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管理学essay范文参考——Definition of International Human Resource Management (IHRM)

论文价格: 免费 时间:2022-08-09 10:48:09 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

管理学essay范文——国际人力资源管理的定义。本文是一篇留学生管理专业的Essay写作格式参考范文。国际人力资源管理包括公司的工作系统和雇佣实践。它包括人员管理的个人和集体方面。它不局限于任何一种风格或意识形态。它调动了线经理和专家经理(后者存在的地方)的精力,通常需要为不同的劳动力群体提供一系列的信息。(Boxhall, P. and Purcell, J. 2008)。以下是管理学essay范例写作的全部内容,是一篇符合国外大学Essay写作格式要求的范文,供参考。

管理学essay范文

International Human Resource Management includes the firm’s work systems and its employment practices. It embraces both individual and collective aspects of people management. It is not restricted to any one style or ideology. It engages the energies of both line and specialist managers (where the latter exists) and typically entails a range of messages for a variety of workforce groups’. (Boxhall, P. and Purcell, J. 2008).

HRM responsibilities include:

Recruitment and selection

Training and development

Human resource planning

Assessing performance of employees

Payment and reward systems

Initiatives to align employee developments to corporate strategies.

International Human Resource Management (IHRM)国际人力资源管理

Boxall, P. (1992) defined International Human Resource Management (IHRM) as ‘concerned with the human resource problems of multinational firms in foreign subsidiaries (such as expatriate management) or more broadly, with the unfolding HRM issues that are associated with the various stages of the internationalisation process. (Boxhall, P. 1992).

Boxall, P.(1992)将国际人力资源管理(IHRM)定义为“关注跨国公司在外国子公司的人力资源问题(如外派管理)或更广泛地说,与国际化进程的各个阶段相关的人力资源管理问题。”(Boxhall, p . 1992)。

Mark Mendenhall (2000) sought to be more specific by outlining a number of criteria relevant to a definition of IHRM:

IHRM is concerned with HRM issues that cross national boundaries or are conducted in locations other than the home country headquarters.

IHRM is concerned with the relationships between the HRM activities of organisations and the foreign environments in which the organisations operate.

IHRM includes comparative HRM studies; e.g. differences in how companies in Japan, Thailand, Austria and Switzerland plan for upgrading of employee skills and so on.

What IHRM is not   IHRM不是什么

IHRM does not include studies that are focused on issues outside the traditional activities inherent in the HRM function.

E.g. leadership style is not IHRM, unless specifically linked to an HRM function; developing a selection programme to measure and select global leaders would arguably lie within the domain of organisational behaviour.

IHRM does not include studies of HRM activities in single countries.

E.g. a study of personnel selection practices in Saudi Arabia, whether undertaken by an English, German or Canadian researcher, is still a study about domestic HRM in Saudi Arabia. Though such studies may have interest to those who work in international HRM issues, they are essentially examples of domestic HRM research.

例如,沙特阿拉伯的人事选择实践研究,无论由英国、德国或加拿大的研究者进行,仍然是关于沙特国内人力资源管理的研究。虽然这样的研究可能会对那些在国际人力资源管理问题工作的人感兴趣,但它们本质上是国内人力资源管理研究的例子。

IHRM approaches IHRM方法

Ethnocentric: key positions filled by nationals of parent company

Polycentric: host country nationals recruited to manage subsidiary in their own country

Geocentric: best people recruited, whatever their nationality

Regiocentric: best people recruited within region in which the subsidiary operates (e.g. EU, USA).

IHRM solutions IHRM 解决方案

Choice of IHRM approach depends upon:

Degree and type of internationalisation

Type of industry and markets served

Characteristics of staff

Cultural preferences.

essay格式范文

Advantages and disadvantages of a ‘decentralised’ approach to IHRM国际人力资源管理的“分散”方法的优点和缺点

Advantages

Groups within the subsidiary can gain in status

Groups within the subsidiary become more cohesive, fostering group identity

IHRM takes place within a culture appropriate to the local workforce and customers

Disadvantages

Tendency to become ‘exclusive’

Loss of central control, higher administrative costs as HRM function is sent ‘down the line’

Loss of organisational control and organisational identity

IHRM and training and development人力资源管理与培训和发展

Training and development increases in complexity as MNEs move abroad.

Types of training and development depends on a number of factors:

The degree to which management is centralised.

The types of workers employed in subsidiaries or joint ventures.

The importance of branding, and the extent to which employees are expected to reflect the brand.

The cultural expectations of training.

培训和发展的类型取决于许多因素:

管理集中的程度。

子公司或合资企业雇用的工人类型。

品牌的重要性,以及期望员工在多大程度上反映品牌。

培训的文化期望。

In a global company, the training may well be centralised so that suppliers, employees and distributors are aware of the brand image that needs to be communicated.

E.g. in Ford training programmes are set up centrally, and then translated and delivered to all main suppliers, subsidiaries and distributors.

If, however, a more polycentric approach is taken, then the training may well be far more local, and more in line with the local culture

Cross-cultural awareness跨文化意识

Support provided for employees moving to overseas subsidiaries:

Environmental briefings

Cultural orientation

Cultural assimilation

Language training

Sensitivity training

Field experience.

IHRM and reward strategies人力资源管理和奖励战略

To design an appropriate reward strategy for employees taking up an international position, may require a number of factors to be considered, including:

A knowledge of the laws, customs, environment, and employment practices of the foreign countries.

Familiarity with currency relationships and the effect of inflation on compensation.

An understanding of the allowances appropriate to particular countries, etc.

For example, awareness of employment related legislation in the country of operation is vital to an appropriate international reward structure. India has as many as 45 labour laws at national level and close to four times that at the level of state governments (Kaushik 2006).

The main method of drawing up a compensation package is known as the ‘balance sheet’ approach.

This approach is, according to Reynolds (1986): ‘a system designed to equalise the purchasing power of employees at comparable position levels living overseas and in the home country, and to provide incentives to offset qualitative differences between assignment locations’.

根据雷诺兹(1986)的说法,这种方法是:“一种旨在平衡居住在海外和本国同等职位水平的员工的购买力的系统,并提供激励措施来抵消分配地点之间的质量差异。”

IHRM and ‘Balance Sheet’ reward strategyIHRM和“资产负债表”奖励策略

In order to achieve ‘balance’ in reward structure, the organisation must take into account:

Income taxes incurred in both home and host country

Housing allowances (which might range from financial assistance to employees to providing company housing)

Cost-of-living allowances (to adjust differences between home and abroad)

Contributions to savings, pension schemes, etc. while abroad

Relocation allowances (including the moving, shipping and storage of personal and household items and temporary living expenses)

Education allowances for expatriate’s children (e.g. language tuition and enrollment fees in the host country or boarding school fees in the home country)

Medical, emergency and security cover.

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