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管理学essay写作模板——How to Reduce Employee Stress

论文价格: 免费 时间:2022-09-09 16:45:45 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

管理学essay范文参考——如何降低员工的压力,本文是一篇留学生管理专业的Essay写作格式参考范文。压力是现代企业和管理者在当代工作环境中的一个主要问题。与压力相关的疾病不仅会让组织损失工作时间和生产力,而且更高水平的压力还与较低的满意度、较差的服务交付质量和较高水平的人员流动有关(George和Zakkariya, 2015)。因此,这篇文章将寻求对各种可用于管理员工压力的选择和方法的理论和研究进行批判性的审查,并确保它不会达到一个可能损害组织绩效和结果的过度水平。以下是管理学essay范例写作的全部内容,是一篇符合国外大学Essay写作格式要求的范文,供参考。

管理学essay范文结构

Stress is a major issue for modern businesses and managers in the contemporary working environment. Not only do stress related illnesses have a cost for organisations in terms of lost working hours and productivity, but higher levels of stress have also been associated with lower level of satisfaction, poorer quality service delivery, and higher levels of turnover (George and Zakkariya, 2015). This essay will thus look to carry out a critical review of theory and research into the various options and approaches which can be used to manage employee stress and ensure it does not reach an excessive level which could harm organisational performance and outcomes.

One of the main themes in the literature is the important role that an employee’s immediate managers, and particularly line managers, can play in the management of stress. According to Donaldson-Feilder et al (2008), as line managers are responsible for organising employees and directly supervising their work, they are ideally positioned to address their psychological needs and manage work related stress. This indicates that line managers need to ensure they have developed and are able to apply the necessary skills to the management of employee stress in order to maintain levels of moral and performance. At the same time, research indicates that senior managers need to focus on empowering line managers and giving them the necessary support and delegated authority to manage stress among their teams, in order to help employees “manage their stress proactively through planning, prioritizing and delegating work” (Moyle, 2006, p. 48). This is an important issue, given recent findings that many line managers are themselves too stressed to help their employees deal with work related stress (Crawford, 2013). This indicates that the management of stress is an issue which requires managerial involvement at all levels, as build ups of excessive stress in any layer of an organisational hierarchy can trigger additional issues and performance problems.

其中一个主要的主题在文献是重要的作用,员工的直接经理,特别是直线经理,可以发挥在管理压力。根据Donaldson-Feilder等人(2008)的观点,由于部门经理负责组织员工并直接监督他们的工作,他们处于解决他们的心理需求和管理工作相关压力的理想位置。这表明部门经理需要确保他们已经发展并能够应用必要的技能来管理员工的压力,以保持道德和业绩的水平。与此同时,研究表明,高级经理需要关注授权部门经理,给予他们必要的支持和授权,以管理团队中的压力,以帮助员工“通过计划、优先排序和授权工作来主动管理他们的压力”(Moyle, 2006, p. 48)。这是一个重要的问题,鉴于最近的研究发现,许多部门经理本身压力太大,无法帮助他们的员工处理工作相关的压力(克劳福德,2013)。这表明,管理压力是一个问题,需要管理参与在所有层面,因为在组织层次的任何一层建立过度的压力可以触发额外的问题和业绩问题。

In addition to the direct management of stress, it is also important to recognise the role of leadership styles in creating an organisational environment in which the causes of stress are minimised. As noted by Huczynksi and Buchanan (2010), many managers continue to follow traditional supervisory leadership theories, through which they look to encourage and reward good performance and reprimand employees who fail to perform. However, there is a risk of this type of leadership resulting in an overly autocratic approach to the management of employees. A research study by Castledine (2004) showed that this style of leadership is associated with higher levels of stress, leading to a lack of commitment and risk of employee burn-out. This thus indicates one of the primary paradoxes in the management of stress, namely that a degree of stress is required in the form of pressure to perform and penalties for failure if employees are to be motivated to work hard, but above a certain level this stress can become destructive. As such, one of the core options for managing stress without eliminating it is to use transformational and participative leadership styles which will motivate employees to perform whilst providing them with support and motivation to avoid any issues of excess stress, and preventing a long term accumulation of stress which can cause damage to employee outcomes (Northhouse, 2011).

essay范文参考

In addition to the specific style of leadership, it is also important to recognise the role of individual employee factors, both inside and outside the organisation, in influencing levels of stress and the negative impacts which can result. This is particularly important in light of recent developments in the nature of work, including flexible labour markets and the rise in knowledge work. According to Robbins et al (2010), this has resulted in a growth in employee expectations around the rights and the obligations of organisations and employees, and a demand for organisations to also recognise these rights. This can cause conflict between organisational and employee priorities, particularly in the area of work life balance, and the extent to which demands placed on employees by organisations are fair and reasonable (Sturges and Guest, 2004). This is of importance in the context of employee stress, given that research has shown that a positive work life balance is one of the major factors in preventing the build up of stress and helping support healthier lifestyles for employees (Gregory and Milner, 2009). Ensuring a positive work life balance, which does not place excessive demands on employees, is thus also key to managing levels of employee stress.

除了具体的领导风格外,认识到员工个人因素在组织内外影响压力水平和可能产生的负面影响方面的作用也很重要。鉴于工作性质的近期发展,包括劳动力市场的灵活性和知识性工作的增加,这一点尤为重要。根据罗宾斯等人(2010),这导致了员工对组织和员工的权利和义务的期望的增长,并要求组织也承认这些权利。这可能会导致组织和员工优先级之间的冲突,特别是在工作生活平衡方面,以及组织对员工的要求在多大程度上是公平合理的(斯特奇斯和Guest, 2004)。这在员工压力的背景下是很重要的,因为研究表明,积极的工作和生活平衡是防止压力积累和帮助员工支持更健康的生活方式的主要因素之一(Gregory和Milner, 2009)。确保工作和生活的积极平衡,不给员工过多的要求,因此也是管理员工压力水平的关键。

The role of work life balance in controlling organisational stress is also linked to the general literature around the growing importance of the psychological contract. Evidence from the literature indicates that the formation of a strong psychological contract between an employee and their manager and organisation can help to boost levels of motivation and thus drive higher levels of performance (Watson, 2001). However, the psychological contract is also based on a strong recognition of the role of the organisation in supporting the employee with any specific issues or circumstances, in order to make them feel more valued (Abendroth et al, 2012). A failure to manage the psychological contract can result in perceptions by employees that the organisation and its managers have broken the contract, which can increase levels of stress and the negative impacts of stress on organisational outcome (Houston et al, 2006). This indicates that managers must be attuned to the implied promises in the psychological contracts they have developed with their employees and must honour these promises or risk high levels of employee stress and associated dissatisfaction.

工作与生活平衡在控制组织压力方面的作用,也与心理契约日益重要的一般文献有关。文献证据表明,员工与经理和组织之间形成强有力的心理契约有助于提高激励水平,从而驱动更高水平的绩效(Watson, 2001)。然而,心理契约也建立在对组织在任何特定问题或环境中支持员工的角色的强烈认识的基础上,以使他们感到更有价值(Abendroth等人,2012)。未能管理好心理契约会导致员工认为组织及其管理者已经破坏了契约,这可能会增加压力水平以及压力对组织结果的负面影响(Houston et al, 2006)。这表明管理者必须适应他们与员工建立的心理契约中隐含的承诺,必须遵守这些承诺,否则就会面临员工高度压力和相关不满的风险。

The ability of managers to identify and address these issues is also linked strongly to the level of managerial understanding around stress as an emotional issue. This in turn leads to the argument that managers who are able to deal better with stress and other emotional issues will be better at controlling them and reducing any associated negative impacts, causing Goleman et al (2002) to argue that emotional intelligence is now a vital competence for modern leaders. This argument is supported by Hughes et al (2005), who use theory to argue that emotional intelligence will help leaders to improve their level of understanding of the emotional behaviours and needs of employees, and thus allow them to respond to these issues in a supportive manner, building a more genuine relationship. This will thus improve the ability of managers to understand and address the causes of stress, helping to pre-empt the emergence of stress in the workplace. Managers can thus look to develop their emotional intelligence in order to improve their management of stress.

Unfortunately, whilst emotional intelligence is one of the areas of management competence which is seen as amongst the most prominent in the management of stress, it is also one of the most controversial. On the one hand, Sadri (2012, p. 535) states that “the components of emotional intelligence integrate with contemporary leadership development practices”, which supports the argument that emotional intelligence is key to the development of effective leadership which can help manage stress. However, research and arguments by both Antonakis et al (2009) and Lindebaum (2009) indicate that whilst there are strong theoretical arguments for emotional intelligence, there is very limited statistical evidence to support these arguments. In particular, Lindebaum (2009) argues that the value of emotional intelligence is generally supported through the use of hyperbolic claims around the value of this competence in the management of stress and achievement of positive employee outcomes, however the empirical support for these arguments is very limited. As such, whilst the management of emotional issues and their potential negative impacts is widely supported in the literature as a method of managing employee stress, the existence of a single competence or capability which can ensure effective management of these complex issues is less clear.

不幸的是,尽管情商是管理能力的一个领域,在压力管理中被视为最突出的领域之一,但它也是最具争议的领域之一。一方面,Sadri (2012, p. 535)指出,“情商的组成部分与当代领导力发展实践相结合”,这支持了情商是有效领导力发展的关键,有助于管理压力的观点。然而,Antonakis等人(2009)和Lindebaum(2009)的研究和论点都表明,虽然情商有强有力的理论论据,但支持这些论点的统计证据非常有限。特别地,Lindebaum(2009)认为,情商的价值通常通过使用这种能力在管理压力和实现积极的员工结果方面的价值的双曲线主张得到支持,然而,对这些论点的实证支持非常有限。因此,虽然情绪问题及其潜在负面影响的管理作为一种管理员工压力的方法在文献中得到了广泛的支持,但是否存在一种单一的能力或能力可以确保有效管理这些复杂的问题还不太清楚。

In conclusion, the literature indicates that there are a number of methods, techniques and approaches which can be used to ensure the effective management of stress. These include ensuring that line managers are empowered and trained in dealing with stress and are themselves protected from stress, and also ensuring that leadership styles are participative and transformational to ensure pressure to perform does not turn into high levels of stress. In addition to this, the organisation and its managers must support positive individual level factors such as work life balance and a psychological contract which establishes clear expectations and meets said expectations. There is also a strong argument that leaders and managers need to develop higher levels of emotional intelligence if they are to understand employee needs and emotional requirements and thus develop appropriate responses to address these needs and the stress they may cause. However, this argument is not well supported in the empirical literature, which indicates that the development of emotional intelligence may not be possible or feasible. Instead managers should look to respond to each situation individually and manage the stress which can result in order to keep overall levels of stress in their organisation at an acceptable level.

总之,文献表明,有许多方法,技术和方法可以用来确保有效的管理压力。这包括确保部门经理在处理压力方面获得授权和培训,使他们自己免受压力的影响,同时确保领导风格是参与式的和变革性的,以确保执行压力不会转化为高水平的压力。除此之外,组织及其管理者必须支持积极的个人层面因素,如工作与生活的平衡,以及建立明确的期望并满足预期的心理契约。还有一个强有力的论点认为,如果领导者和管理者想要了解员工的需求和情绪需求,并因此制定适当的反应来应对这些需求和他们可能造成的压力,他们就需要发展更高水平的情商。然而,这一论点在实证文献中并没有得到很好的支持,这表明情商的发展可能是不可能或不可行的。相反,管理者应该单独应对每一种情况,管理压力,从而使组织的整体压力水平保持在可接受的水平。

References参考文献

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