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Essay格式范文:Change Management in an Organisation

论文价格: 免费 时间:2023-10-25 10:29:28 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

Essay格式范文-组织中的变革管理。本文是一篇留学生essay写作格式范文,这篇essay的重点是“组织行为”模块的研究结果,该模块涉及组织原则在任何公司中与长期成功相关的重要性。本篇essay作者专注于研究巴拉特石油公司的案例,以参考组织结构的变化带来的成功。尽管本篇essay研究的目的是在影响组织问题运作的变革动态的背景下分析组织,但本篇essay研究的局限性在于无法处理考虑组织行为的所有问题。以下就是这篇essay格式范文的具体内容,供参考。

essay格式范文

The essay focuses on the outcomes of the study of the module-Organizational Behaviour which deals with the importance of the organizational principles in any company linked to its success in long run. I have focused myself to study the Case of BHARAT PETROLEUM COMPANY LIMITED in reference to change of organisation structure bringing in success.

Though the objective of the study is to analyse the organisation in the context of dynamics of change affecting its very functioning with respect of organizational issues, the limitation of the study is inability to take up all issues considering organisation behaviour.

In 1952 two different companies Shell Petroleum Company and Burmah Oil Company, UK signed an agreement with the Indian Government to prepare a new refinery in Mumbai and the name of the refinery was Burmah Oil Refineries Ltd. In 1957 it started and worked in a proper flow, In 1976 Indian Government changed their policy and nationalized the petroleum industry. Indian Government acquired the complete equity in Burmah Oil Refineries Ltd and changed from Burmah Oil Refineries Ltd to Bharat Refineries Ltd. In 1977 the Indian Government again changed its name to Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd. (BPCL).

1952年,壳牌石油公司和英国Burmah石油公司两家不同的公司与印度政府签署了一项协议,在孟买准备一家新的炼油厂,炼油厂的名称为Burmah炼油厂有限公司。1957年,该炼油厂开始正常运营。1976年,印度政府改变了政策,将石油工业国有化。印度政府收购了Burmah炼油有限公司的全部股权,并将Burmah石油炼油有限公司改为巴拉特炼油有限公司。1977年,印度政府再次将其名称改为巴拉特石油公司。

Industry Environment 行业环境

Indian governments acquired BPCL in 1970 in the act of nationalisation arrangement of Indian government’s. In 1991 It was monitored and under the supervision of government till economic reorganizations. Government monitored the all the expenses, raw materials and the end products purchase and selling price, manufacture capacity, uses of the raw materials, circulation, and what is the return on investment were monitored by the government. Three main combined marketing and purifying companies were there at that time and many small and independent companies were supplying their product to these companies. Government improved their strategy for work and enlarged the distribution network in all over the country, like setup new retail outlets to reduce the competition along with their competitor.

1970年,在印度政府的国有化安排中,印度政府收购了BPCL。1991年,它一直受到政府的监督和监督,直到经济重组。政府对所有费用、原材料和最终产品的购销价格、生产能力、原材料的使用、流通以及投资回报率进行了监控。当时有三家主要的联合营销和净化公司,许多小型独立公司向这些公司供应产品。政府改进了工作策略,扩大了全国各地的分销网络,比如设立新的零售店,以减少与竞争对手的竞争。

Privatization 私有化

As a part of the ongoing economic reforms the government was actively pursuing privatization of the public sector companies.

作为正在进行的经济改革的一部分,政府正在积极推行公共部门公司的私有化。

A couple of senior managers’ state “Privatization is a slight that will happen. One can’t bother too much about the future without knowing what is going to happen. It is inevitable and we can’t do about it.”

几位高级管理人员表示:“私有化是即将发生的一件小事。人们不能在不知道会发生什么的情况下对未来太过担忧。这是不可避免的,我们对此无能为力。”

“We don’t know what will happen to BPCL and us. Tomorrow we may not exist as BPCL. We might become a part of Shell or Reliance or some other organization.” The impeding competition as well as the uncertainty of existence in the present form created anxiety in the organization across all levels. Some considered it to be an opportunity where as others considered it as a let down by the government and the organization. The organization initiated numerous changes in order to transform itself to face the future competition.

“我们不知道BPCL和我们会发生什么。明天我们可能不会以BPCL的身份存在。我们可能会成为壳牌、信实或其他组织的一部分。”阻碍竞争以及目前形式存在的不确定性在组织的各个层面造成了焦虑。一些人认为这是一个机会,而另一些人则认为这是政府和组织的失望。为了适应未来的竞争,该组织发起了许多变革。

Initiation of the Restructuring Process 启动重组程序

The initiation for restructuring the organization was by the personal initiative of the CMD Mr. U Sundararajan. He had earlier been appointed by the government to study the petroleum industry in other countries as a preamble for deregulation. He had formed a cross well-designed team for studying the effectiveness of the models followed by different countries. 

该组织的重组是由CMD U Sundararajan先生亲自发起的。早些时候,他被政府任命研究其他国家的石油工业,作为放松管制的前奏。他组建了一个精心设计的团队,研究不同国家采用的模式的有效性。

Mr.Sundararajan and the team studied more than two hundred books and numerous articles on deregulation, oil industry and best practices. Mr. Sundararajan realized the inability of his organization to compete with MNCs with deregulation. He started the reorganization process through discussions with the top management, the board and the government

Sundararajan先生和团队研究了200多本关于放松管制、石油行业和最佳实践的书籍和大量文章。Sundararajan先生意识到他的组织无法通过放松管制与跨国公司竞争。他通过与最高管理层、董事会和政府的讨论开始了重组过程

The path which BPCL LTD choose to face the competition and initiatives taken in terms of organizational Behaviour has been assessed in this assignment.

BPCL LTD在组织行为方面选择的面对竞争的道路和采取的举措已在本篇essay中进行了评估。

For the purpose of analyzing the focus was laid down on key aspects of organization behavior which are organizational structure, change of team and organizational culture and climate in terms of Coaches of Organizational Learning which can be correlated to the case.

为了进行分析,重点放在了组织行为的关键方面,即组织

Coaches of Organizational Learning 组织学习教练

Consultants from Innovation Associates (a subsidiary of ADL) initially trained a group of trainer in systems idea and organizational education. A team of around thirty full time coaches and more than sixty part time coaches were trained in turn by these. These coaches conducted two programs namely ‘Visionary Leadership Planning’ (VLP) and ‘Foundations of Organisational Learning’ (FOL). More than six hundred managers have undergone VLP and more than five thousand management and non-management staff have undergone FOL. VLP program is designed to help teams clarify and understand reasons for their unique existence, co-create team aspirations, realistically assess current reality and formulate a Strategy to cover up the gap. The teams identify High Leverage Results they are passionate about and assign responsibilities to a few members with the whole team agreeing to support the process. FOL program is designed to create a common language of learning in organizations. The coaches were instrumental in creating a non-threatening atmosphere for change and also in providing the inputs on systems thinking and learning organization, enabling effectiveness of the various task forces empowered for quick result changes.

来自Innovation Associates(ADL的子公司)的顾问最初培训了一批系统理念和组织教育方面的培训师。由大约30名全职教练和60多名兼职教练组成的团队依次接受了这些培训。这些教练进行了两个项目,即“愿景领导力规划”和“组织学习基础”。超过600名管理人员接受了VLP,超过5000名管理层和非管理层员工接受了FOL。VLP计划旨在帮助团队澄清和理解其独特存在的原因,共同创造团队愿望,现实地评估当前现实,并制定弥补差距的战略。团队确定他们热衷的高杠杆结果,并将责任分配给少数成员,整个团队都同意支持这一过程。FOL计划旨在为组织创造一种通用的学习语言。教练们在创造一个无威胁的变革氛围方面发挥了重要作用,也在提供系统思维和学习组织方面的投入方面发挥了作用,使各种任务组能够有效地快速改变结果。

One of the trainer states 其中一位培训师表示

“We have applied for instructor education with skeptism. We later realized the importance of systems ideas and organizational education. The first program was a mind opening experience. The inputs on functional silos reflected our organization. Now we are hardcore followers of systems ideas”.

“我们申请了skeptism的讲师教育。后来我们意识到了系统思想和组织教育的重要性。第一个项目是一次开阔思路的体验。功能竖井的输入反映了我们的组织。现在我们是系统思想的铁杆追随者”。

Communication 沟通

Communication played a important role during out the change process. A bulletin was promoted that provided usual updates to the whole organization about the visioning exercise, the assessment of current reality, status of the quick fix opportunities and the new structure. In every stage the break through teams had a high level of interaction with the concerned divisions. The informal channel of communication was also taken care of by including community from all realistic constituencies in the change & break through teams. A top down approach was used to communicate the change plan with help from the break through team members.

本篇essay指出沟通在变革过程中发挥了重要作用。宣传了一份公告,向整个组织提供了关于设想工作、对当前现实的评估、快速解决机会的现状和新结构的最新情况。在每个阶段,突破团队都与相关部门进行了高水平的互动。非正式沟通渠道也得到了照顾,将来自所有现实选区的社区纳入变革和突破团队。在突破团队成员的帮助下,采用自上而下的方法来传达变更计划。

One CUSECS member reiterates 一名CUSECS成员重申

“Communication played a fundamental role in CUSECS project. The common updates through the newsletter and informal communication through the members to their parent departments was useful in updating the whole organization quickly. We identified enablers in each department, people who are opinion shapers and we particularly embattled them. We convinced them first and then asked them to communicate to others about the change”

“沟通在CUSECS项目中发挥着至关重要的作用。通过时事通讯和成员与上级部门的非正式沟通进行的共同更新有助于快速更新整个组织。我们确定了每个部门的推动者,他们是意见塑造者,我们特别让他们陷入困境。我们首先说服了他们,然后要求他们与其他人谈论变化“

Top Management Involvement 最高管理层参与

The CMD was occupied throughout the reorganization process. He communicated his hold to the change activities by personal involvement, and regular appreciation to the change management team and the particular task forces. He played the role of a mentor to the team members. He also interacted with a large number of employees during the visioning, assessment and finishing point stages. Young managers recount stories of his support to the change team, where he gave total freedom to come up with creative ideas and safe guarded them from backlashes from well-known constituencies.

CMD在整个重组过程中都被占用了。他通过个人参与以及对变革管理团队和特定工作组的定期赞赏,传达了他对变革活动的看法。他扮演着团队成员的导师角色。在展望、评估和终点阶段,他还与大量员工进行了互动。年轻的经理们讲述了他支持变革团队的故事,在那里,他完全自由地提出创造性的想法,并保护他们免受知名选民的反对。

Mr. Sundararajan recalls Sundararajan先生回忆道

“In the prime period I talked to lots of group of people regarding the need for reorganization. The leader has to ‘act’ not just ‘talk’. Lip service will not work for long. If individual says one will take of care of the subordinates then one has to when something happens”

“在黄金时期,我和很多人谈过重组的必要性。领导者必须‘行动’,而不仅仅是‘说话’。口头服务不会长久。如果个人说要照顾下属,那么当发生什么事情时,就必须这样做。”

Change Opportunities for Quick Results 更改快速结果的机会

During the assessment process, the break through teams identified many opportunities where small changes were likely to produce foremost results. Special task forces for working on the identified opportunities were created and started working in equivalent. The job forces were provided with adequate training and were in constant communication with the break through teams. At one point of time there were more than six hundred task forces working across the organization on thousands of opportunities identified in the change plan. Market study, brand building, packaging, operational efficiency of plants, correct quantity and quality of products, cash collections, and safety are some areas where task forces worked to produce quick results.

本篇essay在评估过程中发现,突破团队发现了许多机会,在这些机会中,微小的变化可能会产生最重要的结果。成立了专门工作队,负责处理已确定的机会,并开始以同等方式开展工作。工作人员得到了充分的培训,并与突破团队保持着持续的沟通。有一段时间,整个组织有600多个工作组在处理变革计划中确定的数千个机会。市场研究、品牌建设、包装、工厂运营效率、产品的正确数量和质量、现金收集和安全是工作组努力快速取得成果的一些领域。

Creating a Shared Vision 创造共同愿景

The visioning exercise was conducted to develop clarity and common understanding about the potential of the association. The visioning work out started with the panel. The exercise was extended across the company in a escalation approach flowing from the top management to the junior management facilitated by internal experts trained particularly for the same.

进行构想工作是为了使人们对该协会的潜力有更清晰的认识和共识。设想工作从小组开始。这项工作以从高层管理层到初级管理层的升级方式扩展到了整个公司,由专门为此培训的内部专家提供便利。

The core of the vision as articulated by the organizational members across the organization is given below.整个组织的组织成员阐述的愿景的核心如下所示

Be the BEST Establish first class brands and Make the workplace exciting corporate image Improve boundary management Excellent customer care and service Fulfill social responsibilities, to Go for excellent performance and ethical operational efficiency Apply the best technology. Make people a source of improvement Make systems strong and dynamic.

做BEST建立一流品牌,让工作场所充满活力的企业形象改善边界管理卓越的客户关怀和服务履行社会责任,追求卓越的业绩和道德运营效率应用最好的技术。使人成为改进的源泉使系统强大而充满活力。

Below figure elaborates the nine broad themes in the shared vision of BPCL. The visioning exercise provided an opportunity for articulation of the aspirations of the people. The process brought the whole organization out of lethargy, and increased the energy levels and expectations on persons, teams and the company. Since the vision was iterated throughout the organization, there was greater buy in for the change.

下图阐述了BPCL共同愿景中的九大主题。展望工作为表达人民的愿望提供了机会。这一过程使整个组织摆脱了无精打采的状态,提高了个人、团队和公司的能量水平和期望值。由于愿景在整个组织中反复出现,因此对变革有了更大的支持。

One of the managers states 其中一位经理表示

“We were all amazed that the vision was so much in unison across the organization. It clearly stated that people had great aspirations but never expressed them. This exercise made us realize the possibilities for the future of BPCL”.

“我们都很惊讶,整个组织的愿景如此一致。它清楚地表明,人们有着伟大的愿望,但从未表达过。这项工作让我们意识到了BPCL未来的可能性”。

Change Plan 变更计划

Based on the inputs from the shared vision and current reality, a workshop was conducted to develop a change plan. The change plan came to six volumes with over one thousand and six hundred pages.

根据共同愿景和当前现实的投入,举办了一次研讨会,以制定一项变革计划。这份修改计划共有六卷,一千六百多页。

The change plan included the 变更计划包括

Organizational assessment 组织评估

Well defined corporate values 明确的企业价值观

Vision articulated in terms of critical business processes, and 从关键业务流程的角度阐述愿景,以及

Areas of change to achieve the vision 实现愿景的变革领域

Organizational Assessment – Current Reality 组织评估——当前现实

Based on the initial diagnosis by the CUSECS team and the visioning workshop for top management, it was decided that an organization wide assessment exercise would be conducted simultaneously with the shared visioning exercise.

根据CUSECS团队的初步诊断和高层管理人员的愿景研讨会,决定在共同愿景活动的同时进行全组织的评估活动。

Six ‘break through’ teams were formed. The teams were responsible for assessing the organizational reality in terms of Marketing, Lubricants and Refining Support services and management Logistics processes LPG.

组建了六个“突破”小组。这些团队负责评估营销、润滑油和炼油支持服务以及液化石油气物流流程管理方面的组织现实。

The marketing team looked at the customer management processes, product management processes and execution management processes.

营销团队研究了客户管理流程、产品管理流程和执行管理流程。

The refining team compared the effectiveness of the refinery; lube oil processing and LPG plants with the best international players taking into account the machinery age and technology employed. Various performance parameters like crude acquisition, energy consumption, and capital expenditure were assessed.

炼油团队比较了炼油厂的有效性;润滑油加工和液化石油气工厂,考虑到所采用的机械时代和技术,拥有最好的国际参与者。评估了各种性能参数,如原油收购、能源消耗和资本支出。

The logistics team also looked at the existing logistics infrastructure, economics of supply and distribution, opportunities for cost reduction, supply points vs. consumption centers, impact of taxes and duty, and comparison with benchmarks and competitors.

物流团队还考察了现有的物流基础设施、供应和分销的经济性、降低成本的机会、供应点与消费中心的关系、税收和关税的影响,以及与基准和竞争对手的比较。

The LPG team compared the LPG marketing with that of the international and local competitors. The customer base, pricing policies, interface between the customer and marketing and future plans were critically reviewed.

液化石油气团队将液化石油气的营销与国际和本地竞争对手的营销进行了比较。对客户群、定价政策、客户与市场营销之间的接口以及未来计划进行了严格审查。

The lubricants team analyzed the organizational competitive position in comparison to the competition. It also looked at the packaging, pricing, branding, trade channels, the existing joint venture arrangements, and future plans. The team responsible for support services and management processes evaluated the human resource practices (for example work culture, HR processes, training and development, and appraisal and compensation), the information systems (for example use of different software packages, integration and use of IT), and accounting practices in terms of clarity, speed and cost.

润滑油团队分析了与竞争对手相比的组织竞争地位。它还考察了包装、定价、品牌、贸易渠道、现有合资企业安排和未来计划。负责支持服务和管理流程的团队评估了人力资源实践(例如工作文化、人力资源流程、培训和发展以及评估和薪酬)、信息系统(例如不同软件包的使用、IT的集成和使用)以及会计实践的清晰度、速度和成本。

The break through teams also assessed the organizational structure in terms of roles and responsibilities, levels and accountability, human resource development in terms of training, appraisal and compensation. Each team interacted with all the stakeholders concerned including the unions, suppliers, distributors, customers, financial institutes, local communities, government officials, and so on. Assessment was carried out in a non- threatening manner, with constant and rich communication of the activities carried out by the break through teams.

突破小组还评估了组织结构的作用和责任、级别和问责制、培训、评估和薪酬方面的人力资源开发。每个团队都与所有相关的利益相关者进行了互动,包括工会、供应商、分销商、客户、金融机构、当地社区、政府官员等。评估以非威胁的方式进行,并对突破团队开展的活动进行了持续和丰富的沟通。

The assessment exercise created an internal environment for change. The organizational assessment exercise found the following 评估工作为变革创造了一个内部环境。组织评估工作发现

Collective dissatisfaction with the status quo 集体对现状的不满

Low customer focus and customer orientation 以客户为中心和以客户为导向的程度低

Huge gap between the vision and capabilities to achieve it, and 实现这一目标的愿景和能力之间存在巨大差距,以及

Many opportunities for quick improvement 许多快速改进的机会

Change Team 变更团队

A change team was formed with twenty-two managers nominated from various functions across levels. The team size grew to thirty as the project progressed. The team members had varied performance records, educational qualifications and experience. The CMD did not believe in giving importance to those with higher degrees over others. His philosophy was to provide an opportunity to average people in an empowered and enabled environment to achieve great results.

成立了一个由22名经理组成的变革团队,他们来自不同级别的职能部门。随着项目的进展,团队规模增加到了30人。团队成员的表现记录、学历和经验各不相同。CMD不认为重视那些拥有比其他人更高学历的人。他的理念是为普通人提供一个机会,让他们在一个有能力、有能力的环境中取得巨大成果。

Mr. Sundararajan says

“Initially when we formed the change team I asked for nominations from various departments and they nominated all kinds of people. I did not nominate the best mangers in BPCL because I have observed many times in my career, if people are given the right environment and opportunities they would rise up to it. And my faith was not misplaced. These youngsters did a wonderful job.”

“最初,当我们组建变革团队时,我征求了各个部门的提名,他们提名了各种各样的人。我没有提名BPCL的最佳经理,因为我在职业生涯中多次观察到,如果人们得到合适的环境和机会,他们会迎难而上。我的信念没有错。这些年轻人做得很好。”

The change project was titled CUSECS for Customer Service & Customer Satisfaction. The consultant ADL trained the CUSECS team. The training included topics like negotiations, interpersonal effectiveness, presentations, systems thinking, and best practices. The CUSECS team was provided with all the information and support required to develop skills in diagnosis, change strategy formulation, organization design, and implementation. Those who could not take up the huge workload and stress were requested to leave and join their parent departments. The team conducted a short diagnosis of the organizational issues with facilitation by consultants and made presentations to the top management.

该变更项目的名称为客户服务和客户满意度CUSECS。ADL顾问对CUSECS团队进行了培训。培训内容包括谈判、人际效能、演讲、系统思维和最佳实践等。CUSECS团队获得了发展诊断、变革战略制定、组织设计和实施技能所需的所有信息和支持。那些无法承担巨大工作量和压力的人被要求离开,加入他们的上级部门。该小组在顾问的协助下对组织问题进行了简短的诊断,并向最高管理层作了介绍。

One of the CUSECS team members state:CUSECS团队成员之一表示

“We were initially frustrated and unable to understand why ADL wanted us to think through everything ourselves, rather than telling us what is best. Later, we appreciated their approach in enabling us to think and decide for ourselves what is best for the organization. We were trained exhaustively starting from presentation skills, negotiation skills to systems thinking and so on”.

“我们最初很沮丧,无法理解ADL为什么希望我们自己思考一切,而不是告诉我们什么是最好的。后来,我们很欣赏他们的方法,让我们能够自己思考和决定什么对组织最好。我们接受了详尽的培训,从演讲技能、谈判技能到系统思维等等。”

Designing the New Structure 设计新结构=

There was a clear consensus among the change management team, top management team and the consultants that the functional structure would not be able to sustain initiatives taken to create the customer centric organization. The obvious solution was to create customer centric strategic business units (SBUs). The change management team with assistance of the consultants considered various options. The redesign process took about a month. The CMD was personally involved in this. To prevent any interference from day to day activities he officially took leave and was present as a resource person. The change team discussed the various choices in structure with all the stakeholders. There were apprehensions among senior managers regarding the new structure and no consensus emerged on the new structure. Politicking and power plays were observed, with each function trying to retain the existing status in terms of power and control. Finally the CMD personally called for a meeting of the functional heads and other senior managers. Asking the group to discuss, negotiate and come with a concrete solution acceptable to everyone, he locked the room and waited outside. Finally a design was approved that was acceptable to all. The final structure was not the optimum structure as envisioned by the change team but one acceptable to all the members of the top management team.

变革管理团队、最高管理团队和顾问之间达成了明确的共识,即职能结构将无法维持为创建以客户为中心的组织而采取的举措。显而易见的解决方案是创建以客户为中心的战略业务单元。变革管理小组在顾问的协助下考虑了各种选择。重新设计过程花了大约一个月的时间。CMD亲自参与其中。为了防止日常活动受到任何干扰,他正式休假,并作为顾问出席了会议。变更团队与所有利益相关者讨论了结构中的各种选择。高级管理人员对新结构感到担忧,对新结构没有达成共识。观察到了政治和权力游戏,每个职能部门都试图在权力和控制方面保持现有地位。最后,CMD亲自召集职能部门负责人和其他高级管理人员开会。他要求团队进行讨论、谈判,并提出一个大家都能接受的具体解决方案,于是他锁上了房间,在外面等着。最后批准了一个所有人都能接受的设计。最终的结构并不是变革团队所设想的最佳结构,而是最高管理团队所有成员都能接受的结构。

Implementation 实施

The new structure was rolled out in phased manner to ensure effective implementation. The new structure was first implemented in the LPG SBU. Based on the experience, the new design was implemented across the organization with necessary modifications. Further, in each of the proposed SBUs specific regions were identified and the new structure was implemented to verify the smooth functioning before full implementation.

新结构已分阶段推出,以确保有效实施。新结构首先在液化石油气SBU中实施。根据经验,新设计在整个组织中实施,并进行了必要的修改。此外,在每个拟议的SBU中,都确定了特定的区域,并实施了新的结构,以在全面实施之前验证其平稳运行。

Organizational Structure 组织结构

The older structure was functionally organized. There were mainly four functions (refineries, marketing, finance and personnel) each headed by an executive director reporting to the (CMD). Other support departments like corporate affairs, legal, audit, vigilance, coordination and company secretary were directly under the CMD.

旧的结构在功能上是有组织的。主要有四个职能部门(炼油厂、营销、财务和人事),每个部门由一名执行董事领导,向(CMD)报告。公司事务、法律、审计、警戒、协调和公司秘书等其他支持部门直接隶属于CMD。

The Director refinery was in charge of refinery, corporate planning, JV refineries and special projects. Other than corporate finance and marketing finance EDP was also under the Director finance. In marketing, there were different departments for retail, industry, LPG, lubricants and aviation segments. Corporate communication was also under Director meeting.

炼油厂总监负责炼油厂、企业规划、合资炼油厂和特殊项目。除公司财务和营销财务外,EDP也由财务总监负责。在市场营销方面,零售、工业、液化石油气、润滑油和航空部门各不相同。董事会还进行了企业沟通。

The whole of India was divided into four regions and further into 22 divisions. Each region was headed by a Regional Manager who was in charge of all activities within the region and reported to the Director marketing. Each region had a manager in charge of each of regional personnel, regional engineering, regional industrial customers, regional retail, and regional finance. Regional LPG was under regional industrial customers. The division was the responsibility of the Divisional Manager reporting to the Regional Manager. He had a manager each for sales, operations and engineering. Each of these was responsible for sales, depots and engineering respectively for all the customer segments.

整个印度被划分为四个地区,并进一步划分为22个师。每个区域都由一名区域经理领导,该经理负责该区域内的所有活动,并向营销总监报告。每个区域都有一名经理负责区域人员、区域工程、区域工业客户、区域零售和区域金融。区域液化石油气属于区域工业客户。该部门由部门经理负责向区域经理报告。他分别有一名经理负责销售、运营和工程。他们分别负责所有客户细分市场的销售、仓库和工程。

Across the marketing function, except for the corporate departments (LPG, industrial customer, etc.) specifically looking after a customer segment, every individual and role is focused on multiple customer segments. For example any strategy addressing the industrial customers originates from the Corporate Department (Industrial Customer), goes via the Director Marketing, Regional Manager, Divisional Manager to the Sales Officer. All of them are responsible for multiple customer segments like retail, LPG, industrial, etc. and deal with different classes of customers. Hence there was very low customer awareness in terms of the unique needs of the different customer segments, with no single individual at the operational level having clarity on any single customer segment. Moreover, the marketing strategy was formulated by people who were far from the customer with very low understanding of the customer they were targeting. The implementers were responsible for diverse customers with a low understanding of the logic of these strategies meant for each customer segment. Thus the old structure had created a bottleneck between the strategy formulators and implementers in terms of the regional structure, and between the field staff and the corporate offices and refinery.

在整个营销职能中,除了专门负责客户细分市场的公司部门(液化石油气、工业客户等)外,每个人和角色都专注于多个客户细分市场。本篇essay提出,任何针对工业客户的战略都源于公司部门(工业客户),通过市场总监、区域经理、部门经理再到销售官。他们都负责零售、液化石油气、工业等多个客户细分市场,并与不同类别的客户打交道。因此,客户对不同客户群体的独特需求的认识非常低,运营层面没有一个人对任何一个客户群体有明确的认识。此外,营销策略是由远离客户的人制定的,他们对目标客户的了解非常低。实施者负责不同的客户,对每个客户细分市场的这些策略的逻辑理解不足。因此,在区域结构方面,旧的结构在战略制定者和执行者之间,以及外地工作人员与公司办公室和炼油厂之间造成了瓶颈。

Activities of a business process are spread out across different functions and levels of hierarchy, engaging many individuals. There was a long chain of non-value adding linkages between any two activities targeting a business / customer. For example, when an industrial customer gives a special order of lubes to the sales officer, the corporate lubes purchases the base oil, plant blends it, S&D packs it and the sales officer sells it. The Sales Officer would communicate the order to the Divisional Manager, who passes it on to the Regional Manager. Then the order would be routed to the Corporate Lubes for processing. Everyone involved in the activities of this process belong to different functions and hierarchy levels. This long chain of communication had led to a lack of customer orientation, low awareness of customer needs and expectations and slow response.

业务流程的活动分布在不同的功能和层次结构中,涉及许多个人。任何两项针对企业/客户的活动之间都存在一长串不增加价值的联系。例如,当一个工业客户向销售人员下了一份润滑油的特殊订单时,公司润滑油会购买基础油,进行工厂调配,S&D包装,然后销售人员将其出售。销售人员会将订单传达给部门经理,由部门经理将订单转交给区域经理。然后,订单将被发送到Corporate Lubes进行处理。参与该过程活动的每个人都属于不同的职能和层次。这种漫长的沟通链导致了缺乏客户导向,对客户需求和期望的认识不足,反应迟缓。

The New SBU Structure SBU新结构

The new structure was focused on the business processes and the customer. 新的结构侧重于业务流程和客户。

The new structure at the top management level is the same. Five SBUs – Retail, Lubes, Industry/Commercial, LPG and Aviation are customer centered SBUs and come under the director (marketing). The sixth SBU, Refinery along with two new departments IT & Supply Chain and R&D are under the director (refineries). Each SBU would have its own HR, IS, finance, logistics, sales, engineering, etc. The number of layers in the organization was reduced to four from six or seven.

最高管理层的新结构是一样的。五个SBU——零售、润滑油、工业/商业、液化石油气和航空是以客户为中心的SBU,由总监(营销)负责。第六个SBU、炼油厂以及两个新的IT和供应链部门和研发部门由主管(炼油厂)领导。每个SBU都有自己的人力资源、信息系统、财务、物流、销售、工程等。组织中的层数从六到七层减少到四层。

The major change is the introduction of the territories covering a smaller geographical area and focusing on specific customer segments. In retail SBU the new structure had 669 territories reporting to the four regional offices, where as in the earlier structure there were only 22 divisions which catered to all segments. In other SBUs the regional office was removed and territories were designed to directly report to the SBU heads. Each territory team leader was responsible for sales in the territory only for a specific product. The territory structure was designed to enable the field staff to focus on specific customer segments. Authority was also delegated down the hierarchy and decision making pushed to the lowest possible levels. Decisions earlier taken at the regional level were taken now at the territory level. Further authority was delegated to the role and not the hierarchy level. Administrative offices have been moved to supply locations that consist of 125 terminals for main fuels and 35 LPG bottling ones. In LPG SBU head office there are only nine personnel and across the territories even managers at senior positions have been forced to get business. The new design incorporated recalibration of roles and responsibilities and redeployment of more than two thousand people (around one fifth of total employee strength) across the organization. It created new roles at the front effectively using redundant manpower to increase customer interface and interaction.

本篇essay提出主要变化是引入了覆盖较小地理区域的区域,并专注于特定的客户细分市场。在零售SBU中,新结构有669个地区向四个地区办事处报告,与早期结构一样,只有22个部门满足所有部门的需求。在其他SBU中,区域办事处被撤销,领土被设计为直接向SBU负责人报告。每个地区团队负责人只负责特定产品在该地区的销售。区域结构旨在使外地工作人员能够专注于特定的客户群体。权力也被下放到层级,决策被推到尽可能低的级别。以前在区域一级作出的决定现在在领土一级作出。进一步的权力被授予了角色,而不是层次结构级别。行政办公室已迁至供应地点,包括125个主要燃料码头和35个液化石油气装瓶码头。在液化石油气SBU总部,只有9名员工,在整个地区,甚至高级职位的经理也被迫获得业务。新设计包括重新调整角色和职责,以及在整个组织中重新部署2000多人(约占员工总数的五分之一)。它在前线创造了新的角色,有效地利用多余的人力来增加客户界面和互动。

Since the corporate and support functions are now located within the SBUs the new design included lateral linkage mechanisms (see Appendix C). Governance Councils, Process Councils, and Task forces (to address specific organizational issues) were the mechanisms for integrating the different parts of the organization.

由于公司和支持职能现在位于SBU内,新设计包括横向联动机制(见附录C)。治理委员会、流程委员会和工作队(处理具体的组织问题)是整合组织不同部分的机制。

Some Salient Features of New Structure were 新结构的一些突出特点是

Highly empowered work force 强大的劳动力

Decentralized decision making 分散决策

De-linking of authority from hierarchical levels 权力与层级的脱钩

Orientation towards internal and external customers 面向内部和外部客户

Regular market research and customer surveys 定期市场调查和客户调查

Conscious brand building efforts 自觉的品牌建设努力

Organizational Structure before redesign 重新设计前的组织结构

Organizational Structure after redesign 重新设计后的组织结构

Conclusion 结论

Bharat Petroleum realises that, in the long run, success can only come with a total reorientation and change in approach with the customer as the focal point. Today, Bharat Petroleum is restructured into a Corporate Centre, Strategic Business Units (SBUs) and Shared Services and Entities.

巴拉特石油公司意识到,从长远来看,只有以客户为焦点,彻底重新定位和改变方法,才能取得成功。如今,巴拉特石油公司已重组为企业中心、战略业务部门(SBU)以及共享服务和实体。

From the last many years Bharat Petroleum continues face many challenges of the quickly changing environment. Bharat petroleum make advance and changes their products and services according to the changing environment. In day by day changing in bharat petroleum only one factor has remained unchanged this is Bharat Petroleum’s employees which are the source of strength and motivation of Bharat Petroleum’s in their future innovations. Bharat Petroleum wants their employees to understand the complexity of the market, customer’s requirements, and offer the innovative products to meets the customers’ requirements.

在过去的许多年里,巴拉特石油公司继续面临着快速变化的环境带来的许多挑战。巴拉特石油公司根据不断变化的环境推进并改变其产品和服务。在巴拉特石油公司日复一日的变化中,只有一个因素保持不变,那就是巴拉特石油的员工,他们是巴拉特石油未来创新的力量和动力来源。巴拉特石油公司希望其员工了解市场的复杂性和客户的要求,并提供满足客户要求的创新产品。

For Bharat Petroleum, promise by its staffs is a critical resource. BPCL believe that only a cheerful worker will place his best result and a good relationship with the customs, Bharat Petroleum deployed and also will plan to implement several steps to make the organisation a great place to work or worker get best organisation environment. Hewitt Associates conducted a survey for Business Today magazine in the January 2001 issue to identify the best employers, and in this survey Bharat Petroleum was one of top ten employers in India. The main motive of the survey was to discover out which companies had really charged the expressive and intellectual energy of their employees. The companies who were in the top list were Hughes, ICICI, P and G, Asian Paints, Hewlett-Packard, HLL, Infosys, LG and Compaq.

对巴拉特石油公司来说,员工的承诺是一项关键资源。BPCL相信,只有一个快乐的员工才能取得最好的成绩,并与巴拉特石油公司部署的海关建立良好的关系,还将计划实施几个步骤,使组织成为一个良好的工作场所或员工获得最佳的组织环境。Hewitt Associates在2001年1月的《今日商业》杂志上进行了一项调查,以确定最佳雇主。在这项调查中,巴拉特石油公司是印度十大雇主之一。这项调查的主要动机是找出哪些公司真正激发了员工的表达和智力。位居榜首的公司有休斯、ICICI、宝洁、亚洲涂料、惠普、HLL、Infosys、LG和康柏。

Bharat Petroleum adopts significant value-based HR methods for growth of individuals and their organisational skills with a assessment to provide them with a competitive edge and also to realise their private vision in tandem with the commercial vision.

巴拉特石油公司采用基于价值的重要人力资源方法来培养个人及其组织技能,并对其进行评估,为其提供竞争优势,同时实现其私人愿景和商业愿景。

Bharat Petroleum has been conferred the National HRD Award – 2000 by National HRD Network for making Outstanding Contribution to HRD.

巴拉特石油公司因对人力资源开发做出杰出贡献而被国家人力资源开发网络授予2000年国家人力资源发展奖。

At the National Petroleum Management Programme (NPMP) on Excellence in Creativity and Innovation (1999-2000), Bharat Petroleum employees bagged all the three awards in the individual category, along with four certificates of recognition in the team category.

在国家石油管理计划的卓越创造力和创新(1999-2000)中,巴拉特石油公司的员工获得了个人类别的全部三个奖项,以及团队类别的四个认可证书。

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