Examples of previous endeavours for structural change have involved company mergers, acquisitions of other businesses and closure/reduction of operating units.

结构变化——将业务视为由不同功能组成的机器式模型。在这一变化过程中,高层管理层通常在外部顾问的帮助下,试图改变这些职能,以便能够实现更高的整体绩效。以往进行结构改革的例子包括公司合并、收购其他企业和关闭/减少经营单位。

Cost Cutting – The main motivation for this type of change is the removal of areas of the business where there are less important activities and functions of a business where the company can squeeze extra cost out of operations. This may involve in department closures, redundancies or cuts in budgets when companies are going through tough times.

成本削减——这类变革的主要动机是去除业务中不太重要的活动和功能,在这些活动和功能中,公司可以从运营中挤出额外成本。这可能涉及公司在经历艰难时期时关闭部门、裁员或削减预算。

Process Change – The aim of this change is fundamentally a way of making operating processes quicker, more effective, more reliable and less costly, so basically an emphasis on changing how things get done in the business.

流程变革——这种变革的目的从根本上是为了使运营流程更快、更有效、更可靠、成本更低,因此基本上是强调改变业务中的工作方式。

Cultural Change – This change concentrates on the ‘human’ aspect of the business, where an organisation focuses on the relationship between the management and employees and look at the methods of how they do business. A shift from command and control management to participative management is an example of cultural change. Harvard Business School (2003)

文化变革——这种变革集中在企业的“人”方面,即组织关注管理层和员工之间的关系,并关注他们如何开展业务的方法。从指挥控制管理向参与式管理的转变就是文化变革的一个例子。

Process of Change 变更过程

Kurt Lewin a German-American psychologist introduced a straight forward model of process change which involves three stages that helps to understand the change process.

德国裔美国心理学家Kurt Lewin提出了一个过程变化的直接模型,该模型涉及三个阶段,有助于理解变化过程。

The first stage is unfreezing which includes helping an organisation and its employees accept that change is required. Examining old processes, systems, employees and ways of thinking can show employees how important it is that the organisation changes. Communication in this part of the process is extremely important as it allows the business to inform the employees of the reasons for change, how it will benefit them and when the change will go ahead.

第一阶段是解冻,包括帮助组织及其员工接受需要改变的事实。检查旧的流程、系统、员工和思维方式可以向员工展示组织变革的重要性。流程这一部分的沟通非常重要,因为它使企业能够告知员工变革的原因、变革将如何使他们受益以及何时进行变革。

The second stage is the Change Step, the transition period, where the implementation of the change takes place. This will be the point in the change process where reality hits the organisation that change is definitely happening, this is where it is key to continue clear communication as people will struggle to adapt to the idea of change, from this there will be resistance, panic and uncertainty.

第二个阶段是变革步骤,即实施变革的过渡期。这将是变革过程中的一个关键点,即变革肯定会发生,这是继续进行清晰沟通的关键,因为人们将难以适应变革的理念,由此将产生阻力、恐慌和不确定性。

The final stage of Lewin’s model is Re-Freezing. This is the stage where the organisation looks for reinforcement and stabilisation after the implementation of change. This step was highlighted by Lewin as particularly important after Implementation to ensure that people do not revert back to previous ways of thinking or doing. The organisation has to attempt to guarantee the change is not lost and is reinforced into the Culture of and thinking of the organisation moving forward.

勒温模型的最后阶段是重新冻结。这是该组织在实施变革后寻求加强和稳定的阶段。Lewin强调,这一步骤在实施后尤为重要,以确保人们不会回到以前的思维或行为方式。该组织必须努力确保变革不会失败,并在组织前进的文化和思想中得到加强。

Theories of Change 变革理论

The theory of change is a method that can help organisations in successfully achieving their change objectives and outcomes. The theory states that every change proposal needs to be carefully planned, requires the participation of others and needs to be evaluated to ensure that the planned activities are achieved. The theory states the long term goals of change and then maps these backwards to identify required preconditions (Brest, 2010). Organisations can successfully innovate through careful planning, seeking the participation and engagement of their employees and evaluating the degree to which innovation has been effective in improving organisational performance.

变革理论是一种可以帮助组织成功实现变革目标和结果的方法。该理论指出,每一项变革提案都需要仔细规划,需要其他人的参与,并需要进行评估,以确保计划的活动得以实现。该理论阐述了变革的长期目标,然后将其向后映射,以确定所需的先决条件。组织可以通过仔细规划、寻求员工的参与和参与以及评估创新在提高组织绩效方面的有效程度来成功创新。

Recognise and diagnosing the need for change.认识并诊断变革的必要性。

Recognising and diagnosing the need for change can be done by analysing the types of change, the context of change, using the cultural web model and forcefield analysis (Johnson et al, 2010).

认识和诊断变革的必要性可以通过分析变革的类型、变革的背景、使用文化网络模型和力场分析来实现。

Encouraging Innovation and Enterprise 鼓励创新和企业

Conclusion 结论

Innovation and enterprise is very important for the growth, development and survival of organisations in the UK and in the global economy. Innovation and enterprise enhance organisations competitive advantages and improve performance and productivity. However, innovation and enterprise suffers from the risks that it requires considerable financial investment and generate uncertain commercial returns.

创新和企业对英国和全球经济中组织的成长、发展和生存非常重要。创新和企业精神增强了组织的竞争优势,提高了绩效和生产力。然而,创新和企业面临的风险是,它需要大量的财政投资,并产生不确定的商业回报。

For businesses, innovation means sustained or improved growth. The innovative company or organisation delivers higher profits for its owners and investors. For employees, innovation means new and more interesting work, better skills and higher wages. Equally, an absence of innovation can lead to business stagnation and a loss of jobs. For the economy as a whole innovation is the key to higher productivity and greater prosperity for all.

对企业来说,创新意味着持续或改善的增长。创新型公司或组织为其所有者和投资者提供更高的利润。对员工来说,创新意味着新的、更有趣的工作、更好的技能和更高的工资。同样,缺乏创新可能导致商业停滞和失业。对于整个经济来说,创新是提高生产力和实现更大繁荣的关键。

Innovation and enterprise can be encouraged by understanding and applying the principles of change management in organisations. Furthermore, using open innovation, understanding national cultures, customers’ needs, crowdsourcing, user innovation, recruiting and training people, developing leaders can greatly assist organisations in effectively encouraging innovation. To compete effectively in intensely competitive business environments, organisations need to treat innovation as an essential part of their corporate strategy and not as a one off event. Continuous and consistent innovation is the key to organisational success in the global economy.

通过理解和应用组织中的变革管理原则,可以鼓励创新和企业。此外,利用开放式创新、了解民族文化、客户需求、众包、用户创新、招聘和培训人员、培养领导者,可以极大地帮助组织有效鼓励创新。为了在竞争激烈的商业环境中有效竞争,组织需要将创新视为企业战略的重要组成部分,而不是一次性事件。持续不断的创新是组织在全球经济中取得成功的关键。

1(b) Using relevant examples consider why innovation and change is often difficult to manage within organisations and how this can be overcome?使用相关的例子来思考为什么创新和变革在组织内往往难以管理,以及如何克服这一点?

In today’s competitive business world change is the most critical factor in business. With heavy competition, technology and demographical forces pushing towards business change. There are not many businesses that can escape from change. The reasons for a business to adopt change is to maintain employee engagement, increase productivity and improve their performance to new levels. Sometimes change can be implemented due to a change in strategic direction.

在当今竞争激烈的商业世界中,变化是商业中最关键的因素。随着激烈的竞争,技术和人口统计学的力量正在推动商业变革。没有多少企业能够摆脱变革。企业采用变革的原因是保持员工敬业度,提高生产力,并将绩效提高到新的水平。有时,由于战略方向的改变,可以实施变革。

Change is brought in to make a difference from the past to the present. Change in the organisation can also mean embedding new technologies and creating new work practices into sections of the business. Technological change and new work practices in the organisation shows an impact on the way the business going.

改变是为了改变过去和现在。组织的变革也可能意味着将新技术和创造新的工作实践融入业务部门。组织中的技术变革和新的工作实践对业务的发展方式产生了影响。

If a Business decides on implementing change within the organisation, they will need a team of members to encourage and manage the change.

如果企业决定在组织内实施变革,他们将需要一个成员团队来鼓励和管理变革。

Charles Darwin once said “It is not the strongest species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the ones who are most responsive to change”

查尔斯·达尔文曾说过:“不是生存下来的最强物种,也不是最聪明的物种,而是对变化反应最快的物种。”

The Change process can be a very complex problem and managing it is equally as complex. This is why change is a process that must be carefully planned and executed.

变更过程可能是一个非常复杂的问题,管理它也同样复杂。这就是为什么变革是一个必须仔细规划和执行的过程。

So, why is it difficult to manage? Well you can start with the fact that Change can sometimes arrive unexpectedly. A business may not be ready for change.

那么,为什么管理起来很困难呢?好吧,你可以从这样一个事实开始,改变有时会出乎意料地到来。企业可能还没有做好改变的准备。

One way of overcoming difficulties when managing change is by having effective Leadership during the change process.

管理变革时克服困难的一种方法是在变革过程中拥有有效的领导力。

The leadership approach has to be focused towards increased and continuous communication.   

领导方法必须侧重于加强和持续的沟通。

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