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犯罪学Essay结构:Issue of Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women

论文价格: 免费 时间:2022-01-24 09:54:21 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

本文是犯罪学专业的Essay范例,题目是Issue of Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women(失踪和被谋杀的土著妇女问题)”,加拿大土著妇女协会(Native Womens Association in Canada)计算出,在过去20年里,加拿大大约有500名土著妇女失踪(Kuokken, 2008)。在这篇论文中,将讨论的主题包括在北美及其周边地区的绑架和谋杀如何影响这些年轻土著女性的健康。如何将目标锁定在年轻原住民女性身上,如何给原住民家庭和社区贴上标签,原住民该说些什么,警察和政府该说些什么。有没有采取任何行动来减少北美土著妇女失踪和被谋杀的数量,我们需要做什么来防止这些可怕的情况发生,以及技术如何影响土著妇女的生活。

The Native Womens Association in Canada has calculated that about five-hundred aboriginal women have gone missing in Canada over the last 20 years (Kuokken, 2008). Within this paper topics to be discussed include how the abductions and murders in and around North America are affecting the health of these young indigenous females. what places a target on young indigenous females back, how this places a label on indigenous families and communities, what do the indigenous people have to say and what do the police and government have to say on this matter.  Is there any action being taken to reduce the numbers of missing and murdered indigenous women in North America, what do we need to do to prevent these terrible situations from occurring, plus how technology can effect the lives of indigenous females.

 犯罪学Essay范例

 Women within the ages of twenty-five and forty-four are five times more probable to die from violence that any other women in the world due to violence (Glichrist, 2010). There are many factors as to why these girls are dying. Such as being violently evicted from their homes and being sent out to the streets to freeze to death (Razack, 2014). Drug deals gone bad, sex trafficking, or just cruel racists wanting to feel a sense of power by murdering an indigenous female in cold blood (Kuokkanen, 2008). No case is better then the other. The place where we all call home, here in North America can be a scary location, many people, particularly indigenous women are put in positions where they fear for their life (Glichrist, 2010).

25岁和44岁之间的妇女死于暴力的可能性是世界上任何其他妇女死于暴力的可能性的5(glicchrist, 2010)。造成这些女孩死亡的原因有很多。比如被暴力驱逐出家园,被送到街上冻死(Razack, 2014)。毒品交易变坏了,性交易,或者只是残忍的种族主义者想要通过冷血地谋杀一个土著女性来感受权力感(Kuokkanen, 2008)。没有一种情况比另一种更好。在北美这里,我们都称之为家的地方可能是一个可怕的地方,许多人,尤其是土著妇女,被置于他们对生命感到恐惧的位置(glicchrist, 2010)

 

Because Indigenous women experience fear and insecurity, this begins to affect the health of these ladies. Women can be scared to go out in public alone causing them to isolate themselves. Because of isolation and fear the indigenous females mental health starts to be affected tremendously. Spending long periods of time alone and in fear can lead to depression. Indigenous women also feel to scared to go to work everyday in fear of co-workers at work or the people along the way to getting to work. This causes the women do not make a sufficient income to live in a safe environment and be able to purchase food with sufficient nutrients. Around four-hundred females have been murdered since 1993. Many of these victims were aboriginal and below the poverty line (Wright, 2001.) Women who are indigenous also experience poverty and homelessness because extreme levels of violence is: formed by the gap between socio and economics, these then turn into consequences of division that the indigenous women have previously experienced, such as the abuse experienced in residential schools, the rights to their land, culture and background, as well as the government and racists looking to erase the cultures and identities of young indigenous females. because of this, many women are faced with dangerous situations making themselves vulnerable. These girls then resort to prostitution and getting themselves in certain situations leaving them homeless due to poverty. (Wright, 2001) Because of racism in north America Indigenous people are at times more excluded from things such as job opportunities, housing, and making as many friends as apposed to white Europeans.

 

The few women that have returned home after being abducted are returned either abused mentally, physically, or both. Majority of the time the girls have been mentally and physically abused. What has happened to them can not be erased. One may choose to block out certain memories of their experience from their minds but ultimately the haunting memories will have been impressed within them leaving them with nothing but scars. Because of the physical, mental, and emotional abuse that the indigenous women survivors have been put through, they will need medical attention and counselling support to help the girls cope with what they had been just previously put through. Even though the girls will be needing some assistance the girls do not always know how to find it, so they resort to extremely dangerous situations to help them get through life such as sex for survival. Indigenous women sometimes feel that in order to escape poverty and violence the only option is to get involved in what is called survival sex trade on the stroll(Kuokken, 2008). feel vulnerable and think that it is their only way out of a scary situation, but this is in fact quite the opposite. By performing sex for survival young indigenous women are only putting themselves at a greater risk of violence and abuse. This is because sex trade is all under the table and discrete. Authorities such as the police and government do not monitor such acts closely if at all. Sexual transmitted diseases such as aids can be very easily spread and be given to the indigenous female. Causing the female to become ill, affecting her health in a huge way. By having the police not being a factor in this type of situation this allows males the opportunity to show their version of Authority and dominance by controlling with physical and verbal abuse, creating a high risk of violence for the indigenous females (Kuokkanen, 2008). Placing themselves right back where they started. Alone, scared and hurt.

少数在被绑架后返回家园的妇女在返回时受到精神上、身体上或两者都受到虐待。大多数情况下,这些女孩受到精神和身体上的虐待。发生在他们身上的事无法抹去。一个人可以选择将他们经历的某些记忆从他们的脑海中屏蔽掉,但最终那些挥之不去的记忆将在他们心中留下深刻的印象,给他们留下除了伤疤以外的一切。由于土著妇女幸存者遭受了身体、精神和情感上的虐待,她们将需要医疗照顾和咨询支持,以帮助这些女孩应对她们刚刚遭受的虐待。尽管女孩们需要一些帮助,但她们并不总是知道如何找到帮助,所以她们诉诸于极端危险的情况来帮助自己度过生活,比如为了生存而做爱。土著妇女有时觉得,要想摆脱贫困和暴力,唯一的选择就是参与所谓的“街头生存性交易”(Kuokken, 2008)。感到脆弱,认为这是他们摆脱可怕处境的唯一途径,但事实恰恰相反。年轻的土著妇女为生存而性交,只会使自己面临更大的暴力和虐待风险。这是因为性交易都是私下进行的。警方和政府等当局没有密切监控这些行为。艾滋病等性传播疾病很容易传播,并传染给土著妇女。导致女性生病,极大地影响了她的健康。在这种情况下,警察不是一个因素,这让男性有机会通过身体和语言虐待来表现他们的权威和支配,为土著女性创造了暴力的高风险(Kuokkanen, 2008)。回到他们开始的地方。孤独,害怕和受伤。

 

In the past protests have been made by people all over North America. People feel that the police are neglecting missing and murdered aboriginal women cases and not taking them seriously due to racism. They believe that the police and government are writing off these cases as soon as they hear that it was yet another indigenous female. In the United States state agents are not being set in place to help protect these you ladies and are doing no investigations for as to why these cases are occurring. And as a result, indigenous women have lost trust in authorities to support and help them (Kuokkanen, 2008). Although protesting is a good way to start, more needs to be done to change the label of indigenous females and to get the target taken off their backs. During Stephen Harpers time as the prime minister of Canada the government did nothing to help protect these girls and make them feel equal to the rest of Canada. indigenous rights were denied and belittled, and environmental protections were stripped. The Harper government denied the implications of a crisis of violence against indigenous women continually. The government did not fulfill their roll in protecting and helping these women (Saramo, 2016). Because nothing has been done in the past by the government it is especially important that we fight more then ever before to make a difference now and for the future. The number of indigenous women who have been abducted, murdered or both continue to rise rapidly in north America. 34% of indigenous women in the United States of America are raped during their lifetime and that these sexual assaults come with extreme physical abuse (Saramo, 2016). There is no huge division between the United Stated and Canada when it comes to violence, abductions, and murders within the indigenous female community because it is shown that Indigenous women in the United States of America face similar rates of death and people are now starting to join together on both sided of the boarder to honour victims and demand change (Saramo, 2016). As of right now people are gathering to provide support to the indigenous communities visiting both countries and their communities, creating strength between the two countries and coming together to stand up for what is right (Saramo, 2016). new articles have been published to get the word out to people that things need to change. Twelve articles were published covering events, especially memorials, rallies, and vigils, and they provided commentary as well as made sure to get the point across to others that there are structural inequalities (racism) that lead to indigenous females being victimized. Other media discussed how many cases have yet to be solved and that the police and government need to step up to the plate (Gilchrist, 2010). Indigenous women need this support weather they are abducted or not, they are all victims and are potential targets for the next abduction.  We hear a lot about people standing up for the Indigenous women, but what are the government and the police doing to help with these cases and this particular situation?

 

The RCMP have collected DNA samples from people willing to volunteer to help figure out solve cases on violence involving indigenous women. With the sample they are at times able to find suspects. following the violent death of eleven-year-old Teresa Robinson, RCMP investigators requested DNA samples from all men living on the remote Garden Hill First Nations reserve in northeastern Manitoba. Officers expect to register about 2,000 Indigenous men and boys aged fifteen to sixty-six as part of the ongoing Garden Hill investigation. The project is the largest voluntary DNA collection operation in Manitoba and may be the largest voluntary DNA collection project conducted by the RCMP nationwide(Bailey and Shayan, 2016)

皇家骑警从那些自愿帮助解决涉及土著妇女暴力案件的人身上收集了DNA样本。有了样本,他们有时能够找到嫌疑人。在11岁的特蕾莎·罗宾逊暴力死亡后,皇家骑警调查人员要求所有生活在曼尼托巴省东北部偏远的花园山第一民族保护区的男性提供DNA样本。作为正在进行的花园山调查的一部分,官员预计将登记大约20001566岁的土著男子和男孩。该项目是马尼托巴省最大的自愿DNA收集行动,可能是皇家骑警在全国范围内进行的最大的自愿DNA收集项目”(Bailey and Shayan, 2016)

 

Social media is used by the police so people can contact them and send in tips just like crime stoppers works. Also, social media is a great way for police to communicate with the public on what is happening with there investigations, that way people and police are able to work together to solve cases. Using social media is a way to communicate with everybody as everybody in this day in age uses social media. Therefore, the messages and information can be spread quickly.

警察使用社交媒体,这样人们就可以联系他们并发送提示,就像阻止犯罪一样。此外,社交媒体是警察与公众沟通调查进展的一个很好的方式,人们和警察可以一起合作解决案件。使用社交媒体是一种与每个人交流的方式,就像今天这个时代的每个人都使用社交媒体一样。因此,信息可以迅速传播。

 technologically powered investigative tools such as the RCMPs #MMIW (Missing And murdered Indigenous Women) campaign which is set in place to reduce the violence and abuse happening amongst indigenous females, will yield results in terms of locating missing females or finally closing cases on unsolved murders. It has become an online point for raising awareness of the crisis, including lots of commentary by the public. these kinds of initiatives could act as a signal to missing Indigenous girls and young women that they are important (Bailey and Shayan, 2016). No legal funding is being provided to the indigenous who are wanting to access lawyers to fight on cases involving loved ones and their abductions as well as murders, and it doesnt seem like funding will be provided for a while if at all. What is completely wrong is that over 24 lawyers were provided to the police fighting cases in court paid for by the tax payers money here in Canada.  Citizens of Canada tried so hard to get the provincial government of British Columbia to implement fully and as fast as possible with the 2006 Highway of Tears Symposium action plan which is a protection and support program for indigenous females. After a year of Canadian citizens fighting for the provincial government to hop on board with this plan, the government refused (Dixon, 2014) because of the government not providing support to indigenous women they begin to feel more vulnerable and alone. Individual cases on missing indigenous women have been thrown out and overlooked many times by federal and provincial governments (Anderson, 2016). for public health professionals, an inquiry set in British Columbia represents a rare opportunity to respond in advance to a predictable mental, emotional and social stressor on a group that has already experienced many generations of trauma.  As human beings, people must come together and listen carefully to the many unmet health and social needs of Indigenous peoples, and respond in a collective manner, in partnership with Indigenous individuals and organizations, to the best of our ability (Smylie and Cywink, 2016). Adequate counselling, mental health, trauma recovery, and addictions services for families will be provided with this inquiry. There are several skilled and culturally safe counsellors whose services can be accessed in a timely manner and are covered by provincial or federal health insurance plans. (Smylie and Cywink, 2016).

 

A girl named Magen is a sister to an indigenous female who went missing and had been murdered in Canada. She thinks that family members are going to feel 55% of inquiry related feelings before the people that will test against the inquiry. The activists fighting for the inquiry hopes that the negative emotions and the reminded haunting memories of the Inquiry will end in an increase in mental health issues such as thought on suicide, depression and addictions with drugs and alcohol. All those factors previously stated are what indigenous sometimes do to self medicate themselves to give them a sense of comfort. The government needs to have this inquiry set in place to provide addictions supports, counselling and more to help indigenous women recover and cope with the trauma that they have experienced in a healthy and safe way. (Smylie and Cywink, 2016).

一个叫Magen的女孩是一个土著女性的妹妹,她在加拿大失踪并被谋杀。她认为家庭成员将会有55%的与调查相关的感觉而在测试者之前。为调查而战的活动人士希望,调查带来的负面情绪和挥之不去的记忆将终结于心理健康问题的增加,比如对自杀、抑郁、吸毒和酗酒的想法。前面提到的所有这些因素都是土著有时做的自我治疗,给他们一种安慰。政府需要开展这一调查,以提供戒毒支助、咨询等,帮助土著妇女以健康和安全的方式恢复和应对她们所经历的创伤。(SmylieCywink, 2016)

 犯罪学Essay怎么写

Another research study focuses on the role that technology plays in including specific research that documents how communication with digital technologies are used to the trafficking of Indigenous women and girls. Without simplistically blaming technology (Bailey and Shayan, 2016). Technologies, like the internet, can expose Indigenous females to vulnerabilities that effect the dignity and privacy of Indigenous women and girls and their communities, leading to the main cause of missing and murdered indigenous females. (Bailey and Shayan, 2016).

 

Digital communications technologies make it difficult for females to tell when they are getting themselves into sticky situations and are less probable to be able to protect themselves. 30 Survivors of violence reported being stalked through technology, such as electronic records, web search engines, text messaging, and social media platforms that enhance the abusersability to monitor their victims: SafetyNet Canada has reported that 98 percent of surveyed Canadian anti-violence workers have indicated that they had supported women and girls who have been threatened and/or intimidated via technology,while 72 percent provided support to women and girls whose online accounts had been hacked. As a result, anti-violence workers have serious concerns around privacy and confidentiality when communicating with women and girls using technology, and 84 percent discuss technology safety plans with women and girls, which might include the way that abusers can misuse technology. While the degree to which Indigenous women and girls experience stalking by technological means is not well documented, as discussed in the next section of this article, there is evidence to suggest that those exploited by traffickers may be subject to technological surveillance and monitoring.(Bailey and Shayan, 2016).

 

It is recommended that Canada should pay attention and recognize the situation of aboriginal women who take part in prostitution and try to understand and get rid of the trafficking of Aboriginal females. Aboriginal youth are 60 percent of the sexual exploited. messaging on the internet can determine how people view and label things such as sex and violence. In this day in age pornography can increase levels of violence and sexual abuse amongst children. With the internet being present predators can easily access their prey. Due to racism online females self esteem and sense of belonging can be negatively affected making females more vulnerable. (Bailey and Shayan 2016)

建议加拿大应关注和认识土著妇女参与卖淫的情况,并努力理解和消除贩卖土著妇女的现象。土著青年占性剥削的60%。互联网上的信息可以决定人们对性和暴力等事物的看法和标签。在当今这个时代,色情会增加儿童暴力和性虐待的程度。有了互联网,捕食者可以很容易地找到猎物。由于网络种族主义,女性的自尊和归属感会受到负面影响,使女性更加脆弱。(贝利和沙扬2016)

 

As one may be able to tell missing and murdered indigenous females is a huge topic in North America at this present time. Indigenous females are being target and as technology and time evolves the numbers of murdered and missing indigenous female individuals continue to rise, and unsolved cases are beginning to build up. Police believe they are doing the best that they can, however many people disagree.  In 2014 a young female was abducted and later found by police. The girl was then released. The police did not take into consideration that this girl was in the foster care system and was alone and scared. She was later found unconscious and taken to the hospital. After being treated she was then sent out on her own again, this time disappearing and never to return (Razack, 2016). The police may be solving cases but more needs to be done. Support needs to be provided to victims and families who have been impacted by traumatizing experiences.        

正如你可能知道的那样,失踪和被谋杀的土著女性目前在北美是一个巨大的话题。土著女性正成为目标,随着技术和时间的发展,被谋杀和失踪的土著女性人数继续上升,未解决的案件开始增多。尽管许多人不同意,但警方相信他们已经尽了最大努力。2014年,一名年轻女性被绑架,后来被警方发现。女孩随后被释放。警方没有考虑到这个女孩是在寄养系统,孤独和害怕。她后来被发现失去意识,并被送往医院。在接受治疗后,她又被单独送了出去,这一次她消失了,再也没有回来(拉扎克,2016)。警察可能正在破案,但还需要做更多的工作。需要向受创伤经历影响的受害者和家庭提供支持。

 

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