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高分的管理学essay—Influence of the Scientific Management Theory on Modern Organizational Designs

论文价格: 免费 时间:2022-09-21 13:27:21 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

管理学essay范文——科学管理理论对现代组织设计的影响。本文是一篇留学生管理专业的Essay写作格式参考范文。当代的组织运作以有效的计划技术、专业化管理、劳动分工、管理人员和工人之间的正式互动、专业化和创新为中心,这些都是为实现特定目标而设计的。这些组织功能和运作都是由Fredrick Taylor在20世纪提出的科学管理模式的概念所决定的。作为一名机械工程师,泰勒设计了科学的管理思想,为工业的运行提供了效率。在他任职期间,行业管理存在多种异常现象,组织缺乏正式的管理系统。因此,泰勒的管理原则寻求通过提高工人在他们的工作阶层的生产力来消除这些违规行为。虽然现代组织设计展示了泰勒的科学管理原则,但对他的主张也有一些批评。因此,尽管科学管理理论对现代组织职能产生了影响,但它也显示出许多弱点和优点。以下是管理学essay范例写作的全部内容,是一篇符合国外大学Essay写作格式要求的范文,供参考。

管理学参考范文

The contemporary organizational operations center on effective planning techniques, specialized management, the division of labor, formalized interactions between managers and workers, and specializations and innovations, which are designed to achieve specific objectives. These organizational functions and operations are attributable to the concepts of the scientific management model proposed by Fredrick Taylor in the 20th century. As a mechanical engineer, Taylor devised scientific management ideologies that provided effectiveness in the running of industries. During his time, the management of industries comprised multiple anomalies and organizations lacked formal managing systems. Hence, Taylor’s management principles sought to eliminate these irregularities by improving the workers’ productivity in their class of work. Although modern organizational designs exhibit Taylor’s scientific management principles, there have been several criticisms against his propositions. Therefore, the theory of scientific management exhibits numerous weaknesses and strengths despite its influence on modern organizational functions.

The Scientific Management Principles科学管理原则

Taylor utilized systematic analysis and experiments to propose four fundamental principles to lay the foundation of scientific management. The first standard involved establishing the scientific technique to substitute the “rule of thumb” practices in management (Taylor 2016). The application of this alternative was scientific thus provided an opportunity for managers to analyze management challenges in their organizations. In this regard, the scientific approach was requisite since there was a need to utilize systematic experiments. Taylor’s ideas are crucial in solving the problems faced in today’s managerial decision-making and production processes. This scientific technique systematized managerial operations as opposed to the rule of thumb, which was marred by many inconsistencies. Therefore, the development of scientific principles and laws for tasks was designed to replace the traditional methods that lacked equity.

The second principle envisioned in the scientific management theory is selecting, providing work development, and offering training sessions to every worker. This principle was designed to replace disorganized management that left the workers to lead and train themselves on work-related duties in the industry. Taylor (2016) noted that a highly competent or qualified person occupies a position and leads the followers efficiently and systematically. The method has enabled organizations to develop a scientific payment system that considers the worker’s level of output and efficiency in the production of goods and services. Thus, the determination of a worker’s level of output has been instrumental in improving the system of management. 

Another scientific management principle centered on the relationship between organizational leadership and workers. The principle sanctions the leadership attention to the needs of the workers thus requires managers to develop a formal working relationship through teamwork. In this case, the principle ensures that the workforce adheres to scientifically developed methods. Enhancing the relationship between leaders and workers enhances efficiency that further leads to the accomplishment of tasks within the required time. Taylor’s (2016) experiments are integral in determining the quantity of work that a hardworking person can deliver within a day. Moreover, the principle has helped to improve the work performance of every employee dramatically by reducing the tendency of workers to perform duties slowly. Taylor’s work on scientific management indicates that enhancing the workers’ standards can help to increase their performance.

另一个科学的管理原则以组织领导和工人之间的关系为中心。该原则制裁领导关注工人的需要,因此要求管理者通过团队合作来发展正式的工作关系。在这种情况下,这一原则确保了员工遵循科学发展的方法。加强领导和工人之间的关系可以提高效率,从而在规定的时间内完成任务。泰勒(2016)的实验在确定一个勤奋的人一天内可以完成的工作量方面是不可或缺的。此外,这一原则还有助于大幅提高每个员工的工作绩效,减少了员工缓慢履行职责的倾向。泰勒在科学管理方面的工作表明,提高工人的标准有助于提高他们的绩效。

The final principle accentuates the importance of ensuring the division of labor between the managers and their employees. This method allows managers to use the scientific management principles in drafting the responsibilities of workers who actualize the duties delegated to them promptly. It is worth noting that the principle of division of labor is applicable across all organizations and its application ensures efficiency in production. Taylor (2016) maintains that specialization of workers in various fields enhances their work performance. The application of this principle ensures organizational efficiency, increases the workers’ wages, lowers production and product costs, and improves employees’ standards of living. Therefore, Taylor’s scientific proposition has enabled managers to delegate duties according to their workers’ abilities, skills, and knowledge.

The Influence of the Scientific Management Theory in Modern Organizational Designs科学管理理论对现代组织设计的影响

Strengths优点

The key tenets of the theory of scientific management are job analysis, job design, workers selection, job incentive, job performance principles, workers attitudes, group processes, organizational development, and change and human factors. Throughout his explanation of the key tenets, Taylor maintained that management should be designed to look after the interests of the employees and the employer, as well as safeguard organization’s prosperity. In this respect, scientific management has numerous strengths, namely enhanced production and efficiency, decreased autocracy due to a positive relationship in the company, improved payment systems, better utilization of resources, and reduced labor and management disputes.

管理学Essay

科学管理理论的关键原则是工作分析,工作设计,工人选择,工作激励,工作绩效原则,工人态度,群体过程,组织发展,变化和人的因素。在他对关键原则的解释中,泰勒坚持认为,管理应该被设计为照顾员工和雇主的利益,以及维护组织的繁荣。在这方面,科学的管理有很多优势,即提高生产和效率,减少专制,因为公司的关系是积极的,完善的支付制度,更好地利用资源,减少劳资纠纷。

Scientific management focuses on the steady improvement of business operations. Enhanced organizational production is attributable to cooperation and harmonious relationships between the leaders and the workers, thus achieving high levels of teamwork. Subsequently, adherence to scientific management principles ensures the development of a management methodology that enhances purposeful supervision, selection, and training of workers. Many consulting firms have applied this method to their human resource management departments. Taylor’s (2016) scientific management principles play a pivotal role in modern industrial processes to ensure that tasks assigned to workers fit them to enhance their levels of efficiency. In return, the firms reward the employees’ performance to motivate them further to deliver similar outputs. 

Another important aspect of Taylorism is a decrease in autocracy whereby the management is stimulated to adopt positive relationships between the leadership and the employees. Democratic leadership was evident in Taylor’s principle of cooperation, which positively influences the workers’ output. According to Bain and Company consulting firm, corporations such as Dell, Google, Netflix, and Apple are 40 percent more productive than an average firm (Hartline & Bejou 2012). The high level of production in these companies results from inspiring leadership. In this case, the leaders strive to create harmonious relationships, which promote the workers’ performance. As such, eliminating autocracy is integral in determining the overall organizational output.

泰勒主义的另一个重要方面是独裁的减少,借此刺激管理采取积极的关系之间的领导和员工。民主的领导在泰勒的合作原则中得到了明显的体现,这对工人的产出产生了积极的影响。根据贝恩咨询公司的数据,戴尔、谷歌、Netflix和苹果等公司的生产率比一般公司高出40% (Hartline & Bejou, 2012)。这些公司的高水平生产源于鼓舞人心的领导。在这种情况下,领导者努力创造和谐的关系,这促进了员工的绩效。因此,消除专制是决定组织整体产出的一个重要因素。

Improved payment systems, better utilization of resources, and reduced labor and management disputes are essential strengths notable in the scientific management theory. The scientific management principles propose adherence to the piecework payment system. Bell and Martin (2012) postulate that scientific payment uses an incentive system to enhance productivity and further provide high wages to the workers. Secondly, there is efficient utilization of resources and stimulated development, whereby wastage and inefficiency are eliminated. Also, scientific investigations utilized stimulate the company’s growth and enhance the overall development of the country. Regarding labor and management disputes, cordial relationships help to achieve peace in the industry. Hence, the contemporary organizational operations based on Taylor’s principles are crucial in enhancing payment, promoting better utilization of resources, and improving the relationship between the management and the workers.

Weaknesses缺点

Despite the criticisms labeled against the scientific management theory, its applicability is relevant in contemporary organizational operations. Initially, Taylor’s propositions were disputed for their inflexibility and rigidity as workers remained adamant to change. In such cases, the organizational leadership should strategize on how to achieve greater flexibility in its workforce. Due to the inflexibility of the scientific management model, several giant organizations such as Google do not apply its principles. Google has mainstreamed Hawthorne ideas, which provide the workers with freedom at their desired time. Unlike Taylor’s (2016) ideas which perceive workers as assets, the Hawthorne model considers them as important business partners, thus increasing their motivation, productivity, and quality of work. Google’s organizational operations indicate that scientific management principles cannot be efficient in large corporations, particularly those that lack job specialization in their organizational structures.

尽管对科学管理理论的标签批评,它的适用性是相关的当代组织运作。起初,泰勒的主张因其不灵活和僵化而受到争议,因为工人们仍然坚持改变。在这种情况下,组织领导应该制定如何在其劳动力中实现更大的灵活性的战略。由于科学管理模式的不灵活性,像谷歌这样的几个大型组织并没有应用它的原则。谷歌将霍桑的思想主流化,让工人在他们想要的时间获得自由。不同于泰勒(2016)的想法,将工人视为资产,霍桑模型认为他们是重要的商业伙伴,从而提高了他们的动机,生产力和工作质量。谷歌的组织运作表明,科学的管理原则在大型企业中是不可能有效的,特别是那些在组织结构中缺乏工作专业化的企业。

According to the scientific management theory, companies that fail to adapt to changing circumstances in the environment do not incorporate Taylor’s principles of management. This aspect implies that scientific management works better with small organizations that may not react to change immediately. Likewise, the successful implementation of the Taylorism philosophy requires massive investment, which may not be attainable by small firms. For example, training workers, establishing work-study, planning departmental needs, utilizing massive capital. Thus, the aspects of rigidity and lack of flexibility in scientific management principles are the central weaknesses attributed to Taylorism ideologies.

The inflexibility ingrained in scientific principles establishes a basis for standard operating procedures whereby employees are trained to perform certain duties efficiently. However, workers are constantly exposed to certain duties that cause them to operate like machines to improve productivity and efficiency. Despite the profitable nature of Taylor’s model to businesses, the approach disregards the workers’ welfare. For instance, hamburger cooks at McDonald are trained to cook within two minutes (Bell & Martin 2012). Markedly, scientific management principles create dictatorship through established administrations by controlling all company activities. Thus, the responsibilities for planning and controlling work are solely delegated to the management. In the process, managers deprive workers of their creativity due to repeated tasks that make their jobs tedious, monotonous, and meaningless. As a result, the nature of work demotivates employees, which, in turn, affects their work performance negatively.

科学原则中根深蒂固的不灵活性为标准操作程序奠定了基础,员工通过培训来有效地履行某些职责。然而,工人们不断地承担着某些责任,使他们像机器一样操作,以提高生产力和效率。尽管泰勒的模式对企业来说有利可图,但这种方法却忽视了工人的福利。例如,麦当劳的汉堡包厨师被训练在两分钟内做好(Bell & Martin 2012)。显然,科学的管理原则通过控制所有的公司活动,通过既定的行政管理创造专政。因此,计划和控制工作的责任完全委托给管理层。在这个过程中,由于重复的任务使员工的工作变得乏味、单调、没有意义,管理者剥夺了员工的创造力。因此,工作的本质会使员工失去动力,进而消极地影响他们的工作表现。

Training workers in one or few tasks deny them an opportunity to multitask or handle multiple areas of work. As a result, the company might suffer if they lose critical expertise. A good example is the loss of knowledge and expertise at the British Petroleum Company (BP), which resulted in a massive oil pipeline spill (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 2011). The company responded to the spill by closing one of the largest pipelines in the U.S. The audit performed in the company indicated that by the time the spillover transpired, BP had operated without a senior corrosion engineer for more than one year. Additionally, employees under job specialization lack multiple applicable skills, thus making it challenging to adapt to new organizational functions. Consequently, job specialization perpetuates unemployment when the company closes its branches. For instance, the closure of BP’s pipeline in Alaska resulted in massive unemployment (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development 2011). Notably, laid-off workers may experience challenges in adjusting to new occupations. Therefore, Taylor’s ideologies of training workers in a specific way may have adverse effects on an individual and organization.

The theory of scientific management applies to modern organizational designs effectively. Despite the inherent weaknesses of the model, its extensive use and strengths have been widely hailed and accepted. The approach’s four main principles are determining scientific techniques to replace the traditional method; selecting and offering training to the workers; enhancing the worker-management relationship; and ensuring specialization and division of labor. Therefore, scientific management methods are responsible for enhancing efficiency and workers’ productivity. 

科学管理理论有效地应用于现代组织设计。尽管该模型存在固有的弱点,但它的广泛使用和优点已得到广泛的欢迎和接受。该方法的四个主要原则是确定取代传统方法的科学技术;对工人进行选拔和培训;加强劳资关系;确保专业化和分工。因此,科学的管理方法是提高效率和工人生产力的责任。

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