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新西兰Music作业:浪漫时期的新作曲手法New compositional techniques of the Rom

论文价格: 免费 时间:2019-04-30 13:24:40 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
1.0 Introduction引言
从20世纪20年代到20世纪初是音乐史上的浪漫时期(Treitler,1998)。这一时期的艺术创作重点是强调个人情感的表达,运用了部分幻想和夸张的手法,打破了传统的墨守成规的程式,不再注重平衡和美,而倾向于用个人语言来表达个人的思想感情和艺术。ISIC经验(Schonberg,1997年)。这一时期的音乐在世界音乐发展史上有着重要的地位(Palisca,1996),对于今天从事音乐研究的人们来说,研究这一时期的音乐是非常有价值的。本文将运用比较研究的方法,通过与古典时期的比较,从音乐主题、曲式结构、旋律、和声等方面来了解浪漫时期的作曲技法特点和方法。
From the 1920s to the early 20th century is the romantic period of music history (Treitler, 1998). The focus of artistic creation in this period was to emphasize individual emotional expression, it used partial fantasy and exaggeration methods, breaking the classical program of conformist and no longer paying attention to the balance and beauty to be in favor of using personal language to express individual thoughts and feelings, as well as artistic experience (Schonberg, 1997). The music of this period has an important position in the history of world music development (Palisca, 1996), for people engaged in music research and study today, to study the music of this period is very valuable. This essay will use a comparative research method, by comparison with the Classical period, it is from music theme, structure of the musical form, melody and harmony to understand the characteristics of compositional techniques and methods of the Romantic period.
2.0 Body主体
2.1 Music theme音乐主题
音乐主题灵魂和核心是拓展一首歌的构思,通过一个简短的音乐主题,它让人们了解音乐的基本初步形象和情感表达(Plantinga,1984)。由于音乐主题在作品中起着至关重要的作用,因此也有必要对其进行细致的研究,在以下内容中,主要是通过比较研究古典音乐形式与浪漫音乐形式在音乐主题上的区别(Grout和Palisca,1996)。
从古典音乐作曲家的角度看,古典时期的音乐主题大多是激励性的,作品是在确立核心主题的基础上逐步发展起来的,音乐作品是在矛盾统一的基础上逐步发展起来的(Plantinga,1984)。然而,浪漫主义音乐的主题与古典写作风格完全不同,作品主题的发展采用了更多的变化手法(Palisca,1996)。在音乐创作之初,它表现出一个完整而鲜明的基本形象(抒情或其他),随后的发展最大程度上保持了音乐主题的原始形象和完整性,通过深入挖掘音乐主题,从不同的方面改进和发展音乐主题(Grout和Palisca,1996)。
Music theme the soul and the core to expand an idea for a song, by a brief musical theme, it allows people to understand the basic preliminary image and emotional expression of music (Plantinga, 1984). Since musical theme is crucial in a work, then it is also very necessary to study it carefully, in the following content, it is mainly by comparison to study the difference between classical musical form and Romantic musical form in terms of music theme (Grout and Palisca, 1996).
Considering classical music composers, it can be found that Theme of music in classical period is mostly motivational, the works are developed progressively on the basis of core themes established, the musical works are gradually developed with contradiction and unity (Plantinga, 1984). However, the theme of romantic music is completely different from the classical style of writing, the development of theme of the works uses more variation technique (Palisca, 1996). In the beginning of musical composition, it shows a complete and distinct basic image (it is lyric or other), the subsequent developments maintain the original image and the integrity of the music theme to the largest extent, by digging deep musical theme to improve and develop music theme from different aspects (Grout and Palisca, 1996).
Since the era of romanticism is the best era to express feelings, works of most musicians have an extremely strong lyrical nature, composers need to express their strong feelings at the beginning of starting musical composition, which is not suitable for classical motives (Cairns, 1969), so the development of their work is unlike the situation in the classical period that the development of works is often based on short core themes with great potential, but it is worth noting that the variations of a theme was not just found in the era of romanticism, it has also been applied in the classical period, but the frequency of use was not as high as in the era of romanticism (Grout and Palisca, 1996).
Theme of classical sonata form has a dynamic nature, which refers to the lurking inner tension and explosive force in musical theme, it is rising with high and violent music emotions (Grout and Palisca, 1996). Dynamic nature of theme of Beethoven's works is often found in his works of early and mid periods (Cairns, 1969). In his sonata allegro movement, the music theme is positive, or warm and full of deep or strong emotions, showing appropriate mood in a particular situation, the dynamic nature of the theme is more fully expanded in order to better show himself (Grout and Palisca, 1996).
Beethoven was actually a bridge figure who achieved the culmination of music in the Classical period and made a beginning for the Romantic period (Schonberg, 1997). His later works have romantic tendencies and features, creation of his theme uses smooth and beautiful song-like melody to strengthen musical lyricism to fully express his deep introspection and otherworldly spiritual ideals of his late stage (Schonberg, 1997). The lyric nature of the theme of Beethoven's late works has been greatly improved, it was significantly different from the dynamic nature (pathos, enthusiasm) in his early and middle stages, there was no dynamic nature in the romantic theme, which was determined by the emphasis on the expression of emotions in romantic music (Grout and Palisca, 1996). Advocating freedom, the pursuit of fantasy, focusing on perceptual concept and expression of subjective emotion, personal thoughts was a clear sign of this period. 
All in all, the characteristics of creation of the theme in the Romantic period were that the approach used for development of theme was variations, and lyrical themes have been greatly improved, and the dynamic nature was weakened.
2.2 Structure of musical form
The structure of musical form means that musical works meet certain logical structure form. There were quite different structures of musical form in the Classical period and the Romantic period. In the following contents, it takes the structure of musical form of sonata to discuss the differences. Sonata consists of three main parts: exposition-development-recapiulation (Plantinga, 1984). Exposition of sonata is the starting point and the basis for the entire music development; the main task of development is to make the tension and conflicts established in the exposition further profound sharpened; recapiulation has recapitulate meaning. Classicalism took works of ancient Greece as the standard to improve and took rigorous forms and unity as the highest state of the art, therefore, the music of this period pursued the pure music with a unified thought and form. In the Classical period, it was dominated by rational thought, development and movement of all things took regulations as the principle, balance and symmetry was the focus of music creation of this period: such as balance in structure, balance in content, form and other aspects (Palisca, 1996). Therefore, classical music is rigorous and standardized, which is prominently reflected in structure of sonata.
With the evolution of music history, new generations of composers appeared, they walked along the road of music predecessors to open up their own new path in the future (Treitler, 1998). From the early romantic composers Schubert, some principles of classical musical form had gradually disappeared, different composers revealed their own unique personality in classical sonata-style basis. Schubert’s Schumann’s, Liszt’s, Chopin’s and other great composers’ sonatas and sonata forms were more free and flexible (Grout and Palisca, 1996). For example, in the OP. 35 first movement of Chopin’s "Sonata for Piano in B minor", this sonata was written in 1839, which was one of his most representative works, the music reflected his grief feelings what his motherland was suffering and his deeply cherish the memory of the motherland, showing a strong fight against the enemy and mourning for heroes’ sacrifice for the motherland. The first movement of the Chopin's piano sonata saves the lead-in portion of development, and in recapitulation, it cuts the first tonal area and directly introduces the second tonal area, which is rare in music in the Classical period (Treitler, 1998). These fully reflect the freedom and flexibility of romanticism sonata to reflect the personalized distinctive characteristics of music in the Romantic era.
However, it is worth noting that even romantic composers’ sonata form also includes the three main parts: exposition- development - recapiulation of the exposition (Treitler, 1998). In other words, the fundamental principle of this musical form has not been changed, either one of three basic parts can not to be omitted.
In sum, the structure of the musical form in the classical period is more rigorous, while the structure in romantic period is more free, which helps composers in romantic period to better express their emotions and personality.
2.3 Melody
In classical music, homophonic music took an absolute superiority (Schonberg, 1997). In the process of composing, the theme tune of classical music has a very important position, bass is often played repeatedly with tonic or dominate, or by a simple broken chords. During this period, people did not want to listen to heavy music but asked for clearer and lighter music. This can also be said to be an aspect of enlightenment spirit requirement (Cairns, 1969). The melody took smooth, undulating nature, regularly performance as the basis was an important feature of melody of music in the Classical period.#p#分页标题#e#
In the Romantic period, melody was still an important factor in composition of form of music (Palisca, 1996). A composer's feelings, viewpoint, times consciousness, state of mind was first reflected from melody, and the European society of the Romantic period was in a period of great social change, such background also had a greater impact on composers, the kind of melody creation way of classical music was not able to better reflect the composers’ thought, so there have been many changes in the creative aspects of melody (Treitler, 1998). The most important feature of the melody writing in the Romantic period was based on changes in timbre to produce melody, composers used different speeds, different rhythms, different ranges of sound, with minor to replace major to deal with a melody, which immediately changed the nature. For example, many of Chopin's melodies were designed entirely based on timbre, and Schumann required that composers should create" bold melodies". According to their own sense to restructure melody, composers create changes in the speed and changes in intensity and degree of emotional tension. Tone and melody in the Romantic period was always full of heroism and excitement emotion, the melody was often not smooth and it was angular, sometimes it avoided melody factors in traditional music and replaced melody with other sound manners (Treitler, 1998). However, it is worth noting that in the melody of music in the Romantic period, of course, there were a lot softer, lyrical melodies which were easy to be hummed (Grout and Palisca, 1996). Melodies created by Schubert, Chopin and their contemporaries are still popular, which are examples for the above-mentioned perspective. 
In short, the creation of melody in the Romantic period had more significant changes than in the Classical period, this result was related with the social environment and needs at that time, changes in timbre, excited emotion was an important feature of melodies of this period.
2.4 Harmony 
Harmony refers to the sounding of two or more music notes, meanwhile, in a way, it is pleasant or desired (Plantinga, 1984). Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven created a complete and strict harmonic language system in the long journey of the musical evolution to establish a solid foundation for homophonic music (Schonberg, 1997). At this time, polyphony was through simple but honest and interesting harmonic language, as well as a very clear and rigorous musical structure to aptly demonstrate musical classic beauty.
The Romantic period was coincided with the period of French Revolution, and people at that time advocated the liberation of personality gave full play to individual creativity (Grout and Palisca, 1996). Composers also showed enthusiastic spiritual strength, which was applied to create harmony. Purely classical harmony and its function principle were difficult to meet the needs of the composers’ in emotional performance, composers of that period were on the basis of maintaining the classical style of harmony language to further expand the vocabulary of harmony, expanding tonality, with its unique and novel harmony approach to strengthen the expressive power of music and sound to meet the needs of romantic emotions, such as starting bold use of chromatic harmony, dissonant chords and common-chord modulation (Schonberg, 1997).
Sound of dissonant chords makes harmony have expressive temperament. With the growing change in rhythm of harmony, there was a significant increase in the use of unprepared dissonant chords and 7 chord, 9 chord, 11 chord, tonal harmony was expanded (Lang, 2001). Diminished 7 chord has also been given a special role, as an intermediary chord, it actually can go to any other tune up, which further increases the expression of harmony (Rosen, 1995). At the same time, the Twelve-Tone Equal Temperament was popular in the Romantic period, boundaries between music sharps and flats have been broken by enharmonic change, making modulation become very free and smooth which also strengthens the expression of harmony.
Overall, harmony is an important tool for the performance of romanticism, expansion and free use of dissonance, frequent appearance of 7 and 9 chord, chromatic method and inflection in music expand the scope of harmony to enhance the expression of harmony (Grout and Palisca, 1996).
2.5 Discussion
People are never satisfied with a changeless musical form (Blume, 1970). With the development of human civilization, people in different historical circumstances are always looking for the right vector to express ideas. classical music and romantic music act as such a carrier concentrated with all spiritual and material aspects of 18th and 19th century. Like other styles of arts, classical style music and romantic style music meet human spirit of people in different eras, with different regions and different cultures (Rosen, 1995). Thus in the Romantic period, because of the special nature of the times, it created features of romantic music. Who created the music, the music also affects those who created the music (Lang, 2001). Change of styles are overwhelming, just like human development, emancipation of human personality, respect for personality and fanatical pursuit of beautiful ideal determines that music develops towards a free, passion, self-expression direction, in such a law, after the birth of the romantic music, music of neoclassicism, neo-romanticism, impressionism and other modern music styles emerged.
3.0 Conclusion
This study will adopt desk research method, through the use of comparative study to compare the characteristics between classical music and romantic music, from theme, structure of musical form, melody, harmony, these four aspects to analyze and discuss compositional techniques of the Romantic period.
Theme of music in classical period is mostly motivational, however, the theme of romantic music is completely different from the classical style of writing, since the era of romanticism is the best era to express feelings, lyrical nature of most musicians’ works is extremely strong and it is fundamentally unsuitable for development of classical motivation, so the development of theme of the their works uses more variation technique.
In the classical period, dominated by rational thought, music was rigorous and standardized, musical form was substantially fixed. From the early Romantic composer Schubert, some of the principles of classical musical form had gradually disappeared, in terms of Schubert, Schumann, Liszt, Brahms and other great composers, their song styles were more creative freedom and flexible. Their work reflected the musical form of the free and flexible composition of the Romantic period, it also reflected the distinctive, personalized characteristics of a romantic music era.
From the perspective of melody, melody of classic music is based on smooth, nature undulating, regularity, and the melody of music in Romantic period was often not smooth, there was angular, sometimes it avoided melody factors in traditional music and replaced melody with other sound manners.
Harmony is an important tool for the performance of romanticism, expansion and free use of dissonance, frequent appearance of 7 and 9 chord, chromatic method and inflection in music expand the scope of harmony to enhance the expression of harmony.
 
References
Blume, F. (1970). Classic and romantic music: a comprehensive survey. New York: Norton. 
Cairns, D. (1969). The memoirs of Hector Berlioz. New York: Alfred A. Knoft.
Grout, D. and Palisca, C. (1996). A history of western music (5th ed.). New York: W.W. Norton
and Company. 
Lang, P. H. (2001). Western civilization music. Guizhou: Guizhou People's Publishing House.
Palisca, C. (1996). Norton anthology of western music (3rd ed.). New York: W.W. Norton and Company.
Plantinga, L. (1984). Anthology of romantic music. New York: W.W. Norton and Company.
Plantinga, L. (1984). Romantic music: a history of musical style in nineteenth- century Europe. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
Rosen, C. (1995). The Romantic generation. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
Schonberg, H. (1997). The lives of the great composers (3rd ed.). New York: W.W. Norton and Company. 
Treitler, L. (1998). Source readings in music history. New York: W.W. Norton and Company.
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