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Essay格式范文:Samsung Innovation Strategy

论文价格: 免费 时间:2024-01-17 10:35:45 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

Essay格式范文-三星创新战略。本文是一篇国外大学标准的essay格式范文,主要内容是讲述苹果公司首席执行官乔布斯表示,为了产生真正有趣的想法和能够持续创新多年的初步技术,需要很多学科。IBM首席执行官Sam Palmisano表示,创新的本质已经发生了变化。创造伟大的创新并不是建立在个人在实验室里进行实验的基础上的。这不是一个人。这是个人的问题。这是多学科的。它是全球性的。它是协作的。合作和开放是未来管理实践的关键,这有助于公司创新。创新型组织并非偶然诞生,但有了精心设计的管理和支持性文化,创新型公司才能诞生。本文将以三星为例,描述创新组织的组成部分,这些组成部分有助于营造创新环境。以下就是这篇Essay格式范文的具体内容,供参考。

Essay格式范文

Jobs (2003), CEO of Apple, said that in order to generate really interesting ideas and preliminary technologies that can continue to innovate for years, it needs a lot of disciplines. Sam Palmisano, CEO of IBM, suggested that there has been a change in the nature of innovation. Creating great innovation is not established from individuals experimenting in a laboratory. It’s not an individual. It’s individuals. It’s multidisciplinary. It’s global. It’s collaborative (REIS 2008). Collaboration and openness are the keys of future management practice, which fosters company to be innovative. Innovative organisation is not just accidentally born, but with the well-designed management and supportive culture, innovative company can be created. This essay will describe components of innovative organisation, which help to cultivate innovative environment by using Samsung as the case study.

Samsung Group 三星集团

The success of Samsung has been widely acknowledged in the last decade. Samsung, the world’s largest television producer and second largest mobile phone manufacturer, is also the largest firm of flash memory maker. Furthermore, Samsung was ranked by Fast Company Magazine to be third most innovative company in the consumer electronics (Borden 2010). The company grew from a local industrial leader into a worldwide consumer electronics brand, with up to 261,000 employees, 14 public listed companies, 470 offices and facilities in 67 countries (Samsung 2010a). In the research of Business weeks in collaboration with the innovation practice of The Boston Consulting Group, Samsung was ranked as 11th world’s most innovative companies (Businessweek 2010). It is one of the two Korean companies in the Top 20 companies. While Sony, the Japan’s biggest consumer electronics, was ranked as 10th, only one position above Samsung. This has brought questions among management gurus how this growing company could drive innovation to create success within a short time and remain innovative despite the difficulties of internationalisation. In addition, it could overcome many well-built rivals from Japan and Europe.

三星的成功在过去十年中得到了广泛认可。三星是全球最大的电视生产商和第二大手机制造商,也是最大的闪存制造商。此外,三星被《快公司杂志》评为消费电子领域第三大创新公司。该公司从当地的行业领导者成长为全球消费电子品牌,在67个国家拥有261000名员工、14家上市公司、470个办公室和设施。在与波士顿咨询集团的创新实践合作的《商业周刊》研究中,三星被列为世界第11位最具创新性的公司。它是前20强中的两家韩国公司之一。而日本最大的消费电子产品索尼排名第十,仅比三星高出一位。这给管理大师们带来了一个问题,即这家不断发展的公司如何在短时间内推动创新创造成功,并在国际化的困难中保持创新。此外,它还可以战胜来自日本和欧洲的许多实力雄厚的竞争对手。

Shared vision and top management commitment are the important component leading to create innovative atmosphere. Ideaction (2010), innovation development consultancy firm, stated that, in creating such organization, if leaders are not committed in their actions, innovation couldn’t be systematic in a company. Top executive’s role modelling is one of the main differences between innovative and non-innovative organizations. Moreover, employees should realise a company’s goals to align with their innovative effort. Samsung’s new management beliefs applied in the late 1990’s is “we will devote our human resources and technology to create superior products and services, thereby contributing to a better global society.” This shows the company’s strong willpower to contribute to the worldwide people’s prosperity in the 21st century (Samsung 2010b). This message encourages every employee in the firm to innovate with the clear goal of being global superior producer.

共同的愿景和最高管理层的承诺是营造创新氛围的重要组成部分。创新发展咨询公司Idection指出,在创建这样的组织时,如果领导者不致力于他们的行动,创新就不可能在公司中系统化。高管的角色塑造是创新型和非创新型组织的主要区别之一。此外,员工应该意识到公司的目标与他们的创新努力相一致。三星在20世纪90年代末应用的新管理理念是“我们将投入人力资源和技术,创造卓越的产品和服务,从而为更美好的全球社会做出贡献。”这表明了该公司在21世纪为世界人民的繁荣做出贡献的坚强意志。这条信息鼓励公司的每一位员工进行创新,明确目标是成为全球卓越的生产商。

Appropriate structure 适当的结构

The innovative organization tends to have characteristics of organic structures with open and dynamics systems (Zannad and Rouet 2003). At first, the reduction of organizational layer and downsizing are concerned as cost control. An increase in use of information technologies, such as email, internal blog, shared data repository, also leads to the need of eliminating middle management. The possible consequences for this are faster responsiveness to market, higher competitiveness, more flexibility, and reducing processes between divisions. This leads to flatter organisation that is not only the change of organisational structure but also the change of decision-making process (Cho 1999). In order to avoid delays and support for rapid innovation, decisions should be delegated to the innovation team. The approval of top management is only needed at the checkpoints or gates of the innovation process (Wentz 2008). Furthermore, Innovation is not suitable with multi-level hierarchy as the new idea and radical innovation must pass through many approvals with high possibility of ideas being rejected. Moreover, this will discourage strong leaders, who try to overcome its cumbersome, but the slow-response organisation will eventually obstruct their abilities (Chandler et al 1999, p.142). For example, in 1989, Samsung had 3-7 steps for project approval. This took up 24 days for the proposal to go through 7 approvals to arrive final decision step from the president . On the contrary, proposal in 1995 needed maximum of 3 approvals decided on the same day. This change of the important process leads to speed of running business. Furthermore, the proposal form in 1995 is in English, this signified an attempt for globalisation (Cho 1999).

创新组织往往具有具有开放和动态系统的有机结构特征。首先,组织层的减少和规模的缩小被认为是成本控制。电子邮件、内部博客、共享数据存储库等信息技术的使用增加,也导致需要消除中层管理。这可能带来的后果是更快地响应市场,更高的竞争力,更大的灵活性,以及减少部门之间的流程。这导致了组织的扁平化,这不仅是组织结构的变化,也是决策过程的变化。为了避免延迟和支持快速创新,决策应委托给创新团队。只有在创新过程的检查点或大门处才需要最高管理层的批准。此外,创新不适合多级层次,因为新的想法和激进的创新必须经过许多批准,想法被拒绝的可能性很高。此外,这将阻碍强有力的领导人,他们试图克服繁琐的程序,但反应缓慢的组织最终会阻碍他们的能力)。例如,1989年,三星有3-7个项目审批步骤。这花了24天的时间,提案通过了7次审批,最终由总统做出决定。相反,1995年的提案最多需要在同一天决定3项批准。这种重要流程的变化会加快业务的运行速度。此外,1995年的提案表格是英文的,这标志着全球化的尝试。

Key individuals 关键个人

With the goal of creating innovation in the company, Samsung needs the world-class human resources from both technical and business backgrounds. Its branding strategy is not only to create a brand that people trust and admire, but also to be a company that they desire to join. To foster this breakthrough R&D, Samsung set up worldwide objectives to catch the attention of the smartest people from around the world, and retain them. These people will be trained and implanted Korean and Samsung culture through one week of intensive Korean daily conversation class, one week of Orientation about company’s history, philosophy, and culture, and develop general management skills delivered by senior Samsung executives (Samsung 2010d). The recruitment of world’s smartest innovators, inventors and designers are fundamental to the company’s success in creating the future technology. Dr.Hwang said

以创造公司创新为目标,三星需要来自技术和商业背景的世界级人力资源。它的品牌战略不仅是创建一个人们信任和钦佩的品牌,而且是一家他们希望加入的公司。为了促进这一突破性的研发,三星制定了全球目标,以吸引世界各地最聪明的人的注意力,并留住他们。这些人将通过为期一周的强化韩国日常对话课程、为期一周关于公司历史、哲学和文化的定向课程,接受韩国和三星文化的培训和植入,并发展三星高管提供的一般管理技能。招聘世界上最聪明的创新者、发明家和设计师是公司成功创造未来技术的基础。黄博士说

“Today, one smart person affects the survival of 10,000 people. The need for core human resources has never been more urgent and cannot be achieved without the help of the world’s universities,” (SEA 2006)

“今天,一个聪明人影响着一万人的生存。对核心人力资源的需求从未像现在这样迫切,没有世界大学的帮助是无法实现的。”

Besides having the best people for the development of innovative capabilities, Samsung has a tool to identify the key players, such as Project leader, promoters, idea champions, or gatekeeper, in the organization. Experiential education programs that are enjoyable, innovative and effective have performed this identification task. For example in the Samsung Semiconductor unit, 90 managers were organised into groups and assigned to build up new equipment through the use of Lego blocks. The tool was just simple Lego blocks, but the equipment created in this experiment had to be functional. This activity, which required both creativity and teamwork, provided managers comprehension of the role each member played in team. Who is promoter, supporter, idea generator, and critical thinker are identified (Bargsley 2002).

除了拥有最优秀的人才来发展创新能力外,三星还有一个工具来识别组织中的关键参与者,如项目负责人、推动者、创意倡导者或看门人。令人愉快、创新和有效的体验式教育项目完成了这一识别任务。例如,在三星半导体部门,90名经理被组织成小组,并被指派通过使用乐高积木来建造新设备。这个工具只是简单的乐高积木,但这个实验中创建的设备必须是功能性的。这项活动需要创造力和团队合作,让管理者了解每个成员在团队中所扮演的角色。确定了谁是推动者、支持者、思想创造者和批判性思想家。

Effective teamworking 有效的团队合作

Currently, team-working increasingly reflects a deeper recognition that this method of working offers greater economic benefits. Cross-functional teams is an effective tool to bring in different knowledge sets needed for solving production problems, creating new businesses, or develop new strategies. Work as a team needs more participation, higher commitment, sharing knowledge and self-management. This is more organic and flexible approach that helps to initiate innovation implanting across organisational and national boundaries. For example, Automakers from USA and Japan collectively worked on the development of new car model (West and Markiewicz 2004). Committing to consumer trends, Samsung set up a group of about 30 businessmen called CNB (Create New Businesses) who had to discover long-term social and technological fashions and imagine new products, which fulfil promising demands. Samsung has harvested the fruits from its team-working and strong commitment to innovation, transforming low-quality producer to become a brand that create stylish mobile phone (Yian 2005). In 2010, its sales of mobile phones were ranked as number one in the US market (Paczkowski 2010).

目前,团队合作越来越反映出人们对这种工作方式能带来更大经济效益的更深认识。跨职能团队是一种有效的工具,可以引入解决生产问题、创建新业务或制定新战略所需的不同知识集。团队合作需要更多的参与、更高的承诺、共享知识和自我管理。这是一种更有机、更灵活的方法,有助于启动跨组织和国家边界的创新植入。例如,美国和日本的汽车制造商共同致力于新车型的开发。致力于消费者趋势,三星成立了一个由大约30名商人组成的团体,名为CNB(创建新企业),他们必须发现长期的社会和技术时尚,并想象新产品,以满足有希望的需求。三星收获了其团队合作的成果和对创新的坚定承诺,将低质量的生产商转变为创造时尚手机的品牌。2010年,其手机销量位居美国市场第一。

Long-term commitment to education 对教育的长期承诺

Invest in people is another key initiative needed to emphasise in the development of innovative organisation. Army without essential weapons cannot deliver its full potential. Those needed weapons are knowledge, which has to be developed by best practice training. Companies, such as Hewlett Packard, and Samsung, have committed in training and development programs to help spread innovation capability all over the organisation (Todhunter 2007). Besides internal training programs, offering scholarship, postgraduate study opportunities and international work placement for its staff in 120 offices across 57 countries provide Samsung linkage with renowned universities, also bringing in knowledge and collaboration to the organisation. The by-product from doing so is incentives that help to attract and retain of the best and brightest inventor and businessperson from the global industry (SEA 2006).

对人才的投资是创新组织发展中需要强调的另一项关键举措。没有基本武器的军队无法充分发挥其潜力。所需的武器是知识,必须通过最佳实践训练加以发展。惠普和三星等公司已致力于培训和发展计划,以帮助在整个组织中传播创新能力。除了内部培训项目外,三星还在57个国家的120个办事处为员工提供奖学金、研究生学习机会和国际工作安排,这为三星与知名大学提供了联系,也为该组织带来了知识和合作。这样做的副产品是激励措施,有助于吸引和留住全球行业中最优秀、最聪明的发明家和商人。

Extensive communication 广泛的沟通

Communication is one of the factors causing failure in investing in ideas that go wrong since the beginning. These are those ideas that do not align with the company’s need. Communication within company about its strategy and customer demands is needed for the clear innovation pathways of researchers (Todhunter 2007). Idea generated from either internal or external organisation must go through many steps of modification before adopting into a company. These steps become troubles for the huge companies. In the case of Samsung, idea management has been introduced to manage ideas from thinkers and distribute them all over the company. They will be evaluated by colleagues, supervisors, or assigned review staffs who add views, opinions and knowledge (Baloh et al 2008). In addition to internal communication, networking between firms is also key component in the creation of innovation. The network organisation is a group of several independent companies, which perform different tasks and contract one another. For example, one firm in the network focus on research and product design, another manufactures it, and a third does distribution. This approach gains a wide acceptance as it has strong rationale including rapid change of business environment, the cumbersome of large-size companies, importance of speed and flexibility. Moreover, partners’ collaboration helps to blend and complement different core competency in creating better innovation. Samsung has utilised this concept by building a team, called TechnoValley, undertaking only planning and marketing of product. Other partners in the network took care of technology, production, distribution, and promotion (Cho 1999).

沟通是导致投资于从一开始就出错的想法失败的因素之一。这些想法与公司的需求不一致。研究人员需要在公司内部就其战略和客户需求进行沟通,以明确创新路径。从内部或外部组织产生的想法在进入公司之前必须经过许多修改步骤。这些步骤成为大公司的麻烦。以三星为例,引入了思想管理来管理思想家的思想,并将其分发到整个公司。他们将由同事、主管或指定的审查人员进行评估,他们会添加观点、意见和知识。除了内部沟通,企业之间的网络也是创新的关键组成部分。网络组织是由几个独立的公司组成的集团,它们执行不同的任务并相互签订合同。例如,网络中的一家公司专注于研究和产品设计,另一家公司生产,第三家公司分销。这种方法得到了广泛的接受,因为它有很强的理由,包括商业环境的快速变化、大型公司的繁琐、速度和灵活性的重要性。此外,合作伙伴的合作有助于融合和补充不同的核心能力,创造更好的创新。三星利用这一概念建立了一个名为TechnoValley的团队,只负责产品的规划和营销。网络中的其他合作伙伴负责技术、生产、分销和推广。

High involvement in innovation 高度参与创新

In “Built to Last”, Collins and Porras advise us that building a visionary company requires 1 percent vision and 99 percent alignment (O’Donovan 2006). In order to build a sustainable innovation culture, staffs have to practice innovation in everything they do. Practicing to tackle small challenge will make them ready for a bigger challenge. Samsung manager plays an important role in supporting this culture of practicing innovation by encouraging the innovation process and not pushing employees to short circuit the solution process (Samsung 2010c).

在《持久发展》一书中,Collins和Porras建议我们,建立一家有远见的公司需要1%的愿景和99%的一致性。为了建立可持续的创新文化,员工必须在他们所做的每件事中实践创新。实践应对小挑战将使他们为迎接更大的挑战做好准备。三星经理通过鼓励创新过程而不是强迫员工缩短解决方案过程,在支持这种实践创新的文化方面发挥着重要作用。

External forces 外部力量

External forces shapes Samsung to become technology leaders. Previously, closed innovation was the model that Samsung Electronics followed. They invested in the best people and centralised their R&D unit. Today, Samsung cannot depend only on internal innovations, which may create the advanced operating system for mobile phone but not attractive one. Samsung open innovation centre established to create striking design and user-friendly interface of Samsung mobile phone. It successfully engaged customers and suppliers in the innovation process at the early stage. Being based in Korea with large group of young technology-concerned consumers provides Samsung an innovative edge in consumer electronics including mobile phones. The replacement rate for mobile phones in Korea is estimated at 6-18 months, thanks to young Koreans who swiftly adapt new technology (Yian 2005). Therefore, these trendy people have participated in testing and giving feedback, which provide significant information about customers’ desire (Baloh et al 2008). Korea, therefore, becomes an invaluable testing location for innovations prior to the companies unveil them on the world stage.

外部力量塑造三星成为技术领导者。此前,封闭式创新是三星电子所遵循的模式。他们投资了最优秀的人才,并集中了他们的研发部门。如今,三星不能仅仅依靠内部创新,这可能会创造出先进的手机操作系统,但却没有吸引力。三星开放创新中心成立,旨在创造三星手机引人注目的设计和用户友好的界面。它在早期阶段成功地让客户和供应商参与创新过程。总部设在韩国,拥有大批年轻的技术消费者,这为三星在包括手机在内的消费电子产品方面提供了创新优势。韩国的手机更换率估计为6-18个月,这要归功于韩国年轻人迅速适应新技术。因此,这些时尚人士参与了测试和反馈,这些测试和反馈提供了关于客户欲望的重要信息。因此,在这些公司将其推向世界舞台之前,韩国成为了创新的宝贵测试地。

Creative climate 创意氛围

Public reward for those who distinguish themselves as mains actor in innovation culture and who promote the value of innovation is the powerful tool to expand innovative thinking throughout the enterprise. There are many examples of escalating the visibility of innovation success, such as the company innovation award, inventor hall of fame. This illustrates the commitment a company have on its innovation and inspire employees by making them proud of their success (Todhunter 2007). Idea management through the use of IT have increased the rate of product and process improvement, as contributions of ideas are traceable. It open up the communication all over the company and promote culture of sharing and creativity. Ideas are developed and talked widely not only in vertical but in horizontal fashion leading to innovative atmosphere. After the introduction of knowledge management solution in Samsung Electronics, there was a change in organizational climate. Employees have been become confident to be more suggestive, trustful, responsive to change, and eager to innovate. Forum and blog postings are the place for knowledge sharing where an automatic rewarding system is executed. The profitability of the products launched, have been chosen as the innovation performance indicators (Baloh et al 2008).

对那些在创新文化中脱颖而出并提升创新价值的人进行公开奖励,是在整个企业中拓展创新思维的有力工具。有许多提高创新成功知名度的例子,如公司创新奖、发明家名人堂。这说明了一家公司对创新的承诺,并通过让员工为自己的成功感到骄傲来激励他们。通过使用IT进行理念管理,提高了产品和流程的改进率,因为理念的贡献是可追溯的。它打开了整个公司的沟通渠道,促进了共享和创造力的文化。思想不仅在纵向上,而且在横向上得到了广泛的发展和讨论,从而形成了创新的氛围。在三星电子引入知识管理解决方案后,组织氛围发生了变化。员工们已经变得自信起来,变得更具暗示性、更值得信赖、对变化有反应,并渴望创新。论坛和博客是知识共享的地方,在这里执行自动奖励系统。已选择所推出产品的可行性作为创新绩效指标。

Learning organisation 学习型组织

An empirical study showed that sharing knowledge and skill of employees brings about innovative performance (Alwis and Hartmann 2008). Samsung has identified two main challenges in the creation of learning organisation that are knowledge discovery and knowledge sharing. In the past, problems occurred due to lack of knowledge management, for example, lost of valuable knowledge from poor management, or repeating the same failures. To tackle such problems, organizational mechanisms and technological solutions to facilitate the innovation process in Samsung have been introduced. Firstly, Samsung Brainstorming Hours has been arranged to capture and spread ideas in any step of innovation process from idea generation to conversion and commercialisation. This is not applied only in the new product development process, but also solving complex problems or business improvement. Two hours weekly meeting for cross-functional team in the room with tall windows, wireless connection, big-screen TV, snacks and drinks is designed to foster innovation process. This comfortable surroundings helps innovation workers to socialise with each other and share ideas. Secondly, company-wide simple but powerful blog has been introduced to encourage knowledge sharing and discovery. The blog helps employees understand and discuss ideas so as to extend previous knowledge continuously. Thirdly, knowledge warehouses have been built to have codifiable critical knowledge stored and accessible throughout Samsung Company. The “Lessons Learned System with Alert function” has been used to manage this knowledge and share it. For storing lesson learned, project managers has been trained about how and what knowledge to collect and given the project management manuals including many useful procedures such as how to write a closing report, how to create and store a project model, how to perform an After Action Review. In order to control overwhelming information, Alerts system notifies employees of newly stored knowledge that might be of interest and useful to their work (Baloh et al 2008).

一项实证研究表明,员工分享知识和技能会带来创新绩效。三星确定了创建学习型组织的两个主要挑战,即知识发现和知识共享。过去,问题是由于缺乏知识管理而发生的,例如,由于管理不善而失去有价值的知识,或者重复同样的失败。为了解决这些问题,三星引入了促进创新进程的组织机制和技术解决方案。首先,Samsung Brainstorming Hours被安排在从创意产生到转化和商业化的创新过程的任何步骤中捕捉和传播创意。这不仅适用于新产品开发过程,也适用于解决复杂问题或业务改进。跨职能团队每周两小时的会议,在有高窗户、无线连接、大屏幕电视、零食和饮料的房间里进行,旨在促进创新过程。这种舒适的环境有助于创新工作者相互交流和分享想法。其次,引入了全公司范围的简单但功能强大的博客,以鼓励知识共享和发现。博客帮助员工理解和讨论想法,从而不断扩展以前的知识。第三,建立了知识仓库,以便在整个三星公司存储和访问可编辑的关键知识。“具有警报功能的经验教训系统”已用于管理和共享这些知识。为了存储经验教训,项目经理已接受了如何以及收集什么知识的培训,并获得了项目管理手册,包括许多有用的程序,如如何编写结题报告、如何创建和存储项目模型、,如何执行事后审查。为了控制压倒性的信息,警报系统向员工通知新存储的可能对他们的工作感兴趣和有用的知识。

Conclusion 结论

Samsung has successfully transformed from local low quality manufacturer to a brand that produce admirable and stylish consumer electronics. Company performance has proven that Samsung has come to the right direction in last decade. The achievement of becoming innovative organisation started from the declaration to be the global leader in the industry in late 1990s. After the re-configuration and adopting team-working practice, Samsung organisation has been altered to be flexible and organic, leading to ability to develop innovative capability. In addition to the recruitment of the best people into the organization, Samsung has an experimental education tool to identify the key individuals, such as project leader, promoters, or gatekeeper, so as to blend different roles in creating innovation. These people are working under the well-designed knowledge management system and trustful and suggestive communication with the support of supervisors, fostering creative climate. Rewards system for innovative contributor, organisational mechanism and technological solutions has brought about the knowledge discovery and sharing throughout the company, creating learning organisation that sustains Samsung innovation competency.

三星已经成功地从当地的低质量制造商转变为生产令人钦佩和时尚的消费电子产品的品牌。公司业绩证明,三星在过去十年中已经走上了正确的方向。成为创新组织的成就始于20世纪90年代末宣布成为该行业的全球领导者。在重新配置并采用团队合作实践后,三星的组织结构已经转变为灵活和有机的,从而能够发展创新能力。除了为组织招募最优秀的人员外,三星还提供了一个实验性的教育工具,用于识别关键个人,如项目负责人、推动者或看门人,从而在创造创新中融合不同的角色。这些人在精心设计的知识管理系统下工作,在主管的支持下进行信任和暗示性的沟通,营造创造性的氛围。创新贡献者奖励制度、组织机制和技术解决方案使整个公司的知识发现和共享得以实现,创建了一个学习型组织,以维持三星的创新能力。本站提供各国各专业essay格式范文以及essay写作辅导,如有需要可咨询本平台。


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