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新加坡留学生History作业:History Of Singapore Before And After 19th Century

论文价格: 免费 时间:2023-12-26 18:34:57 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

新加坡留学生History作业-19世纪前后的新加坡历史。本文是一篇新加坡留学生历史学课程作业写作范文,主要内容是讲述战略地位不仅由自然地理位置决定,还与政治、经济、社会、军事等因素密切相关。新加坡19世纪前后的历史就是证明这一理论的一个很好的例子。本篇留学生作业指出1969年,当时的莱佛士历史教授K.G.Tregonning认为“现代新加坡始于1819年。在此之前,岛上发生的任何事情都与理解当代场景无关;这只是古董商的兴趣所在。”也就是说,尽管新加坡天生具有成为一个非常重要的战略要地的品质,但事实上,正是在1819年莱佛士登上这些岛屿并使其成为贸易国的时候。下面就一起来看一下这篇新加坡留学生History作业的具体内容。

留学生作业

When it refers to strategic position, it is not only determined by natural location, but also closely related with political, economic, social and military factors. The history of Singapore before and after 19th century is a perfect example to justify this theory. In 1969, then-Raffles Professors of History K.G. Tregonning held that “modern Singapore began in 1819. Nothing that occurred on the island prior to this date has particular relevance to an understanding of the contemporary scene; it is of antiquarian interest only.” [1]This is to say, although Singapore is naturally endowed with the qualities to be a very important strategic place, in fact, it is when Raffles landed on these islands and made them a trading country in 1819.

Firstly, the textual records on Singapore’s history before the year of 1819 are fragmentary and incomplete. Based on Sejarah Melayu, a Malay seventeenth-century chronicle, it recorded a story that a ruler from Palembang, who was named Sri Tri Buana, built a trading city and called it as Singapura (“Lion City”). It was told that because he caught a sight of a strange creature, which looked like a lion. The tale from Sejarah Melayu is not credible in many aspects. Firstly, the Annal has twenty nine different versions. Secondly, it’s said that Sri Tri Buana is a divine person coming from the sky and landed on a sacred hill in Palembang. [2] Lastly, lions were not seen in Singapore ever before. [3] Sir Richard Winstedt concluded that Sejarah Melayu account of how Temasek was founded by Sri Tri Buana accidentally landing on the island and sighting the fictional lion is a “hotchpotch of Chola and Palembang

首先,关于新加坡1819年以前历史的文字记载是零散和不完整的。本篇留学生作业根据17世纪马来编年史《Sejarah Melayu》,它记录了一个故事,一位名叫Sri Tri Buana的巨港统治者建造了一座贸易城市,并称之为Singapura(“狮城”)。有人告诉他,因为他看到了一个奇怪的生物,看起来像狮子。Sejarah Melayu的故事在很多方面都不可信。首先,年鉴有二十九个不同的版本。第二,据说Sri Tri Buana是一个从空中降临的神圣之人,降落在巨港的一座圣山上。最后,新加坡以前从未见过狮子。Richard Winstedt爵士总结道,Sejarah Melayu关于斯里兰卡人Tri Buana如何意外登陆淡马锡岛并看到这只虚构的狮子的描述是“Chola和Palembang的大杂烩”

folklore out of which little can be made. And most historians have been in favor of the 16th century Portuguese accounts. Both these two versions about the history of Singapore are based on the social memories. Therefore, it is not valid to determine which version is more reliable. But one thing is sure and obvious is that Singapore is not so important strategically. Supposing it has a significant strategic position, it should at least have a very clear history. The truth is that the records and notices on Singapore are implicit and incredible.

本篇留学生作业认为民间传说几乎无法从中获得什么。大多数历史学家都支持16世纪葡萄牙人的说法。这两个关于新加坡历史的版本都是基于社会记忆的。因此,确定哪个版本更可靠是无效的。但有一点是肯定和显而易见的,那就是新加坡在战略上并不那么重要。如果它具有重要的战略地位,它至少应该有一个非常清晰的历史。事实上,有关新加坡的记录和通知是含蓄而令人难以置信的。

Secondly, there is no denying that these archaeological excavations by Associate Professor John Miksic and his partners included local earthenware, Chinese coin, and India glass beads. And it at most suggests that Singapore was one of the trading ports in the southeast east and tells us that there was a settlement on Singapore and it was established at the end of the thirteenth or beginning of the fourteenth-century. [4] However, at that time, Singapore is just one state of Srivijayan. Equally importantly, before the invention of steam power, the trade is connected with the sailing season and sailing junks play a minor role in world trade and coast cities like Singapore were rarely at that time. What is more, before the industrial revolution, China is the biggest economic power and most of its trade was made with East Asia and Europe by the so called “Silk Road”. Therefore, at that time, a port like Singapore which depends on transshipment trade means a little in the strategic sense, and its prosperity and fate is closely related with the world powers.

其次,不可否认,约翰·米克西奇副教授和他的合作伙伴进行的这些考古发掘包括当地的陶器、中国硬币和印度玻璃珠。它最多表明新加坡是东南部的贸易港口之一,告诉我们在新加坡有一个定居点,它是在十三世纪末或十四世纪初建立的。然而,在当时,新加坡只是斯里维贾扬的一个州。同样重要的是,在蒸汽动力发明之前,这种贸易与帆船季节有关,帆船在世界贸易中的作用很小,而当时像新加坡这样的沿海城市很少。更重要的是,在工业革命之前,中国是最大的经济大国,其与东亚和欧洲的大部分贸易都是通过所谓的“丝绸之路”进行的。因此,本篇留学生作业认为在当时,像新加坡这样依靠转运贸易的港口,在战略意义上意义不大,其繁荣与命运与世界大国息息相关。

Thirdly, some scholars, such as G. P. Rouffaer, Ronald Braddell and Brain Colless, have been searching for evidence to prove that Singapore’s strategic significance archaeological evidences suggest that there were any settlement during this long period. According to C. A. Gibson-Hill, the passage through Singapore, either via the Keppel Harbour or the Philips Channel and Main Streets or the Terbau Straits dates back only to the middle 14th century, or at least 50 or 100 years earlier, not beyond that time. [5]This is because the most favourable place to provide services for the traders and shippers who pass through the strait is what is today’s Palembang, which locates up the river of Musi. What’s more, it is not until at the end of 17th century that in the European and Chinese travelogues and navigational charts, the Keppel Harbour Straits was mentioned. And from then on, the Keppel Straits was seldom mentioned and the time when it was discovered as a new channel once again was the year of 1819. This suggests that the Keppel Harbour was not as strategic as some scholars had argued.

第三,一些学者,如G.P.Rouffaer、Ronald Braddell和Brain Colless,一直在寻找证据来证明新加坡的战略意义——考古证据表明在这段漫长的时期内有任何定居点。根据C.A.Gibson Hill的说法,通过吉宝港穿过新加坡的通道只能追溯到14世纪中期,或者至少早于50或100年,但可以肯定不会超过那个时间。这是因为为通过海峡的贸易商和托运人提供服务最有利的地方是今天的巨港,它位于穆西河上游。此外,直到17世纪末,在欧洲和中国的游记和航海图中,吉宝港海峡才被提及。从那时起,吉宝海峡就很少被提及,1819年,它再次被发现为一条新海峡。这表明吉宝港并不像一些学者所说的那样具有战略意义。

Lastly, in terms of politics, world powers like China are mostly mainland country and, equally importantly, have no ambition to control over the Southeast Asia. Although this is no denying the fact that in the period of the Dutch-Portuguese’s rivalry relation, it was very important for Singapore to have control over the waters. [6] Besides this, historian also found out that the European powers, like the Portuguese and Dutch, realized the commercial and strategic significance of the Straits of Singapore and intend to construct a fort or citadel in the region. [7] However, it is also not deniable that both Portuguese and Dutch were not world powers yet and neither of them had the capability to control the world. To put it far, Singapore played certain significance to these two countries and had little impact on other countries in a global sense. What is more, from the year of 1676, Dutch had diverted it attention from Melaka Straits to Java because of its abundant natural resources, and correspondently loosened its control over Singapore. Therefore, the Singapore before Based on the previous analysis, in one word, Singapore is part of the Johor Sultanate. This is justified in the following respect.

最后,本篇留学生作业认为在政治方面,像中国这样的世界大国大多是大陆国家,同样重要的是,他们没有控制东南亚的野心。尽管这是不可否认的事实,在荷葡对抗关系时期,新加坡对该水域的控制非常重要。除此之外,历史学家还发现,欧洲列强,如葡萄牙人和荷兰人,意识到新加坡海峡的商业和战略意义,打算在该地区建造堡垒或城堡。然而,同样不可否认的是,葡萄牙和荷兰都还不是世界大国,也都没有控制世界的能力。说得远一点,新加坡对这两个国家都有一定的意义,在全球意义上对其他国家的影响很小。更重要的是,从1676年开始,荷兰人因其丰富的自然资源将注意力从马六甲海峡转移到爪哇岛,并相应放松了对新加坡的控制。因此,在对新加坡之前的分析基础上,一句话,新加坡是柔佛苏丹国的一部分。这在以下方面是合理的。

Firstly, from the perspective of history, Johor Sultanate was built by Sultan Mahmud’s son and successor, who, in 1530, left Pahang and established a new negara up the Johor River. The reason why he chose the Johor River as his new negera instead of moving to a backwater region is that he needed to get involved with the trade activities of the Melaka Straits. The archaeological evidence-primarily the range and volume of earthen-ware and blue-and-white Ming and Qing export ware sherds-points to the Johor River as a node in the trade of the Melaka Straits from the beginning of 15th century. Since the founding of this new country, Singapore had been under the control with Tengmengong as it real governor. From that time, Singapore is waiting quietly for a dramatic change by a British explorer.

首先,从历史的角度来看,柔佛苏丹国是由苏丹马哈茂德的儿子和继任者建立的,他于1530年离开彭亨,在柔佛河沿岸建立了一个新的国家。他之所以选择柔佛河作为他的新国家,而不是搬到一个回水区,是因为他需要参与马六甲海峡的贸易活动。考古证据主要是陶器和青花明清出口陶器碎片的范围和数量,表明柔佛河是15世纪初马六甲海峡贸易的一个节点。新国家成立以来,新加坡一直处于由滕门公作为其真正的总督的控制之下。从那时起,新加坡正在静静地等待一位英国探险家的戏剧性改变。

Secondly, Singapore is a small island with few population and scarce resources. The small island is surrounded by other countries. Gibson-Hill argued: “the Singapore channel became of value when it was possible to cut out jungle-girt ports of western Borneo and Palembang, affluent and powerful, but tediously placed. It became of potential value as soon as trading ports were developed in north Sumatra, and in the region of Junk Seylon. Then an altered rhythm was possible with the break in the voyage no longer at its southern angle, but at the end of the run across the eastern India Ocean.” This shows us Singapore is just integral part of the Johor Sultanate even this region. Singapore’ future was closely connected with the whole region and would have no future if it is separated from whole region. This is supported by Dutch’s diversion its attention from Melaka Straits to Java because of its abundant natural resources, and correspondently loosened its control over Singapore in the year of 1676.

其次,新加坡是一个人口稀少、资源匮乏的小岛。这个小岛被其他国家包围着。Gibson Hill认为:“当有可能切断婆罗洲西部和巨港的丛林环绕港口时,新加坡海峡就有了价值。这些港口富裕而强大,但位置乏味。苏门答腊北部和Junk Seylon地区的贸易港口一经开发,新加坡海峡就会有潜在的价值。然后,随着航行的中断,节奏可能会发生变化,不再是从南部角度,而是从穿越东印度洋的比赛结束了。”这表明新加坡只是柔佛苏丹国的一个组成部分,甚至是这个地区。新加坡的未来和整个地区是紧密相连的,如果脱离整个地区就没有未来。本篇留学生作业认为这得益于荷兰因其丰富的自然资源而将注意力从马六甲海峡转移到爪哇岛,并于1676年相应放松了对新加坡的控制。

Thirdly, Singapore is part of the Johor Sultanate in terms of politics. According to the Portuguese accounts, the Melaka was founded by a renegade prince who fled to Temasek. And the he found a prosperous settlement and assassinated its ruler to be king. Because of this, he was avenged by Thai. Therefore, he fled to the northwards and founded a fresh trading port on the banks of the Bertam River, which was called Melaka. This accounts exhibits us Singapore was always politically connected with the Johor Sultanate.

第三,新加坡在政治上是柔佛苏丹国的一部分。根据葡萄牙人的说法,马六甲是由一位叛变的王子逃到淡马锡建立的。他找到了一个繁荣的定居点,并暗杀了统治者成为国王。正因为如此,他遭到了泰国人的报复。因此,他向北逃亡,在贝尔坦河畔建立了一个新的贸易港口,名为马六甲。这些叙述向我们展示了新加坡在政治上一直与柔佛苏丹国有联系。

Singapore’s modern development has benefited from its natural location on the main trading route which connects the ports in Indian Ocean and those of South China Sea. However, it is not endowed the natural strategic significance. This advantage is offered by human-related factors and this is proved by archaeological evidence, history and some fresh reports and studies. Meanwhile, they also support the argument that Singapore is part of the Johor Sultanate.

[1] K.G. Tregonning (1969). Modern Singapore. The Historical Background. Singapore: University of Singapore Press.

[2] Kwa, C. G. (2009, January 29). How to think about Singapore history.

Presented at a SSA 2211 lecture at National University of Singapore.

[3] Lepoer, B. L. (1989). ed. Singapore: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. Retrieved February, 14, 2009

[4] Fort Canning Site 1984 – Present. (n.d.). Retrieved February, 14, 2009 

[5] C. A. Gibson-Hill (1954). Singapore: Old Strait and New Harbour, 1300-1870. Singapore: University of Singapore Press.

[6] Kwa, C. G. (2009, February 12). Sailing Past Singapore: Contests for control of waters around Singapore. Presented at a SSA 2211 lecture at National University of Singapore.

[7] Borschberg, P. (2003). “Portuguese, Spanish and Dutch Plans to Construct a Fort in the Straits of Singapore, ca. 1584-1625,” Archipel, 65.

本篇留学生作业总结了新加坡的现代发展得益于其位于连接印度洋港口和南中国海港口的主要贸易路线上的自然位置。然而,它并没有被赋予天然的战略意义。这一优势是由人类相关因素提供的,考古证据、历史和一些新的报告和研究证明了这一点。同时,他们也支持新加坡是柔佛苏丹国一部分的说法。本站提供各国各专业留学生作业范文以及留学生作业写作指导,如有需要可咨询本平台。


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