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国际研究Essay怎么写:Comparison of Canada and Europe

论文价格: 免费 时间:2022-02-24 11:36:41 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

本文是国际研究专业的留学生Essay范例,题目是“Comparison of Canada and Europe(加拿大和欧洲的比较)”,加拿大是世界第二大贸易国。加拿大与欧洲的经济政治关系始于20世纪50年代。欧洲和加拿大有相似的文化和相似的政府形式。加拿大和欧洲说相似的语言(法语和英语),这是官方语言和流行语言。

Introduction介绍

Canada is the worlds second-largest country in terms of Trade. Economic and political relation between Canada and Europe started from 1950s. Europe and Canada have similar culture and comparable forms of government. Canada and Europe speaks similar languages (French and English) this is official and popular languages.

 国际研究Essay范例

Canadas relationship with Europe is an outcome of the historic link by Colonialism and bulk European immigrant to Canada. The history of Canadas relations with Europe is best accepted in series of economic contracts. In 1976 the European Economic Community (EEC) and Canada authorized a basic agreement on Economic Co-operation.

 

In June 2007, the government of Canada have been forcing the European country to discuss Free Trade Agreementbetween this two countries. This idea was supported by more than 100 Canadian and European chief executive.

20076月,加拿大的政府一直在迫使这个欧洲国家讨论两国之间的“自由贸易协定”。这一想法得到了100多名加拿大和欧洲首席执行官的支持。

 

In June 2009, European Trade commissioner and Canadian minister of international trade, announced to initiate the discussions for comprehensive economic and trade agreement.

 

Business environment between Canada and Europe加拿大与欧洲之间的商业环境

The Comprehensive Economic Trade Agreement (CETA) is a tax-free trade agreement between Canada and European Union. This agreement came into action in July 2016. CETA will help Canada to get global exposure in trade. The contract deducts the tariff barrier between Canada and European Union. This agreement is a liberal trade contract which covers virtually all aspect and sectors of Canada -EU trade in order to eradicate or avoid trade walls.

《全面经济贸易协定》(CETA)是加拿大和欧盟之间的一项免税贸易协定。该协议于20167月生效。CETA将帮助加拿大获得全球贸易敞口。该合同扣除了加拿大和欧盟之间的关税壁垒。该协议是一个自由贸易合同,涵盖了加拿大和欧盟贸易的几乎所有方面和部门,以消除或避免贸易壁垒。

 

The national parliaments of the EU Participant States would then also need to approve CETA for the areas which fall below their obligation to take effect.

 

CETA is an innovative trade agreement between the EU and Canada.

Itll make it easier to export goods and services, benefitting people and businesses in both the EU and Canada.

The Canada and European Union accepted and signed CETA on 30 October 2016.

The European Parliament and European Union national parliaments must accept CETA before it can take complete effect.

Trade law between Canada and Europe

 

The Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) is a free trade between Canada and the European Union. If the act is passed, this could enhance the overall trade of Canada and buildup a solid relation between European countries.

 

Finally, the discussions were concluded in August 2014. Altogether 28 European Union member states approved the ultimate text CETA for signature, with Belgium being the final nation whose ministers accepted it. Justin Trudeau, Canadian prime minister moved to Brussels on 30 October 2016 to sign on behalf of Canada. It sanctioned by the European Parliament, most of the agreement will take effect on a provisional basis. The remaining parts of the agreement are subject to approval by national legislatures.

最后,讨论于20148月结束。共有28个欧盟成员国批准签署CETA的最终文本,比利时是最后一个部长们接受该文本的国家。20161030日,加拿大总理贾斯廷·特鲁多前往布鲁塞尔代表加拿大签署。经欧洲议会批准,大部分协议将临时生效。协议的其余部分有待国家立法机构的批准。

 

The European Commission indicates the treaty will benefit the country to save of more than half of a billion euros in taxes for EU exporters every year, joint recognition in planned professions such as architects, accountants and engineers, and easier transfers of company staff and other professionals between the EU and Canada. This created more job opportunities for highly qualified professionals. The European Commission claims CETA will generate a more level in performance field between Canada the EU on intellectual property rights.

 

Provisions规定

Primarily, many of its provisions on copyright were in thought to be identical to the controversial ACTA, which was rejected by the European parliament in 2012. The European Commission has indicated that this is not the case.

首先,它的许多关于版权的条款被认为与有争议的ACTA是相同的,ACTA2012年被欧洲议会否决。欧盟委员会(European Commission)表示,情况并非如此。

 

The main Portion of the Agreement is harsher enforcement of intellectual property, as well as liability for Internet Service Providers(ISP), a ban on technologies that can be used to circumvent copyright, and other provisions comparable to controversial ACTA, DMCA, PIPA, and SOPA,

 

Copyright term extension. Under the Berne convention the term of copyright law in Canada is life of the author, in addition 50 years. The EU is demanding that Canada add an additional 20 years by making the term life plus 70 years.

WIPO ratification. As per the WIPO internet treaties Canada must respect the rights and obligations. The EU only formally ratified those treaties [in the week of 16 December 2009].

Anti-circumvention provisions. According to the EU Canada must implement anti-circumvention provisions that contain a ban on the circulation of circumvention devices. There is no such requirement in the WIPO Internet treaties.

Resale rights. As per the EU agreements Canada must implement a new resale right that would make available artists with a royalty based on any resales of their works.

Making available or distribution rights. This shows EU is demanding that Canada implement a distribution or making available right to copyright owners.

Strength and weakness of Europe and Canada

 

1. Tax welcome trading among followersStrength of Europe欧洲的力量

 

one of the foremost welfares that are existing to the member nations of the EU is that they are able to craft with additional affiliates at no extra tax policy. This supports to keep charges of properties and diet depressed in these nations.

跟随者之间的税务欢迎交易

欧盟成员国最重要的福利之一是,他们能够在没有额外税收政策的情况下与其他附属机构合作。这使得这些国家的财产和饮食费用保持在低水平。

 

2. Unlocks additional openings

Program between all of the nations in the EU is entirely free and exposed for all peoples. This unlocks up many more career and edification chances for public. Specially ones who are in deprived nations.

 

3. Values is not missing

The EU has not ever had an official languageand doesnt restrict with the cultural parts of any nation. This aids to certify that, while you are part of the union, you are also your personal nation.

 

4. A shared currency

All of the fellow kingdoms of the EU have the identical type of exchange, the euro. This makes doing corporate, wandering or moving to further republics, and obtaining things much modest. It also makes a logic of harmony among the realms.

 

Weak points of Europe欧洲的弱点

1. Communication fences

It develops actual tough for the EU to communicate with all its peoples since they all speak unlike verbal. This also influence the sensitivity of unity among its followers. It makes it tougher to bring public organized.

沟通栅栏

欧盟和它的人民交流变得非常困难,因为他们都说不同的语言。这也影响了追随者团结的敏感性。这使得组织公众变得更加困难。

 

2. Common wealth is not permanently decent

Great and rich nations that are followers of the European Union, like Germany, have to stake their capital with much smaller and inferior realms. This avoids any one country from too powerful, which is a depraved thing for kingdoms that have the capability to become world bests.

 

3. Departure is a tricky

once a nation agrees to join the EU, it is enormously tough for them to leave it. This makes several individuals troubled from linking, because if it destructively effects their nation, there is tiny that they can do about it.

 

4. Differentiates against possible associates

In order to link the European Union, you must be a portion of Europe. Europes boundaries are mostly open-ended, which gives the EU the authority to pick and take who they would comparable to join the union.

 

Strength of Canada 加拿大的力量

1. Entrepreneurial care: The Canadian administration cares entrepreneurship. With several avenues of tax discounts and tax breaks, Canadian entrepreneurs feel more self-assured (reporting less fear of letdown) in structure minor businesses or labeling themselves self-employed.

创业关怀:加拿大政府关心创业。通过多种途径的税收折扣和税收减免,加拿大的企业家们在组建小型企业或给自己贴上“个体经营”的标签时感到更加自信(不太担心失望)

 

2. Niche market growing: Canada has seen a rush of income through exporting in niche markets, with the progress of Canadian diamonds, but largely within the ice wine industry. In 2014, ice wine made active 29% of their over-all export value. And the figures endure to raise.

 国际研究Essay怎么写

3. Near to Americans: As the United Statesneighbor, Canada has got the backings of extensive employment surplus with America. This accounts for bumpily three-fourths of Canadian merchandise exports to each time.

 

Weakness of Canada

1. The changing Canadian dollar: The Canadian dollar has been up and down (mostly down) which has gradually begun a rift through the kingdom. Unfortunately, thousands have vanished works while the dollar stays to incline.

 

2. Dependence on the US: While the nearness to America assists as a profit to Canada, the dependence can be a softness. A huge percentage of Canadian exports (over 74%) drive to America. During the US collapse, Canadian exports were wounded. So, if the US markets ache, Canada may also.

 

Trade agreement between Canada and Europe加拿大与欧洲之间的贸易协定

The Comprehensive Economic Trade Agreement (CETA) is a tax-free trade agreement between Canada and European Union. This agreement came into action in July 2016. CETA will help Canada to get global exposure in trade. The contract deducts the tariff barrier between Canada and European Union. This agreement is a liberal trade contract which covers virtually all aspect and sectors of Canada -EU trade in order to eradicate or avoid trade walls.

《全面经济贸易协定》(CETA)是加拿大和欧盟之间的一项免税贸易协定。该协议于20167月生效。CETA将帮助加拿大获得全球贸易敞口。该合同扣除了加拿大和欧盟之间的关税壁垒。该协议是一个自由贸易合同,涵盖了加拿大和欧盟贸易的几乎所有方面和部门,以消除或避免贸易壁垒。

 

Critics oppose the treaty in light of the fact that it will debilitate European consumer rights, including those concerning sustenance security, and that tariffs are already very low. It has also been scrutinized as a boon only enormous business and multinational organizations while risking net-losses, unemployment, and environmental damage affecting individual residents. The deal also includes a controversial investor-state dispute settlement mechanism. The agreement has prompted protests in Europe and Canada.

 

Import and export-Trade picture

In 2015 Canada was the EUs 12th most important trading partner, accounting for 1.8% of the EUs total external trade. The EU was Canadas second most important trading partner, after the U.S., with around 9.5% of Canadas total external trade in goods in 2015.

 

The value of bilateral trade in goods between the EU and Canada was â¬63.5 billion in 2015. Machinery, chemicals and transport equipment dominate the EUs exports of goods to Canada. Pearls and precious metals, and mineral products dominate the imports of goods from Canada. Machinery and chemicals also constitute an important part of the EUs imports from Canada.

European investors held investments worth â¬274.7 bn in Canada while Canadian direct investment stocks in the EU amounted to almost â¬166 bn in 2014.

Key elements of the EU-Canada Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement

 

Eliminating obligations this will happen rapidly with the greater part of them going when the assertion goes into compelling. Generally speaking, both sides will completely dispose of tariffs on over 99% of all tariff lines.

Industrial taxes these will be completely changed sparing EU exporters a normal around â¬500 million (practically C$ 700 million) in obligations a year. As such, EU exporters will be relieved of the expenses of paying levies when offering selling goods on the Canadian market.

Agricultural levies Canada is an exceptionally important fare showcase for EU rural and prepared agrarian items, with yearly offers of over ⬠2.9 billion. The agreement will rapidly largely at entry into force dispose of obligations on farming. Before the finish of the transitional periods, Canada and the EU will change, separately, 92.8 % and 93.5 % of exchange lines in horticulture.

Fisheries most obligations will be wiped out at entry into force. Other than duties, the fish bundle additionally incorporates different components important to EU firms, for example, better access to Canadian fish for the EU preparing industry. Reasonable fisheries will be created in parallel, specifically with respect to checking, control and reconnaissance measures, and the battle against illicit, unreported and unregulated fishing.

DISPUTES BETWEEN CANADA AND EUROPEAN COUNTRY THAT HAS BEEN TAKEN TO WTO

 

On 13 May 2003, Canada asked for conferences with the European people group concerning certain measures taken by the EC and its part States influencing imports of farming and nourishment imports from Canada. With respect to group level measures, Canada stated that the ban connected by the EC since October 1998 on the endorsement of biotech items has limited imports of horticultural and nourishment items from Canada. With respect to State-level measures, Canada attested that various EC part States keep up national advertising and import bans on biotech items despite the fact that those items have as of now been affirmed by the European people group for import and showcasing in the European people group.

 

As per Canada, the measures at issue gave off an impression of being conflicting with the ECs commitments under:

 

Articles 2.2, 2.3, 5.1, 5.5, 5.6, 7 and 8, and Additions B and C of the SPS Assentation;

Articles 2.1, 2.2, 2.8, 5.1 and 5.2 of the TBT Understanding;

Articles I:1, III:4, X:1 and XI:1 of the GATT 1994; and

Article 4.2 of the Farming Understanding.

 

Canada likewise considered that the measures at issue invalidate or impede benefits gathering to Canada in the feeling of Article XXIII: 1(b) of the GATT 1994.

 

Australia, Argentina, Brazil, India, Mexico, New Zealand and the Assembled States asked for to join the conferences. The EC educated the DSB that they had acknowledged the solicitations of Australia, Argentina, Brazil, India, Mexico, New Zealand and the Assembled States to join the counsels.

 

On 7 August 2003, Canada asked for the foundation of a board. At its meeting on 18 August 2003, the DSB conceded the foundation of a board.

 

Opportunity for Canada to explore business in European country加拿大在欧洲国家开拓业务的机会

Europe has an infrastructure opportunities for Canadian companies. There will be Tariff Exclusion for Trade in Goods. Under CETA 98% of Europe tariff lines will become duty free for Canadian-origin things. In coming seven years there are plans to reduce and eliminate Tariffs of Canadian things which is export to Europe. For future prospects Europe will eliminate tariffs in Agriculture sector, Metal product, Seafood, Oil and gas sector. This new trade deal should be significant for future. But now it depends on Canadian companies on how they familiarize and respond to European opportunities. If they adapt this term confidently, it is good for Canadian economy growth.

欧洲为加拿大公司提供了基础设施建设的机会。货物贸易将有关税豁免。根据CETA, 98%的欧洲关税将对来自加拿大的货物免税。在未来七年内,有计划降低和取消加拿大出口到欧洲的商品的关税。为了未来的前景,欧洲将取消农业部门、金属产品、海产品、石油和天然气部门的关税。这项新的贸易协定对未来应该具有重大意义。但现在,这取决于加拿大公司如何熟悉和应对欧洲的机遇。如果他们能自信地适应这个术语,这将有利于加拿大的经济增长。

 

COMPETITION AND THREATS FOR CANADA FROM EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

CANADA VS EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

â¢Among the nations, Canada positions second (behind just Mexico) in each of the four segments analyzed computerized administrations, Research and development administrations, corporate administrations and assembling. Among these areas, Canada shows its most grounded outcomes in Research and development administrations, due to some extent to the government and commonplace Research and development impose credits accessible.

 

â¢The high esteem US dollar ended up being a key figure the rankings for some nations. Canadas cost favorable position in respect to third-put Netherlands just changed barely, while Canadas cost preference over Australia declined due (to a limited extent) to the estimation of the Australian dollar declining by much more than the Canadian dollar with respect to the US cash.

 

â¢From an expense point of view, the UK, Canada and the Netherlands offer the least compelling rates of corporate salary assess over a scope of business areas, all aided by duty motivating forces intended to bolster Research and development and additionally other cutting edge exercises.

 

THREATS

1. Tariffs

The Exhaustive Financial Exchange Understanding amongst Canada and the EU, or CETA for short, was not proposed to only tinker with levies on imported products. From the beginning, the objective was a decrease in levies to zero and the opening up of new markets.

 

Understanding has been come to on a considerable rundown of merchandise. Harper government pastors were out a week ago spotlighting a couple of these, including moderately low-esteem however interestingly Canadian things like maple syrup, kayaks and Tilley caps.

对大量商品的清单已经达成了谅解。一周前,哈珀政府的牧师们关注了其中一些,包括一些不太受尊重的东西,但有趣的是加拿大的东西,如枫糖浆,皮划艇和蒂利帽。

 

A few areas are balanced for a more considerable score under CETA, and the legislature is planning to advertise the arrangements potential in view of territorial interests:

 

2. Cultivate wares achievement?

The playing field amongst Canadian and European agriculturists is famously hard to level: European nations finance their residential homestead ventures to a degree not seen (and not moderate) in Canada. Truth be told, Canadas supply-administration framework for dairy, eggs and poultry, which will stay under this assention, is intended to maintain a strategic distance from government sponsorships by controlling the costs purchasers pay to guarantee stable returns for agriculturists.

 

3. Licensed innovation (copyright)

Few issues have seen as energetic a verbal confrontation among common society gathers on both sides of the Atlantic as this. European requests for augmented licenses on physician endorsed drugs stay one of Canadas most troublesome choices, as medication expenses for areas and regions could bounce altogether.

 

Be that as it may, other hot parts of the copyright face off regarding have cooled off. The entry prior this time of Canadas Copyright Demonstration changes, C-11, facilitated European requests to convey Canadian benchmarks up to scratch.

 

4. Government acquisition

European access to expansive contracts at all levels of government in Canada has been a key EU request. Be that as it may, Canadian moderators had their very own particular request: A negative rundownapproach, permitting regions and domains to draw up a rundown of craved exclusions.

 

Dealing with the points of interest spent a great deal of arranging capital on both sides, however the final product is a rundown of exceptions like the one set up for the Purchase American concurrence with the U.S.

处理利益点花费了双方大量的资金安排,但最终的产品是一个例外的纲要,就像与美国建立的购买美国货协议

 

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