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Critical Literature Review写作范文:Zara Strategy Analysis

论文价格: 免费 时间:2024-01-11 10:54:50 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

Critical Literature Review写作范文-Zara战略分析。本文是一篇留学生Critical Literature Review写作格式范文,主要内容是讲述时尚巨头Zara是零售集团Grupo Inditex的一部分,英敏特承认该集团是欧洲“最大、增长最快、成功”的服装零售商之一。Grupo Inditex由来自欧洲各地的主要商业街品牌合并而成,包括Zara、Pull and Bear和Bershka,在68个国家共拥有3.825家门店。Zara的成功故事始于提供一系列能够满足男性、女性和儿童需求的产品,无论在什么季节,都能提供价格合理、时尚的衣服。再加上这一点,他们敏锐地发现了新的时尚趋势,并将这些趋势从T台快速、经济地转化为商业街。Zara的营销策略是产品种类第一,重点是确保上市速度。目前,Zara在其门店组合中每年推出10000篇新文章。最后,店铺定位,因为任何营销都是由店铺定位而不是广告来决定的。选择最少广告的策略会促使消费者不得不光顾他们的商店。通过建立品牌知名度和提高市场份额的预期结果,Zara在尽可能多的市场上站稳脚跟,从而发展了他们的品牌,推出了Zara Home。Zara于1975年在西班牙开设了第一家门店,此后进行了国际扩张,1988年在葡萄牙开设了第一个国际门店,1989年在美国纽约又开设了一家门店。如今,Zara这个名字在全世界都得到了认可。下面就一起来看一下这篇Critical Literature Review写作范文的具体内容。

Critical Literature Review写作范文

Introduction to Fashion giant, Zara 时尚巨头Zara简介

Fashion giant, Zara, forms part of the retail group ‘Grupo Inditex’ which Mintel (2007) acknowledges as one of the “largest, fastest growing and successful” clothing retailers across Europe. Grupo Inditex is formulated by an amalgamation of major high street names from across Europe, including Zara, Pull and Bear and Bershka, in total boasting 3.825 stores across 68 countries.Zara’s success story begins by offering a product range capable of catering for men, women and children, providing affordable and stylish clothes whatever the season. Coupled with this, is their keen eye for discovering new fashion trends and translating these trends from the catwalk to the high street, both quickly and affordably. Zara boasts a marketing strategy of firstly product variety with a focal point of ensuring speed to market. At present, Zara launch 10,000 new articles per year across their portfolio of stores. Finally, store location, as any marketing is left to store location rather than advertising. Opting for a strategy of minimal advertising provokes the consumer into having to visit their stores. Securing a foothold in as many markets as possible with the intended outcome of building brand awareness and an increased market share has resulted in Zara developing their brand, launching Zara Home. Zara opened their first store in Spain in 1975 and have since expanded internationally, opening their first international store in Portugal in 1988, and later opening a further store in New York, US, in 1989. Today the Zara name is recognised throughout the entire world.

The clothing sector is at current, the second largest in UK retail. The market has recently been flooded with value fashion as Supermarkets for example launch their own brands. Bruce and Daly (2006:330) view the entrance of supermarkets into the clothing market has “increased competition and redefined how customers shop for clothing”; impacting the consumer appreciates the facility of being able to buy fashionable clothing affordably as part of their weekly shop. This has resulted in specialists having to re-think their value proposition. There has been a major drive for efficiencies, but commentators regard further price cuts as not the answer. Consumers are now seen to be deviating away from the factor of low prices and are showing a far greater interest in shorter response time. In an industry where time is the main driver for gaining a competitive advantage, companies are striving to shorten response time, ensuring that consumers get what they want when they demand it. The retail market traditionally endures both volatile and turbulent activity and as time progresses product lifecycles are becoming significantly shorter. Christopher (2000:37) recognises “the importance of time as a competitive weapon” indicating that by having the ability to provide when the fashion consumer demands, results in a sustainable advantage over competitors. The turbulence of the industry is a result of companies outsourcing their production to overseas nations in order to take advantage of cheaper labour costs. With an industry struggling to remain profitable, competing on price alone is no longer suffice. Leading back to the notion of time, and the expectations from consumers who thrive on constant change and new products frequently reaching the high street shelves. Sourcing products from overseas poses problems for the industry where speed is a vital necessity.

服装行业目前是英国零售业的第二大行业。最近,随着超市推出自己的品牌,市场上充斥着价值时尚。Bruce和Daly认为,超市进入服装市场“增加了竞争,重新定义了顾客购买服装的方式”;影响消费者欣赏能够以负担得起的价格购买时尚服装作为他们每周购物的一部分的便利性。这导致专家们不得不重新思考他们的价值主张。人们一直在大力提高效率,但评论员认为进一步降价不是解决问题的办法。消费者现在被认为偏离了低价的因素,对更短的响应时间表现出了更大的兴趣。在一个时间是获得竞争优势的主要驱动力的行业中,公司正在努力缩短响应时间,确保消费者在需求时得到他们想要的东西。零售市场传统上经历了动荡和动荡的活动,随着时间的推移,产品的生命周期明显缩短。Christopher认识到“时间作为竞争武器的重要性”,这表明通过拥有在时尚消费者需求时提供的能力,可以获得相对于竞争对手的可持续优势。该行业的动荡是公司将生产外包给海外国家以利用更便宜的劳动力成本的结果。随着一个行业努力保持盈利,仅靠价格竞争已经不够了。回到时间的概念,以及消费者的期望,他们在不断的变化和频繁上架的新产品中茁壮成长。从海外采购产品给该行业带来了问题,因为速度是至关重要的。

Critical Literature Review 批判性文献综述

The fashion retail industry is progressively becoming evermore turbulent and volatile, exhibiting characteristics such as low predictability and high impulse purchasing as a result of many variables mainly related to shorter product lifecycles and the responsiveness of today’s consumer (Christopher et al, 2004). The purpose of this literature review to uncover the dynamics that form the fashion retail industry and to relate these conditions to appropriate strategic models. On studying the literature related to the notion of fashion and its behaviour, there is a clear indication that it is a complex subject. The aim of this review is to establish key areas of both similarities and contrasts by discovering themes.

时尚零售业正逐渐变得越来越动荡和动荡,表现出低可预测性和高冲动购买等特征,这是许多变量的结果,这些变量主要与较短的产品生命周期和当今消费者的反应能力有关。本文献综述的目的是揭示时尚零售业的动态,并将这些条件与适当的战略模式联系起来。在研究与时尚概念及其行为相关的文献时,有一个明确的迹象表明它是一个复杂的主题。这篇综述的目的是通过发现主题来确定相似性和对比性的关键领域。

The world fashion industry is dominated by major names such as Zara and H&M, and as a result of operating globally, Porter (1990) believes that global strategies essentially supplement the competitive advantage created in the home market. It is advised that organizations should when globalizing retain their national strengths, or core competencies, however, Ohmae (1990) disagrees and disputes that organizations trading in the global market place should shake off their origins. When referring to the notion of globalization and the drivers that prompt it, Thompson and Martin (2005:602) outline two key factors; “push (internal) and pull (external)”. The main push factors for an organization to extend its operations across boarders are if they are operating with excess capacity or alternatively being driven by the ambitions of the strategic leader. On relating this to the fashion industry, Zara exercises a supply chain management system that “is so unique that no competitor has been able to completely imitate it superior production and delivery process” (Park and Sternquist, 2008:288). This unique trait is perhaps something that similar organizations can strive to duplicate. This case is true as Hayes and Jones (2006) establish, stating that on Zara’s entry to the UK market, they initially began directly competing with Topshop. In order for Topshop to be able to sustain a competitive advantage, they have since decreased their lead times from nine weeks to six. Pull factors are implemented when there is already a saturated domestic market coupled with competitive pressures. Similarly, referring back to the retail market, the UK market is currently facing uncertainties linked with both global economic issues as well as intense competitive forces. Alternatively, Yip (1991) provides a framework focusing on globalization drivers in four main areas. Firstly, on looking at market drivers, Yip (1991) comments that a shortening lifecycle can act as a catalyst for globalization. Referring back to the fashion industry, Christopher et al (2004) comments how typically there might be 20 separate seasons in a year, implying that product lifecycles are becoming shorter. Economic drivers focus on areas revolved around a push to achieve economies of scale and advances in transport and technology. The effect of advances in transport on the fashion retail industry is the development of logistics management resulting in the reduction in time taken from manufacture to the product actually meeting the consumer. In the case of Zara, this has opened up the availability of goods not only being able to be distributed to other continents quickly, but also among their home market resulting in a further advantage amongst competitors.

世界时尚行业由Zara和H&M等大品牌主导,由于在全球范围内运营,Porter认为,全球战略本质上是对国内市场竞争优势的补充。建议各组织在全球化时应保留其国家优势或核心竞争力,然而,Ohmae不同意并质疑在全球市场进行贸易的组织应摆脱其起源。在提到全球化的概念及其驱动因素时,Thompson和Martin概述了两个关键因素;“推(内)拉(外)”。一个组织将其业务扩展到跨境的主要推动因素是,它们是否在产能过剩的情况下运营,或者是否受到战略领导者野心的驱动。在将其与时尚行业联系起来时,Zara采用了一种“独特的供应链管理系统,没有任何竞争对手能够完全模仿其卓越的生产和交付流程”。这种独特的特质也许是类似组织可以努力复制的。正如Hayes和Jones所证实的那样,Zara进入英国市场后,他们最初开始与Topshop直接竞争。为了让Topshop能够保持竞争优势,他们将领先时间从9周缩短到了6周。当国内市场已经饱和,再加上竞争压力时,就会实施拉动因素。同样,回到零售市场,英国市场目前面临着与全球经济问题和激烈竞争有关的不确定性。或者,Yip提供了一个框架,重点关注四个主要领域的全球化驱动因素。首先,关于市场驱动因素,Yip评论说,缩短生命周期可以成为全球化的催化剂。回到时尚行业,Christopher等人评论了一年中通常会有20个不同的季节,这意味着产品的生命周期越来越短。经济驱动因素关注的领域围绕着推动实现规模经济以及运输和技术进步。运输的进步对时尚零售业的影响是物流管理的发展,从而减少了从制造到产品真正满足消费者所需的时间。就Zara而言,这打开了商品的供应渠道,不仅可以快速分销到其他大陆,还可以在其本土市场中分销,从而在竞争对手中获得进一步的优势。

The literature establishes that an imperative part of fashion retailing is supply chain management and is often used by organizations to remain competitive against its competitors. As the current market for fashion products is already highly concentrated, high street stores are now moving towards developing their ability to increase speed to market. Christopher et al (2004) argues that it is no longer suffice for organisations to operate using a forecasting strategy as these are deemed incapable of coping with the market in its current volatile state. In previous instances where the industry has competed on price, Richardson (1996) suggests that there is now a shift from price and quality to a deeper focus on time. As the notion of time becomes more apparent, the supply chain has had to develop also. Hayes and Jones (2006:284) follow on by establishing various strategies with the proposed outcome of time compression and fast fashion, including, “location of manufacturing, technologies employed and supply chain relationships”. The earlier work of Christopher (2000:37) signifies the importance of time also as a “competitive weapon” and states that in today’s market place, the ability to meet demands of ever-shorter delivery times demanded by the consumer is now of critical importance. As a result of this, the traditional supply chain has since evolved into the agile supply chain. Christopher (2000) depicts the key characteristics of an organization exercising an agile supply strategy is flexibility. Coupled with this also is the importance of market sensitivity and being able to respond to real demand, as opposed to the common mistake of traditionally forecasted demand. The studies of Aaker (1984) identifies external features as a key part of the framework forming strategic management. Amongst this area, it is found that “firms need to be sensitive to market conditions and particularly to the requirements of customers” (1984:13). Relating this back to the retail industry, organizations are now recognising the importance of an agile supply chain as a strategy for gaining advantage in the unpredictable marketplace. Bruce and Daly (2006) also observe the importance of retail organizations setting strategic objectives of getting clothing into store within the shortest time and impacts that this has had on the industry. A major impact that is discussed in the literature is the manufacturing of products. Distance playing a significant role in the time taken for products to reach their destination has seen many organizations relocate their production from areas where cheap labour was once the main driver to areas closer to the market. Bruce and Daly (2006:330) state “goods from China can have a shipping time of twenty-two days, compared to five days from Turkey”. The strategic outcome of this is that retailers switching their production to areas that are more local will be able to react quicker to change in trends by sourcing from closer to home. Christopher et al (2004) clarify the importance of being close to the customer as being vital in the retail industry. In order to maintain a competitive advantage using time as a strategic tool, it is not practical to source products from areas such as the Far East because of long-lead times. Hines (2001) identifies the hidden costs associated with overseas sourcing, namely transportation delays, costs and quality issues, all of which are often neglected as organizations enjoy cheaper direct costs such as labour. Christopher et al (2004) echoes the work of Hines (2001) signalling that there is the opportunity to benefit from substantial cost savings from off-shoring production, however there are significantly longer lead times, and these effects can often be severe. Park and Sternquist (2008) deviate away from the previous authors mentioned by focusing on strategies related to individual retailers core competencies with the focus on differentiation. Here the author looks at areas such as unique concepts and brand power.

文献表明,时尚零售业的一个重要组成部分是供应链管理,组织经常利用供应链管理来保持与竞争对手的竞争力。由于目前的时尚产品市场已经高度集中,商业街商店现在正朝着提高市场速度的方向发展。Christopher等人认为,组织使用预测策略已经不够了,因为这些组织被认为无法应对当前动荡状态下的市场。在以前行业在价格上竞争的例子中,Richardson认为,现在从价格和质量转向了对时间的更深入关注。随着时间的概念变得越来越明显,供应链也必须发展。Hayes和Jones随后建立了各种战略,提出了时间压缩和快速时尚的结果,包括“制造地点、所用技术和供应链关系”。Christopher的早期工作表明了时间作为“竞争武器”的重要性,并指出在当今市场上,满足消费者要求的更短交付时间的能力现在至关重要。因此,传统的供应链已经演变为敏捷供应链。Christopher描述了实施敏捷供应战略的组织的关键特征是灵活性。与此相结合的还有市场敏感性和对实际需求做出反应的重要性,而不是传统预测需求的常见错误。Aaker的研究将外部特征确定为形成战略管理框架的关键部分。在这一领域中,人们发现“企业需要对市场条件,特别是客户的要求保持敏感”。将这一点与零售业联系起来,各组织现在认识到敏捷供应链作为在不可预测的市场中获得优势的战略的重要性。Bruce和Daly还观察到零售组织制定在最短时间内让服装进入商店的战略目标的重要性,以及这对行业的影响。文献中讨论的一个主要影响是产品的制造。距离对产品到达目的地所需的时间起着重要作用,许多组织将生产从廉价劳动力曾经是主要驱动力的地区转移到更靠近市场的地区。Bruce和Daly指出,“来自中国的货物可以有二十二天的运输时间,而来自土耳其的货物只有五天”。这样做的战略结果是,将生产转移到更本地化的地区的零售商将能够通过从离家更近的地方采购,更快地对趋势的变化做出反应。Christopher等人阐明了与客户亲近在零售业中至关重要的重要性。为了利用时间作为战略工具保持竞争优势,从远东等地区采购产品是不现实的,因为交货期很长。Hines确定了与海外采购相关的隐藏成本,即运输延误、成本和质量问题,所有这些都经常被忽视,因为组织享有更便宜的直接成本,如劳动力。Christopher等人呼应了Hines的工作,表明有机会从离岸生产中节省大量成本,但交货期要长得多,而且这些影响往往很严重。Park和Sternquist偏离了前面提到的作者,专注于与个体零售商核心竞争力相关的战略,并专注于差异化。在这里,作者着眼于独特的概念和品牌力等领域。

Value creation is a strategy recognised by organizations as a way of increasing profitability by adding value to a particular product, whether it is tangible or intangible. Hill (2007) regards value creation as the difference between the costs of production and the value that the consumer perceives in its products, thus implying, the greater the margin between price per unit and cost of production per unit, the larger level of value created. It is assumed that there is a direct correlation between the more value customers place on an organizations products, the higher the price that can be charged. Porter (1980) argues that low cost and differentiation are two basic strategies that can be used for creating value with the aim of attaining a competitive advantage. A common misconception is for organizations to focus too heavily on lowering prices and ignoring the opportunity to differentiate and keep prices high. In terms of fashion leader, Zara, value is created by sourcing the majority of its products from the Europe region as opposed to its competitors who continue enjoying the cheap labour of the Far East. Although Zara pays a premium for sourcing its goods from Europe, value is created from being able to exercise ‘fast fashion’ and today’s consumer is prepared to pay a premium for this. Bruce and Daly (2006) support Porter (1980) stating that industry retailers are now switching production away from areas such as China with a move to getting latest trends onto the high street shelves sooner. Alternatively, competitor H&M create value by striving to achieve economies of scales using various methods including buying in large volumes resulting in a lower price per unit, therefore focusing on a low pricing strategy.

创造价值是组织公认的一种战略,通过为特定产品(无论是有形的还是无形的)增加价值来提高盈利能力。Hill将价值创造视为生产成本和消费者在其产品中感知的价值之间的差异,因此意味着,单位价格和单位生产成本之间的差额越大,创造的价值水平就越高。假设客户对组织产品的重视程度越高,可以收取的价格就越高,这两者之间存在直接相关性。Porter认为,低成本和差异化是两种基本策略,可用于创造价值,以获得竞争优势。一个常见的误解是,组织过于专注于降低价格,而忽视了区分和保持高价格的机会。就时尚领袖Zara而言,价值是通过从欧洲地区采购其大部分产品来创造的,而不是通过继续享受远东廉价劳动力的竞争对手。尽管Zara为从欧洲采购商品支付了溢价,但价值是通过能够运用“快时尚”而创造的,今天的消费者准备为此支付溢价。Bruce和Daly支持Porter的观点,即行业零售商现在正在将生产从中国等地区转移出去,以更快地将最新趋势登上商业街货架。或者,竞争对手H&M通过使用各种方法努力实现规模经济来创造价值,包括大量购买,从而降低单位价格,从而专注于低定价策略。

Porter (1980) uses a model as a strategy for organizations to analyse an industry and to determine the potential profitability also. Thompson and Martin (2005) outline the importance of companies embracing Porters model as it is a tool capable of understanding the nature of its competitive environment. Fully achieving their proposed objectives and establishing appropriate strategies will lead an organization into a stronger position to defend itself from any potential threats. The five forces model has a nucleus accommodating current rivals coupled with their competitive strategies. On applying this model to the fashion retail industry, attention must be paid to its complexity due to the number of differing segments that form the foundation of the industry “luxury, high street, and supermarket/out-of-town discounter” (Bruce and Daly, 2006:329). Brands similar to Topshop and Zara are not classed as direct competitors for names such as Hugo Boss and Armani as they both clearly operate in different segments of the market focusing on different groups of consumers. Mintel (2007) regards Zara’s immediate competitors as GAP, H&M, Topshop and TK Maxx as they are all competing to gain a greater share of similar markets. The threat of new entrants to the fashion retail industry is discussed by Park and Sternquist (2008) who view today’s worldwide market place as aggressively expanding becoming so homogenized that retailers can market identical products throughout the global marketplace. As a result of this, it therefore provokes an interest from potential competitors to reap the benefits of such a mass trading block. Instances where retailers are vertically integrated with key distributors and subsequently have greater control can provide an incentive for organizations to enter new markets. Vertical integration is a common trait amongst many names in the fashion retail industry. Park and Sternquist (2008) discuss how vertical integration is a characteristic for many global retailers, however, follow on by adding it is more suited for retailers with a narrow and distinct product line, perhaps a more specialised retailer. Flanagan and Leffmann (2001) class vertical integration as a strategy employed to reduce risks associated with offshore sourcing. A further framework provided by Porter (1980) is the bargaining power of suppliers. In an industry like retail where the majority of the manufacturing is outsourced to independent companies, it subsequently means that suppliers can have an effect on the behavioural patterns of the industry. Similarly to overcoming the threats of new entrants, Thompson and Martin (2005) outline that vertical integration is often used by organizations as tool as control the potential risks. The second dimension of the model is the bargaining power of buyers, here the amount of power organizations have is often largely dependent on their size. A strategic goal for organizations is again vertical integration with the intention of securing an agreement that is mutually beneficial with either the distributor or the customer. Porter (1980) provides a third dimension of his model that concerns the threat of substitutes. The existence of substitutes within an industry results in fluctuations of the elasticity of demand. A direct relation between the number of substitutes compared to the price is evident where the more substitutes there are, the lesser the price. In a market similar to the volatile fashion market where seasons are forever changing with the introduction of many new and diverse trends, it is imperative that a differentiation strategy is adopted in order to provide a unique selling point to the consumer with the goal of sustaining a competitive advantage.

Porter使用一个模型作为组织分析行业和确定潜在盈利能力的策略。Thompson和Martin概述了公司采用Porters模型的重要性,因为它是一种能够理解其竞争环境性质的工具。充分实现他们提出的目标并制定适当的战略将使一个组织处于更强大的地位,以保护自己免受任何潜在威胁。五力模型的核心是容纳当前的竞争对手及其竞争战略。在将这种模式应用于时尚零售业时,必须注意其复杂性,因为构成行业“奢侈品、商业街和超市/外地折扣店”基础的不同细分市场的数量。与Topshop和Zara类似的品牌并没有被归类为Hugo Boss和Armani等品牌的直接竞争对手,因为它们显然都在不同的市场领域运营,专注于不同的消费者群体。英敏特认为Zara的直接竞争对手是GAP、H&M、Topshop和TK Maxx,因为它们都在竞争在类似市场中获得更大的份额。Park和Sternquist讨论了时尚零售业新进入者的威胁,他们认为当今的全球市场正在积极扩张,变得如此同质化,以至于零售商可以在全球市场上销售相同的产品。因此,它引起了潜在竞争对手的兴趣,希望从这种大规模交易中获益。零售商与主要分销商垂直整合并随后拥有更大控制权的情况可以激励组织进入新市场。垂直整合是时尚零售业众多品牌的共同特点。Park和Sternquist讨论了垂直整合是如何成为许多全球零售商的特征的,然而,随后补充道,垂直整合更适合产品线狭窄而独特的零售商,也许是更专业的零售商。Flanagan和Leffmann将垂直整合归类为一种用于降低与离岸采购相关风险的战略。Porter提供的另一个框架是供应商的议价能力。在零售业这样的行业,大部分制造业外包给独立公司,这意味着供应商可以对该行业的行为模式产生影响。与克服新进入者的威胁类似,Thompson和Martin概述了垂直整合经常被组织用作控制潜在风险的工具。该模型的第二个维度是买家的议价能力,在这里,组织的议价能力在很大程度上取决于其规模。组织的战略目标再次是垂直整合,目的是确保与分销商或客户达成互利的协议。波特提供了他的模型的第三个维度,涉及替补球员的威胁。一个行业内替代品的存在会导致需求弹性的波动。替代品的数量与价格之间的直接关系显而易见,因为替代品越多,价格越低。在一个类似于动荡的时尚市场的市场中,随着许多新的多样化趋势的引入,季节永远在变化,因此必须采取差异化战略,为消费者提供独特的卖点,以保持竞争优势。

A PEST analysis is a framework used to analyse the macro environment of an industry. It is used to categorize external forces, namely, political, economical, social and technological. A PEST analyse is a valuable tool for any organization as it strives to pre-empt change in variables which subsequently affect supply and demand, and costs also. Haberberg and Riepe (2001) establish political as the main driver for what decisions an industry can or cannot do. In retail terms, political factors influences the industry in instances such as the use of subsidiaries for global expansion, and the legislation and regulations in place liberalising international trade. Paradoxically, the intervention of political/legal factors although can increase costs to an organization, long term it can enhance an organizations competitive advantage by adding value. Haberberg and Riepe (2001) argue that this is achievable through adhering to environmental laws on wastage for example. As a result of fashion items being regarded as luxury goods, if there is an economic downturn or slump, similar to the early 1980s and 1990s, the retail industry is likely suffer. Social and Cultural factors are largely relevant in the retail industry primarily because demands and tastes vary over time and across boarders. Thompson and Martin recognise that “over time most products change from being a novelty to a situation of market saturation (2005:169). And in the fashion industry this is no different, hence the reason why in today’s fashion market there is a constant need to refresh product ranges (Christopher et al, 2004). Finally technological factors affect the industry through the introduction of physicality’s such as e-commerce. Mintel (2006) predicts that online retail sales of clothing and footwear will increase by 138% over the 2006-2011 period. E-commerce allows organizations again to add value to their products as they can provide the consumer with benefits such as, broader ranges and delivery to their door.

PEST分析是一种用于分析行业宏观环境的框架。它用于对外部力量进行分类,即政治、经济、社会和技术。PEST分析对任何组织来说都是一个有价值的工具,因为它努力预先控制变量的变化,从而影响供应和需求以及成本。Haberberg和Riepe将政治因素确立为一个行业能做什么或不能做什么决策的主要驱动因素。就零售业而言,政治因素会影响该行业,例如利用子公司进行全球扩张,以及国际贸易自由化的立法和法规。矛盾的是,政治/法律因素的干预虽然会增加组织的成本,但从长远来看,它可以通过增加价值来增强组织的竞争优势。Haberberg和Riepe认为,这可以通过遵守关于浪费的环境法来实现。由于时尚产品被视为奢侈品,如果出现类似于20世纪80年代和90年代初的经济衰退或衰退,零售业可能会受到影响。社会和文化因素在很大程度上与零售业相关,主要是因为需求和品味随着时间的推移和寄宿生的不同而不同。Thompson和Martin认识到,“随着时间的推移,大多数产品都从新奇变成了市场饱和。在时尚行业,这也没有什么不同,因此,在当今的时尚市场上,不断需要更新产品范围。最后,技术因素通过引入电子商务等实体来影响行业。英敏特预测,2006-2011年期间,服装和鞋类的在线零售额将增长138%。电子商务使组织能够再次为其产品增加价值,因为它们可以为消费者提供更广泛的范围和送货上门等好处。

The literature clearly establishes that the retail market has a dynamic structure split into a number of different segments. Although these segments exist, the literature has provided an insight into the importance of organizations focusing on their core competencies whilst striving to differentiate themselves away from both direct competitors as well as potential competitors also.

文献清楚地表明,零售市场有一个动态结构,分为许多不同的细分市场。尽管存在这些细分市场,但文献已经深入了解了组织专注于其核心竞争力的重要性,同时努力将自己与直接竞争对手和潜在竞争对手区分开来。

Discussion 讨论

The literature review has identified key themes and with these themes in mind, Zara’s strategy shall be analysed accordingly. Arguably the main driver for Zara’s success is its dynamic supply chain with its intended outcome of focusing on a shorter response time. Zara has used its supply chain management to generate instant fashions: cheap, trendy clothing using a high wage paradigm. Recognising the consumers demand for fashion products at the right time, Zara has developed a supply chain that is capable of getting a trend from the catwalk to their stores in 30 days, in comparison to 4 – 12 months from its industry competitors. Coupled with this, a strategy of reducing the quantity manufactured creates scarcity. This is beneficial to Zara in two instances, firstly, less availability leads to increased desirability and secondly, with smaller amounts being produced at any one time means that there is less to be added at the end of season sales. Zara only discounts 18% of its total product range, half the level of its competitors. Time has already been noted as one of the fundamental drivers to achieve a competitive advantage, in the case of Zara, an agile supply chain has been developed. Here Zara focuses on flexibility and relies on being market sensitive, as opposed to the traditional method of being forecast driven. Christopher (2000) uses a model to outline how an agile supply chain works, signifying that agility is only capable when volume levels are kept low, whilst variability is kept high. Zara recognises the need for quick response; therefore just 40% of its total garments, mainly the products with the least transient appeal are manufactured in the Far East region, whilst the remainder are produced in Spain using Zara’s own highly automated factories (Christopher, 2000) in pursuit of achieving a strategy capable of the most effective quick-response system. Zara’s presence in the fashion world has pressurised competitors into altering their supply chains to keep in line with Zara, “retailers Mango and H&M have reduced their minimum lead times down to approximately three weeks” (Hayes and Jones, 2006:283).

文献综述已经确定了关键主题,考虑到这些主题,应相应地分析Zara的战略。可以说,Zara成功的主要驱动力是其动态的供应链,其预期结果是专注于更短的响应时间。Zara利用其供应链管理创造了即时时尚:使用高工资模式的廉价时尚服装。Zara认识到消费者在正确的时间对时尚产品的需求,开发了一个供应链,能够在30天内将潮流从T台带到他们的商店,而其行业竞争对手需要4-12个月。再加上这一点,减少制造数量的策略造成了稀缺性。这在两种情况下对Zara有利,首先,可用性越低,吸引力越大;其次,任何时候生产的数量越少,意味着季末销售时添加的数量就越少。Zara只提供其总产品系列的18%的折扣,是其竞争对手水平的一半。时间已经被认为是实现竞争优势的基本驱动因素之一,在Zara的案例中,已经开发了一个敏捷的供应链。在这里,Zara专注于灵活性,并依赖于对市场的敏感性,而不是传统的预测驱动方法。Christopher使用一个模型来概述敏捷供应链是如何工作的,这意味着只有当数量水平保持在较低水平,而可变性保持在较高水平时,敏捷才能发挥作用。Zara认识到快速反应的必要性;因此,只有40%的服装,主要是具有最小瞬时吸引力的产品在远东地区生产,而其余的则在西班牙使用Zara自己的高度自动化工厂生产,以实现能够实现最有效快速反应系统的战略。Zara在时尚界的存在迫使竞争对手改变其供应链,以与Zara保持一致,“零售商芒果和H&M已将其最短交付周期缩短至约三周”。

Furthermore, Zara’s unique quick response system allows Zara to respond to the demand of its consumer better than the competition. Zara, who focuses on the ultimate consumer, placing a greater emphasis on exercising backward vertical integration to pursue the strategy to become a fashion follower, rather than to achieve manufacturing efficiencies. Zara’s adopts a quick response communication strategy which is effective due to its management and corporate culture. The constant flow of information between managers allows the company to keep its customers happy, which in turn results in increased sales.

此外,Zara独特的快速响应系统使Zara能够比竞争对手更好地响应消费者的需求。Zara专注于最终消费者,更强调向后垂直整合,以追求成为时尚追随者的战略,而不是实现制造效率。Zara采用快速反应的沟通策略,由于其管理和企业文化,这种策略是有效的。经理之间不断的信息流动使公司能够让客户满意,这反过来又会增加销售额

Moreover, Zara’s centralized distribution facility gives the chain a competitive advantage by minimizing the lead-time of their goods. To increase delivery speed with a focus on reducing time, shipments are scheduled by time zones and shipped by way of air, and land. Zara boasts that the typical delivery time within and outside Europe is between 24 to 48 hours. Zara also has an advantage over its competitors due to its strategy centred around low advertising costs. Cuts in advertising investments reduce total expenses, which make the international expansion more economical. This also signifies that the company relies mainly on its stores to project their image. With this in find, it is clear to understand why Zara is renowned for its prime real estate locations.

此外,Zara的集中配送设施通过最大限度地缩短商品的交付周期,为连锁店提供了竞争优势。为了提高交货速度并重点缩短时间,货物按时区安排,并通过空运和陆运的方式运输。Zara夸口说,欧洲内外的典型交付时间在24到48小时之间。Zara还因其以低广告成本为中心的战略而优于竞争对手。广告投资的削减减少了总开支,使国际扩张更加经济。这也意味着该公司主要依靠其门店来展示其形象。有了这一发现,就可以清楚地理解为什么Zara以其黄金房地产位置而闻名。

Today, people around the world have a far greater access to world fashion, mainly as a result of the internet and e-commerce. Park and Sternquist (2008) explain how the global fashion market has become so homogenized resulting in fashion becoming more globally standardized and Zara recognise this and use it to their advantage by offering the latest clothing. Craig et al (2004:3) clarify that, “80- 85% of the products that Zara offers globally are relative standardized fashionable products”.

如今,主要由于互联网和电子商务,世界各地的人们有了更多的机会接触世界时尚。Park和Sternquist解释了全球时尚市场是如何变得如此同质化,导致时尚变得更加全球标准化的,Zara认识到了这一点,并通过提供最新的服装来利用这一点。Craig等人阐明,“Zara在全球范围内提供的80-85%的产品都是相对标准化的时尚产品”。

Although Zara has a successful business model that differentiates itself from that of its competitors, it also has disadvantages that can affect its sustainable growth. Zara, although opened its first store in New York, America, in 1989. It has an inability to penetrate the American fashion market. This maybe a result of different tastes between the European region and America. However, more importantly, where in Europe Zara have created a supply system that is so advanced, in America they have not being able to duplicate the same strong supply chain strategy like they have in Europe. Where in Europe Zara enjoys a strategy including, having a strong production and distribution facility in order to have short production and lead times. Zara’s strategy also creates some weaknesses. Although vertical integration is regarded by many authors as a strategy that potentially increases profits and reduces risks, the drawbacks are still equally important to recognize. Vertical integration often leads to the inability to acquire economies of scale. A focus on speedy and recurrent introduction of new products incurs increased costs as well. They have higher research and development costs. They also have elevated costs due to the constant changeover of production techniques to create their different clothing lines.

尽管Zara有一个成功的商业模式,与竞争对手不同,但它也有可能影响其可持续增长的缺点。Zara于1989年在美国纽约开设了第一家门店。它无法打入美国时尚市场。这可能是欧洲地区和美国口味不同的结果。然而,更重要的是,在欧洲,Zara创建了一个如此先进的供应系统,而在美国,他们无法像在欧洲那样复制强大的供应链战略。在欧洲,Zara的战略包括拥有强大的生产和分销设施,以缩短生产和交付周期。Zara的策略也造成了一些弱点。尽管许多作者认为垂直整合是一种潜在的增加利润和降低风险的策略,但其缺点仍然同样重要。纵向一体化往往导致无法获得规模经济。专注于快速和经常性地引入新产品也会增加成本。它们的研发成本更高。由于生产技术的不断转换,他们也提高了成本,以创建不同的服装生产线。本站提供各国各专业Critical Literature Review格式范文以及Critical Literature Review写作辅导,如有需要可咨询本平台。


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