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英国assignment范文:Impact of the English Civil War (1642–1651)

论文价格: 免费 时间:2023-12-28 10:04:21 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

英国assignment范文-英国内战的影响(1642-1651)。本文是一篇英国大学历史学assignment写作格式范文,主要内容是是讲述英国内战是17世纪英国革命的重要组成部分。这是议员和保皇派之间的一系列武装冲突和政治阴谋。从1642年到1651年,它持续了十年。本篇英国assignment根据历史学家的观点,17世纪的英国内战可分为两个部分:第一次英国内战和第二次英国内战。最后,议员们赢得了这场战争。它引起了英国政治制度的巨大变化。

本篇英国assignment指出议员和保皇党代表不同人民的利益。议员们代表着新资产阶级、新贵族、女贵族和大多数下议院的利益。保皇党代表国王、旧贵族、牧师、官僚和巨头的利益。随着经济的发展,他们之间的矛盾越来越严重。以下内容就是英国assignment范文,供参考。

英国assignment格式范文

The English Civil was an important part of English Revolution in 17th Century. It was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. It lasted ten years-from 1642 to 1651. According to the opinions of the historians, the English Civil war in 17th century could be divided into two parts: the first English Civil war and the second English Civil War. At last, the Parliamentarians won the war. It caused a big change in English political system.

The parliamentarians and the royalists stood for the benefits of different people. The parliamentarians stood for the benefits of the new bourgeoisies, new nobles, yeomen, and most of the commons. [2] The royalists stood for the benefits of the king, the old nobles, the priests and the bureaucrats and the magnates. With the development of the economy, the conflicts between them became more serious.

England was one of the blankets of Capitalism. [3] Since the 13th century, many nobles and people who had money began to buy lands and managed their farms. Many farmers who lost their lands became the main labors for the development of the capitalism. Many farmers worked in one farm, and the products of the farm will go to market directly. Besides the agriculture, the commerce and industry got a great development. With the development of the economy, bourgeois became an important part of the society. However, under the reign of the king, the economy developed very slowly. The feudality blocked the development of the economy. In addition, Charles I levied upon heavy tax from the citizens for his luxurious life and the war. More and more people opposed the reign of Charles I. Charles I did not care the people, and continued to carry out his policies. He even decided to break the parliament. The conduct of Charles I had enraged people. Rebellions happened in many places.

英格兰是资本主义的一块毯子。自13世纪以来,许多贵族和有钱人开始购买土地并管理他们的农场。许多失去土地的农民成为资本主义发展的主要劳动力。许多农民在一个农场工作,农场的产品将直接进入市场。除了农业,商业和工业也得到了很大的发展。本篇英国assignment认为随着经济的发展,资产阶级成为社会的重要组成部分。然而,在国王的统治下,经济发展非常缓慢。世仇阻碍了经济的发展。此外,查理一世还因其奢华的生活和战争而向公民征收重税。越来越多的人反对查理一世的统治。查理一世不关心人民,继续执行他的政策。他甚至决定破坏议会。查理一世的行为激怒了人们。叛乱发生在许多地方。

In November, 1641, the parliament made and passed a document to accuse the bad conduct of Charles I, and required him to give industry and commerce freedom. [4] The most important point of this document was that the government should listen to the parliament. However, Charles I did not agree with this kind of document. To response the rebellion, he captured the members of the House of Commons, but he failed at last. Further negotiations by frequent correspondence between the King and the Long Parliament through early summer proved fruitless. In August 22, 1642, Charles I declared to crusade against the members of the Parliament who rebelled him. This thing caused the first English war between parliamentarians and royalists.

1641年11月,议会制定并通过了一份文件,指控查理一世的恶劣行为,并要求他给予工商自由。这份文件最重要的一点是,政府应该听取议会的意见。然而,查理一世并不同意这种文件。为了应对叛乱,他俘虏了下议院的议员,但他最终失败了。初夏期间,国王和朗议会之间频繁通信进行的进一步谈判被证明是徒劳的。1642年8月22日,查理一世宣布讨伐反抗他的国会议员。这件事引发了第一次英国国会议员和保皇党之间的战争。

Comparing the powers of the two camps, the camp supporting parliament was in dominant position. The areas the parliament controlled were developed. Four fifths of the tax was got from these areas. [5] Most of the people support the parliament. In addition, the army of the parliament controlled important harbors and navy. However, the parliament was in a hard condition in the beginning. To change the bad condition of the war, in 1645 Parliament reaffirmed its determination to fight the war to a finish. “It passed the Self-denying Ordinance, by which all members of either House of Parliament laid down their commands, and re-organized its main forces into the New Model Army (“Army”), under the command of Sir Thomas Fairfax, with Cromwell as his second-in-command and Lieutenant-General of Horse.” [6] At the Battle of Naseby on 14 June and the Battle of Langport on 10 July, the Parliamentarians effectively destroyed Charles’ armies. Charles was eventually handed over to the English Parliament by the Scots and was imprisoned. This marked the end of the First English Civil War.

本篇英国assignment比较两个阵营的权力,支持议会的阵营处于主导地位。议会控制的地区得到了发展。五分之四的税收来自这些地区。大多数人支持议会。此外,议会的军队控制着重要的港口和海军。然而,议会一开始处境艰难。为了改变战争的恶劣状况,1645年,议会重申了将战争打到底的决心。“它通过了《自我否定条例》,根据该条例,议会两院的所有议员都制定了自己的命令,并将其主要部队重新组织为新模范军(“陆军”),由托马斯·费尔法克斯爵士指挥,克伦威尔任其二把手兼骑兵中将。”在6月14日的纳塞比战役和7月10日的兰波特战役中,议员们有效地摧毁了查尔斯的军队。查尔斯最终被苏格兰人移交给英国议会,并被监禁。这标志着第一次英国内战的结束。

After the First English Civil War, the royalists were hurt seriously. The power fell into the hand of the Presbyterianism. All polices they made were for their own benefits. Most of the people’s rights were not protected, and their bad conditions of life were not changed. They thought the first English Civil War was not the end of the revolution. They decided to continue the revolution until their rights and benefits were protected. [7] At the same time, Charles I negotiated a secret treaty with the Scots, on 28 December 1647. Under the agreement, called the “Engagement”, the Scots undertook to invade England on Charles’ behalf and restore him to the throne on condition of the establishment of Presbyterianism for three years. [8] Then, he used all kinds of methods to encourage people to rebel. Suddenly, a series of Royalist uprisings throughout England and a Scottish invasion occurred in the summer of 1648. The second English Civil war broke out. Parties of revolution seek to cooperation to fight the war. During the second war, the army of the parliament conquered every difficulty, and succeeded at last. The second English war ended with the victory of the parliament. Charles I was sent to the court of trial. At the end of the trial the 59 Commissioners found Charles I guilty of high treason, as a “tyrant, traitor, murderer and public enemy”. [9] He was beheaded on 30 January 1649.

第一次英国内战后,保皇党受到严重伤害。权力落入长老会的手中。他们制定的所有政策都是为了自己的利益。大多数人的权利没有得到保护,他们恶劣的生活条件也没有改变。他们认为第一次英国内战并不是革命的结束。他们决定继续革命,直到他们的权利和利益得到保护。与此同时,1647年12月28日,查理一世与苏格兰人谈判达成了一项秘密条约。根据这项被称为“交战”的协议,苏格兰人承诺代表查尔斯入侵英格兰,并在建立长老会三年的条件下恢复查尔斯的王位。然后,他用各种方法鼓励人们反抗。突然间,1648年夏天,英格兰各地发生了一系列保皇派起义,苏格兰人入侵。第二次英国内战爆发了。革命各方寻求合作以进行战争。在第二次战争期间,议会军队克服了一切困难,最终取得了成功。第二次英国战争以议会的胜利而结束。查理一世被送往审判法庭。审判结束时,59名委员裁定查理一世犯有叛国罪,是“暴君、叛徒、杀人犯和公敌”。1649年1月30日,他被斩首。

Shortly after the King’s execution, Parliament abolished the office of the King and the House of Lords. It declared that England shall be governed as a Commonwealth. Commonwealth was established in England. The government ruled by elected representatives of the people. But England’s supposedly republican Commonwealth actually turned out to be a military dictatorship under Cromwell. [10] To protect his reign, he tried his best to clean up all threats. At last, he brought Scotland and Ireland under English control. His armies swept though both countries and put down all resisting forces. [11] 

国王被处决后不久,议会废除了国王办公室和上议院。它宣布英格兰将作为一个联邦来管理。英联邦在英国成立。政府由民选的人民代表统治。但事实证明,在克伦威尔的领导下,英格兰所谓的共和制英联邦是一个军事独裁政权。为了保护自己的统治,他尽力清除一切威胁。最后,他将苏格兰和爱尔兰置于英国的控制之下。他的军队横扫两国,镇压了所有抵抗力量。

English Civil War is a great fight between parliamentarians and royalists. During the war, the new nobles and the bourgeoisies held the leadership, and most of the common people supported them to fight. That assured the victory of the parliamentarians. The victory of parliamentarians ended the reign of dictator. New nobles and bourgeoisies take the power of the nation. The right of the King was abolished. England was declared to be Republic. “Democracy was closer to Britain. It was the climax of English Revolution.” [12] 

英国内战是国会议员和保皇党之间的一场大战。战争期间,新贵族和资产阶级掌握着领导权,大多数老百姓支持他们作战。这保证了议员们的胜利。议员们的胜利结束了独裁者的统治。新贵族和资产阶级掌握了国家的权力。国王的权利被废除了。英格兰被宣布为共和国。“民主更接近英国。这是英国革命的高潮。”

English Civil War was an important event in the history of British. Besides the political consequence, it had a great effect on the development of the military and the economy. During the English Civil War, Cromwell established advanced army. It improved the strength of the English army. The new nobles and bourgeoisies took the power of the nation. They could make policies that stood for the benefits of bourgeoisies. It promoted the development of capitalism. In addition, the victory of English Civil War encouraged the revolutions of other countries.

英国内战是英国历史上的一个重要事件。除了政治后果外,它还对军事和经济的发展产生了重大影响。在英国内战期间,克伦威尔建立了先进的军队。它提高了英国军队的实力。新贵族和资产阶级掌握了国家的权力。他们可以制定有利于中产阶级利益的政策。它促进了资本主义的发展。此外,英国内战的胜利也激励了其他国家的革命。本站提供英国assignment格式范文以及英国assignment写作指导,如有需要可咨询本平台。


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