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管理学essay该怎么写—Importance of Ethics in Business

论文价格: 免费 时间:2022-09-08 10:08:10 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

管理学essay范文——商业道德的重要性,本文是一篇留学生管理专业的Essay写作格式参考范文。根据《剑桥英语词典》,dilemma指的是你必须在两件不同的事情中做出艰难选择的情况;道德困境是指必须在两个既不完全可接受又不可取的选择之间作出决定的道德状况。(Fernado, no date)在这篇文章中,我们正在讨论伦理理论或模型在管理者的职业生涯中处理发生在他们工作场所的伦理压力(困境)的相关性。我个人认为伦理理论不能为管理者提供准确的指导,从而得出道德结论。以下是管理学essay范例写作的全部内容,是一篇符合国外大学Essay写作格式要求的范文,供参考。

管理学参考范文

According to Cambridge English dictionary, dilemma means a situation in which a  difficult choice has to be made between two different things you could do; an ethical dilemma is a moral situation in which a decision has to be made between two option which is neither fully acceptable or preferable. (Fernado, no date)In this essay we are discussing the relevance of Ethical theories or models in managers professional life to deal with the ethical pressure (dilemmas) occurring in their work place. Personally, I believe that the Ethical theories cannot provide accurate guidance to the managers to reach a moral conclusion.

Importance of Ethics in Business商业道德的重要性

Ethics are crucial to the business organizations as well as the whole society. Good Ethic is required for effective Business practice. Ethical behavior of everyone in an organization plays a vital role in a firm’s reputation or we can say that it reflects the culture of the company. Human nature and irrelevant control of management forces manager to face several ethical dilemmas in an organization. However, each company have their own Codes of Ethics to deal with these issues, but due to the different point of view of individual to see things may make it difficult for managers to choose the moral one or precisely the ethic decision. Social interaction with school, parents, religious institution, friends and so on make each individual aware about the right and wrong decision, but to deal with the unique ethical problems of their profession they need special training, so they can recognize the ethical dilemmas that may arise in their job. According to Andrew Crane, “Business ethics is the study of business situations, activities, and decisions where issues of right and wrong are addressed”. In short, business ethic means conduct the business in a moral way to give the welfare to the community. Anyway, failure to implement the ethical standard within an organization may affects the entity in various ways like its reputation, unwillingness of professionals to join such business and even it makes company less appealing to stakeholders. (Akrani, 2011)

道德对商业组织和整个社会都至关重要。有效的商业行为需要良好的道德规范。一个组织中每个人的道德行为对一个公司的声誉起着至关重要的作用,或者我们可以说它反映了公司的文化。人性和管理的不相关控制迫使管理者在组织中面临若干道德困境。然而,每个公司都有自己的道德规范来处理这些问题,但由于个人看待事情的角度不同,可能会使管理者很难选择道德的一个,或准确的道德决策。与学校、父母、宗教机构、朋友等的社会交往使每个人都能意识到正确和错误的决定,但要处理他们职业特有的伦理问题,他们需要特殊的训练,这样他们就能认识到在他们的工作中可能出现的伦理困境。安德鲁·克兰认为,“商业伦理是对商业环境、活动和决策的研究,其中涉及对与错的问题。”简而言之,商业伦理是指以道德的方式经营企业,为社会带来福利。无论如何,未能在一个组织内实施道德标准可能会以各种方式影响实体,如其声誉,不愿专业人士加入这样的业务,甚至使公司更不吸引利益相关者。(Akrani, 2011)

Managers Role in Ethics Conduct管理者在道德行为中的角色

Managers one of the primary responsibilities in an organization is to ensure that they and their subordinates are behaving ethically and will not affect any stakeholders adversely. Managers would face many ethical dilemmas in their work place may be with their supervisors, customers, management, subordinates, competitors and so on and the issues can be performance, evaluation, discipline, honesty etc…. But they must make sure that their each decision reflects the moral motivation and positive character traits such as Integrity, Trust, Fairness, Self-control and Humility because they are role models for the employees in their department. An ethical organizational culture will only be possible by a responsible and ethical manager. The failure of manager to follow ethics can even lead to the collapse of a company. Nationalization of the third largest bank in Ireland “The Anglo-Irish Bank” in 2009 is an example for this. The failure of Anglo-Irish chief executive Mr. Sean Fitzpatrick to practice virtue ethics caused the reputation of the bank to be destroyed, leading to its near collapse and nationalization.(Chu, 2014) So it is clear that unethical behavior and immoral decision of manager can even collapse a company.

在一个组织中,管理者的主要职责之一是确保他们和他们的下属的行为是合乎道德的,不会对任何利益相关者产生负面影响。管理者在工作中会面临许多道德困境,可能是与他们的主管,客户,管理,下属,竞争对手等,问题可以是表现,评估,纪律,诚实等....但他们必须确保他们的每一个决定都反映了道德动机和积极的性格特征,如正直、信任、公平、自控和谦逊,因为他们是他们部门员工的榜样。一个有道德的组织文化只有在一个负责任和有道德的管理者身上才能实现。管理者不遵守职业道德甚至会导致公司的倒闭。2009年爱尔兰第三大银行“盎格鲁-爱尔兰银行”的国有化就是一个例子。爱尔兰裔首席执行官肖恩·菲茨帕特里克(Sean Fitzpatrick)未能践行美德伦理,导致该行声誉受损,濒临倒闭和国有化。(Chu, 2014)可见,管理者的不道德行为和不道德决策甚至会导致公司倒闭。

essay怎么写

Ethical Theories and Its application伦理学理论及其应用

Prescriptive approach and descriptive approach are the two different ways for an individual to take ethical decision. The major contemporary approaches in prescriptive are Consequentialist theories, Virtue ethics and Deontological theories. Consequentialist theory would suggest employees to think about the consequences of the decision or action, when Virtue ethics will ask individual to pay attention on integrity, while deontologist decision will be based on duties, obligations and principles. Each theory suggests three different ways to face problems and as a result each approach will conflict with each other. For example, let’s consider the financial crisis that happened in US due to the loan sanctioned by Mortgage brokers to NINJA. In this case, a consequentialist  would have focused on the damages  that could have caused to primary stakeholders and secondary stakeholders by these risky mortgages, a deontologist would have focused attention on the relevance of honesty, responsibility and transparency they should maintained with the customers and a virtue ethics theory would have asked that a person with integrity quality could sell mortgages to people who have no income.(Trevino and Nelson, no date, p. 51).And the toughest situation would arise when each theories suggest different guidance’s to an ethical dilemma and in such occasion it will be up to the decision maker to examine the situation thoroughly as possible considering the values and principles, social responsibility and integrity to reach a conclusion. Let’s consider other example where consequentialist theory contradicts with deontologist reasoning, In World War II Germany was compelled by Nazis to spill the truth about the place where Jews were hiding. If Germany told the truth about Jews to Nazis authorities then the consequence would be the death of Jews so consequentialist approach would suggest Germany to keep num, but as per deontological approach Germany should have spoken truth to Nazis because deontological principle stick on truth and honesty, so in short the managers faces difficulty to take moral decision because each theory conflict with each other reasoning and as a result manager get confuse to take the decision.

Anyway, Linda Klebe Trevino and Katherine A. Nelson recommend eight steps to coordinate these three different analyses and they propose a linear decision-making process. The first step is to find the facts, even though it is difficult to identify due to the uncertainty that found around the ethical issues but the worry part is facts that we found can be biased due to our over confidence or may be due to confirmation trap.(Trevino and Nelson, no date, p. 87).Then next step is to identify the multiple ethical issues of the situation. The third step is to identify the primary stakeholders and secondary stakeholders of the issues and then should view things on their perspective. Then next process is to find out about the potential positive and negative consequences for the affected stakeholders by the decision taken. In business, it is necessary to identify all short-term consequences, long term consequences and systematic consequences (symbolic and secrecy) before reaching a conclusion. Barriers such as choosing the consequences for self rather than to society, underestimating the risk that could arise and reducing the number of consequences to simplify the problem could be arise while identifying the consequences and it is necessary to deal with these issues in a broad way to identify the important consequences. Then the next step is to find out the obligation that could be raised due to the rights and principles of stakeholders and the sixth step is checking how society is going to evaluate our character based on our decision and the next step suggest that before taking any decision manager must think creatively about all potential action and the last step suggest decision maker to show guts without fearing.(Trevino and Nelson, no date, pp. 51–58).

总之,Linda Klebe Trevino和Katherine a . Nelson推荐了8个步骤来协调这三种不同的分析,他们提出了一个线性决策过程。第一步是找到事实,尽管由于围绕伦理问题发现的不确定性很难确定,但令人担忧的是,我们发现的事实可能会由于我们的过度自信或可能是由于确认陷阱而产生偏差。(特维诺和纳尔逊,没有日期,第87页)。然后下一步是确定情况的多重伦理问题。第三步是确定问题的主要利益相关者和次要利益相关者,然后应该从他们的角度看待问题。接下来的过程是找出所采取的决定对受影响的利益相关者可能产生的积极和消极后果。在商业中,在得出结论之前,有必要确定所有的短期后果、长期后果和系统后果(象征性和保密)。在确定后果的同时,还会出现诸如选择对自己而不是对社会的后果、低估可能产生的风险以及减少后果的数量以简化问题等障碍,有必要以广泛的方式处理这些问题以确定重要的后果。然后下一步是找出义务,可以提高由于利益相关者的权利和原则,第六步是检查社会将如何评估我们的性格基于我们的决定,下一步建议,在采取任何决策之前,经理必须创造性地思考所有潜在的行动,最后一步建议决策者显示勇气,而不害怕。(Trevino和Nelson,没有日期,第51-58页)。

Let’s take the example stated by Linda and Katherine in their book Management Business Ethics. They told about an ethical dilemma faced by Pat the plant manager in ABC Company. She was in such a situation that telling the truth about staff layoff to her friends will make her disloyal to the company at the same time hiding about staff layoff from her close friend will make Pat disloyal towards her friend. In this case, Pat may find it difficult to find out all facts especially the time workers would take to find a new Job .Pat, the workers, Pat’s Boss, society, the company are the affected stakeholders.  The right of both the workers and company to know and hide about layoff and the loyalty that company and workers expect from Pat are the main ethical issues Pat face. The consequences of telling and hiding about the staff layoff would be, Pat may lose her job, workers will get time to find other placement, Pat will remain in good book of management or workers have to suffer from sudden job loss. Anyway, before reaching a conclusion Pat should have to think about the duties towards company as an employee also about how society is going to value her by the decision she take. However, Pat can warn both employees and management like not to make any big financial commitment or about the aftereffect of hiding the layoff truth from employees.At last Pat must take a decision considering all these factors and should have the gut to stand on the decision taken by her

In conclusion, the theories and all these steps will only help managers to deal with the ethical dilemma more carefully or we can say it help managers to view the various “lenses” of the issue from different angle. And at last managers must take a moral decision from all these multiple conclusions. I feel that theories only give little guidance to manager to take a decision.

总之,这些理论和所有这些步骤只会帮助管理者更仔细地处理道德困境,或者我们可以说,它帮助管理者从不同的角度看待问题的各种“镜头”。最后,管理者必须从所有这些多重结论中做出道德决策。我觉得理论对管理者做决定的指导作用很小。

Bibliography 参考文献

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