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Literature Review格式范文:Literature Review of McDonalds

论文价格: 免费 时间:2024-01-29 11:23:15 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

Literature Review格式范文-麦当劳的文献综述。本文是一篇留学生文献综述Literature Review写作格式范文,主要内容是讲述Porters的战略定位表述提出了五种力量构成行业吸引力的假设。其中三个象征着直接的竞争事务,特别是具有挑战性的公司之间的竞争、新对手的风险以及替代品的风险。剩余的力量表示公司与组织外部因素的垂直联系,如采购方和供应方的权力。五力模型的一个有趣特征是,在企业层面使用五力模型进行战略准备的过程中,产业形成在很大程度上是内生的。这代表着行业配置和企业活动之间有着共同的关系。进入壁垒与特定的行业战略无关,但可能会受到竞争对手公司的鼓励或挑战。通过这种方式,可以将这五种力量视为公司预测SWOT分析中的机会和威胁(优势、劣势、机会和威胁)。下面就一起来看一下这篇Literature Review格式范文的具体内容。

Literature Review格式范文

Porters (1980) strategic positioning representation make upon the hypothesis that five forces conclude industry attractiveness. Three of which symbolize the straight competitive affair, specifically the competitive among challenging firms, the risk of new rivals and also that of substitutes. The remaining forces denote the company’s vertical connections with factors outside the organisation, such a purchasing party and supplying party’s authority. An interesting feature of the five forces model is that industry formation, during the use of it for strategy preparation at the firm level, is seen endogenous to a great extent. This represents having a shared relation between industry configuration and firm activities. Entry barriers does not associate from a given industry strategy but may be encouraged or challenged by rival companies. In this manner, the five forces can be observed as the opportunities as well as threats featuring in a predictive SWOT examination by the company (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) (Porter,1980).

A resource-driven perception has quite often been carried out for the purpose of industry strategy examination and evaluation based on networking, marketing, and precise manner of diffusing and sharing technological skills and machinery.

基于网络、营销以及传播和共享技术技能和机器的精确方式,出于行业战略审查和评估的目的,经常会进行资源驱动的感知。

Such, dynamic capabilities effects the firm’s capability of responding efficiently, based of firm’s inside strengths and weaknesses, over outside opportunities and threats. Such dynamic capabilities also include specific strengths of the firm to face the shifting nature of the competitive market. More precisely, such approaches concentrate much on key responsibilities of strategic management in suitably forming, amalgamating and re-establishing firm’s positive features towards shifting market conditions (Doole and Lowe,2008).

这种动态能力基于企业内部的优势和劣势,影响企业对外部机会和威胁的有效反应能力。这种动态能力还包括企业面对竞争市场性质变化的特定优势。更准确地说,这种方法在很大程度上集中于战略管理的关键职责,即适当地形成、合并和重建企业的积极特征,以适应不断变化的市场条件。

McDonald’s established positive aspects had been dual folded. Firstly, its supplier connections were significant. McDonald’s acted in a flagship competence for a good networking with providers of intermediary productivity. Secondly, McDonald had accumulated positive consistency in its supply and distribution process, which was significant to customer loyalty in its fast food chain business.

麦当劳确立的积极方面已经被双重折叠。首先,它与供应商的关系非常重要。麦当劳在与中介生产力提供商建立良好网络方面发挥了旗舰能力。其次,麦当劳在供应和分销过程中积累了积极的一致性,这对其快餐连锁业务的客户忠诚度具有重要意义。

Despite of its affective environmental reputation, McDonald’s takes the environmental challenge as an opportunity to build up a competitive environmental position. The main objective of McDonald’s is developing a dynamic position which would make environmental act as a continuing concern in the industry covering all the activities of the company. The appealing characteristic of McDonald is that it desired to change its usual networks with the market by forming environmental apprehension into the whole significance chain but was expected that it would be only able to make it through a new networks with normal societal environment which did not even want to be economically compensated for its sustainability to such strategies. McDonald’s observed the usage of the non-market fundamentals as a device in improving the image and quality of its distribution system. For instance, McDonalds enormously increased the recycled parts of its boxes supplied by the suppliers and developed a market for the recycled items collected by its own outlets. Its objective was eventually for creating a first delivery service benefit in comparison with rivals as a result of a advantaged network with non-market drives. More particularly, McDonald’s innovative dynamic ability in dealing with environmental concern had a threefold base encouraged by Environmental Defence Fund where environmental problems had to be observed as significant in all of McDonald’s supply chain performance. All solutions to apparent difficulties had to be increasing and opposing to other methods; environmental accomplishment had to turn into an ongoing concern on an average with more conformist business perform (Vignali,2001).

尽管麦当劳在环境方面享有良好声誉,但它还是将环境挑战视为建立环境竞争力的机会。麦当劳的主要目标是发展一个充满活力的地位,使环境成为行业中持续关注的问题,涵盖公司的所有活动。麦当劳吸引人的特点是,它希望通过将环境担忧纳入整个意义链来改变其与市场的常规网络,但预计它只能通过一个具有正常社会环境的新网络来实现,而这种社会环境甚至不想得到经济补偿其对此类战略的可持续性。麦当劳观察到,非市场基本面被用作改善其分销系统形象和质量的手段。例如,麦当劳大幅增加了供应商提供的盒子的回收部分,并为自己的门店收集的回收物品开发了市场。其目标最终是通过非市场驱动的优势网络,与竞争对手相比,创造首次交付服务的优势。更具体地说,麦当劳在处理环境问题方面的创新动力能力有三重基础,受到环境保护基金的鼓励,在该基金中,必须将环境问题视为麦当劳所有供应链绩效中的重要问题。对明显困难的所有解决办法都必须增加,并与其他方法相反;平均而言,环境成就必须转变为一个持续的问题,因为企业表现更为循规蹈矩。

Finally, with regard to McDonalds international competitive strategy, the environmental managing aspect was U.S. motivated but the vital objective was to enhance this localised potential so that it can become worldwide functional. Hence, the difference between a localised ability of a company when compared to an internationally flexible one is considerable, because only the latter can be diffused through out boundaries. The joint expansion of mutually localised and internationally flexible abilities certainly signifies one of the main challenges being faced by MNCs like McDonalds. (Winter,2003).

最后,关于麦当劳的国际竞争战略,环境管理方面是出于美国的动机,但至关重要的目标是增强这种本地化的潜力,使其能够在全球范围内发挥作用。因此,与具有国际灵活性的公司相比,一家公司的本地化能力之间的差异是相当大的,因为只有后者才能通过外部边界扩散。共同扩展相互本地化和国际灵活性的能力无疑意味着麦当劳等跨国公司面临的主要挑战之一。

McDonald’s competitive advantage is basically based on utilising resources in the best possible way. Competitive advantage can be attained through various strategies such as innovative ideas, whole value chain process, persistent development, frequent investments (Baker, 2000). But Piccoli and Ives (2000) imply that chief competitive advantage can be developed by allocation and cost formation of their product and services. Brandenburg and Stuart (1996), agreed to Piccoli and Ives’s theory on competitive advantage but they focused more on creating the brand value. Mata et al., (1995) further elaborated that maintaining competitive advantage is more important than its creation. Kaplan (2000) also added this point by implying that organisations must show up with a diverse product from rest of its opponents this will be supportive for McDonalds in gaining benefit in opposition and also maintain it for longer period.

麦当劳的竞争优势基本上建立在以最佳方式利用资源的基础上。竞争优势可以通过创新理念、全价值链流程、持续发展、频繁投资等多种战略来获得。但Piccoli和Ives暗示,主要竞争优势可以通过其产品和服务的分配和成本形成来发展。Brandenburg和Stuart赞同Piccoli和Ives关于竞争优势的理论,但他们更关注于创造品牌价值。Mata等人进一步阐述了保持竞争优势比创造竞争优势更重要。Kaplan还补充了这一点,暗示组织必须展示来自其他反对者的多样化产品,这将支持麦当劳在反对中获得利益,并将其维持更长时间。

Porter further pointed that a company must have an expertise in a particular field and not more than one. To expertise in a single field McDonalds has to surrender focusing on other parts of the business and generate more by concentrating on a single part.

波特进一步指出,一家公司必须在特定领域拥有专业知识,而且不能超过一个。为了获得单一领域的专业知识,麦当劳不得不放弃专注于业务的其他部分,并通过专注于单一部分来创造更多利润。

Porter also suggests two behaviours such as cost control and differentiation.

波特还提出了两种行为,如成本控制和差异化。

McDonald can use any one of such methods in attaining competitive advantage over their rivals. Along with it the companies has to update itself with current situation of the market and rival businesses in order to maintain its competitive position into the market (Porter, 1985).

麦当劳可以使用任何一种方法来获得相对于竞争对手的竞争优势。与此同时,公司必须了解市场和竞争对手的现状,以保持其在市场中的竞争地位。

Baker (2000), also states that the competitive advantage is concerned with vision of the organisation and the kind of management it involved in. He also thinks that vision is vital for keeping updated about the variations and makes changes if required and leadership skills for motivating the companies to fulfil and attain the targeted goals of the organisation.

Baker还指出,竞争优势与组织的愿景及其所涉及的管理类型有关。他还认为,愿景对于保持对变化的最新了解和在需要时做出改变以及激励公司实现和实现组织目标的领导技能至关重要。

Fast Food chains in United Kingdom is evaluated more than £ 6 billion with major targeted segment of younger audiences. The standard of living of the United Kingdom is enabling growth in the fast food chain business. According to younger audience fast food chains are more suitable choice for meals because of its price, quality and service value (Keynote, 2003). According to Schlosser 2001, the expenditure on fast food products is much higher in United Kingdom as compared to other countries over the Europe. Veseth (2005), further states that the major reason of progressive performance of McDonalds is based of its brand value that it created and maintained in its entire period of product and service performance.

英国快餐连锁店的估值超过60亿英镑,主要面向年轻受众。英国的生活水平使快餐连锁企业得以发展。根据年轻受众的说法,快餐连锁店因其价格、质量和服务价值而更适合用餐。根据Schlosser 2001年的数据,与欧洲其他国家相比,英国在快餐产品上的支出要高得多。Veseth进一步指出,麦当劳业绩进步的主要原因是基于其在整个产品和服务业绩期内创造和保持的品牌价值。

According to Mintzberg (1994) strategy is something which is planned and implemented in response to changes in trend of environment. He stresses more on practice of strategies then on theories.

根据Mintzberg的观点,战略是为了应对环境趋势的变化而规划和实施的。他更注重策略的实践,而不是理论。

Whittington 1996 is of the view that blend of practical and theoretical approach of strategies. He explains that idea behind implementing strategies is to create a distinct identity of the company in its industry. It helps creating brand value of the company.

惠廷顿1996年认为,战略的实践与理论相结合。他解释说,实施战略背后的理念是在其行业中创造公司的独特身份。它有助于创造公司的品牌价值。

Kaplan is of the view that future is always unseen and uncertain and to avoid this uncertainty companies built up situations and accordingly make strategies on how to handle those situations in long term

Kaplan认为,未来总是看不见的和不确定的,为了避免这种不确定性,公司建立了各种情况,并相应地制定了如何长期处理这些情况的战略

Campbell 1991 is of the view that there is no proper road map or guide line to build up a right strategy for a situation. According to him generally while making strategies companies lack in their analytical skills and their approach are not realistic in nature.

坎贝尔1991年认为,没有适当的路线图或指导线来为一种情况制定正确的战略。据他说,一般来说,在制定战略时,公司缺乏分析技能,其方法本质上不现实。

A unique strategy can help an organisation to stand different from rest of its competitors. A good strategy is the one which is well thought and excellently implemented (Hamel, 1998). A good strategy can help an organisation sustain in the market for long (Barney, 1991).

一个独特的战略可以帮助一个组织区别于其他竞争对手。一个好的战略是经过深思熟虑和出色实施的战略。一个好的战略可以帮助一个组织在市场上长期维持。

Kaplan 2000 shows in his findings of those organisation who have adopt customer priority approach will have to use one of the following strategies to succeed in it, which is “operational excellence”, “product leadership”.

Kaplan 2000在他的研究结果中表明,那些采用客户优先方法的组织将不得不使用以下策略之一来取得成功,即“卓越运营”和“产品领导力”。

Porter is of the view that a company has to select any one of the strategies to achieve successful competitive advantage. It will have to plan accordingly and make all the process of the organisation follow one particular strategy. Porter also mentions that along with planning and implementing one right strategy the organisation also has to concentrate on production department which should be used at its optimum. The blend of these two enables performance which is up to mark.

波特认为,一家公司必须选择任何一种战略才能获得成功的竞争优势。它必须做出相应的计划,并使组织的所有流程遵循一个特定的战略。波特还提到,除了规划和实施一项正确的战略外,组织还必须专注于生产部门,而生产部门应该在最佳状态下使用。这两者的结合使性能达到了标准。

Planning is necessary for implementing a good strategy but what Mintzburg argues is that strategies which a pre planned never works well. He further explains that strategies are made on long term basis for the future planning. It implies that a strategy was made somewhere back in past for current situation were a current situation maybe different then expected while the strategy was made. According to him strategies should be more flexible and not fixed and rigid. Flexibility helps managers to make changes according to the situation. Markets are uncertain and so flexible strategies can help overcome uncertainties by making necessary changes in the strategy.

规划对于实施一个好的战略是必要的,但明茨堡认为,预先规划的战略永远不会奏效。他进一步解释说,战略是在长期的基础上为未来规划制定的。这意味着战略是在过去的某个地方制定的,因为当前的情况可能与制定战略时的预期不同。根据他的说法,战略应该更加灵活,而不是固定和僵化。灵活性有助于管理者根据情况做出改变。市场是不确定的,因此灵活的策略可以通过对策略进行必要的改变来帮助克服不确定性。

Importance of Competition and strategies 竞争和战略的重要性

Porter defines competition as a situation aroused in an environment in which more than one individual or organisation are trying to achieve edge over each other and at the end only one survives or wins

波特将竞争定义为在一个环境中引发的一种情况,在这种环境中,不止一个个人或组织试图获得彼此的优势,最终只有一个人生存或获胜

Schumpeter 1950 views competition as situation which is never stable and is unpredictable which cannot be foreseen.

Schumpeter1950年认为竞争是一种永远不稳定、不可预测、无法预见的局面。

Henderson definition for strategy is a “system” which looks after internal affairs of an organisation in order to monitor and rectify external situation of the company.

亨德森对战略的定义是一个“系统”,负责组织的内部事务,以监控和纠正公司的外部状况。

Barney 1991 explains that competition is created because resource such as human resource, land, fuel, finance, raw material all are limited in supply and to utilize these resources at optimum level companies compete. Barney 1991 further adds that a company must only use resources at optimum level but should also have a well structured strategy to succeed.

Barney 1991解释说,竞争之所以产生,是因为人力资源、土地、燃料、金融、原材料等资源的供应都是有限的,为了在最佳水平上利用这些资源,公司进行竞争。Barney 1991进一步补充道,一家公司必须只在最佳水平上使用资源,而且还应该有一个结构良好的战略才能取得成功。

From the above it can be seen that various authors have their own view about competition and strategies. Some agree to each others view and some of the views clash with each other. Companies try their best to use scare resources in best possible manner to survive and succeed in the market. It can be said that organisations have use their resources well and at the same time come up with brilliant strategies combining both together will help company to earn more profit and create a better stand in the market

从以上可以看出,不同的作者对竞争和战略有自己的看法。有些人同意彼此的观点,有些人的观点相互冲突。公司尽力以最好的方式利用稀缺资源在市场上生存和成功。可以说,组织很好地利用了他们的资源,同时制定了出色的战略,将两者结合起来将有助于公司赚取更多利润,并在市场上创造更好的地位

Porter’s five forces model 波特五力模型

Porters five forces model is actually used to see whether the industry is good in terms of competition. It also helps the companies to assess its industry.

波特五力模型实际上是用来衡量这个行业在竞争方面是否良好的。它还帮助这些公司评估其行业。

The above shown figure shows five forces as mentioned by porter and according to porter higher is the power of these five forces the lower will be profit of the company. Power of external forces and profit are inversely related to each other (Porter 1985).

上图显示了波特提到的五种力量,根据波特的说法,这五种力量的力量越大,公司的利润就越低。外部力量的力量和利润是相互反相关的。

Porters theory is simple and hence it can be applied in any industry and also to any particular company which has production unit. The model was designed to better understand a particular industry in the market and to know the potential of the industry. The theory is proved to be helpful to the industry and to individual organisations.

Porters理论很简单,因此它可以应用于任何行业,也可以应用于拥有生产单元的任何特定公司。该模型旨在更好地了解市场中的特定行业,并了解该行业的潜力。该理论被证明对行业和个人组织都有帮助。

Porters Generic strategies Porters通用策略

Generic strategies is a simple method which can be applied to any company or industry irrespective of its type and its size. It fits to most the type of industries. In this model Porter has suggested three strategies to stay ahead of competitors which is namely cost leader ship, differentiation and focus.

通用策略是一种简单的方法,可以应用于任何公司或行业,无论其类型和规模如何。它适用于大多数类型的行业。在这个模型中,波特提出了三种保持领先的策略,即成本领先、差异化和专注。

Cost leadership and differentiation are one of the main factors they can help to achieve competitive advantage. As seen above the chart is divided into 4 parts which actually 4 different option to choose from for the company according to its nature of the business and market in which it operates.

成本领先和差异化是它们能够帮助实现竞争优势的主要因素之一。如上所述,该图表分为4个部分,根据公司经营的业务和市场的性质,实际上有4种不同的选择。

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