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MBA Essay格式范文:Ryanair Analysis of Strengths and Weaknesses

论文价格: 免费 时间:2024-01-31 11:05:46 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

MBA Essay格式范文-瑞安航空的优势和劣势分析。本文是一篇MBA留学essay写作格式范文,主要内容是讲述Michael Porter将战略定义为“公司努力实现的目标与实现目标的手段和政策的结合”。据他说,战略是关于竞争地位,从客户的角度区分自己,通过与竞争对手不同的活动组合增加价值。

Kenneth Andrews将公司战略定义为“公司的决策模式,该模式确定并揭示其目标、目的或目标,制定实现这些目标的主要政策和计划,并定义公司要追求的业务范围,它是或打算成为的经济和人类组织,以及其打算对股东、员工、客户和社区做出的经济和非经济贡献的性质。”以下内容就是这篇MBA Essay格式范文的具体内容,供参考。

MBA Essay格式范文


张博士

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Michael Porter defines Strategy as a “combination of the goals for which the firm is striving and the means and policies by which it is seeking to get there”. According to him the Strategy is about competitive position, about differentiating yourself from the point of view of the customer, about adding value through a mix of activities different from those used by competitors.

Kenneth Andrews defines Corporate strategy as ”the pattern of decisions in a company that determines and reveals its objectives, purposes, or goals, produces the principal policies and plans for achieving those goals, and defines the range of business the company is to pursue, the kind of economic and human organization it is or intends to be, and the nature of the economic and non-economic contribution it intends to make to its shareholders, employees, customers, and communities..”

Background 背景

Currently, the commercial world and its borders are changing more rapidly with regard of terms of size and speed. Travelling all around the world is no longer a luxury but a requirement for many of the population. In the past only rich people could afford to travel, in nowadays with the increasing movement of the technology, students as well as people with average profits can benefit. Due to this fact, in the past decades the number of airlines worldwide has been increasing significantly and respectively in early’70s a new type emerged for the first time in the U.S.: the low cost airlines. The first low cost airline was Southwest Airlines which began operations in 1971 and was profitable only in 1973 (Oliveira and Huse, 2008). After twenty years after the Americans (Beigbeder, 2007) due to the fact of the deregulation of European skies in early 1990s, the phenomenon appeared in Europe.

目前,商业世界及其边界在规模和速度方面变化更快。环游世界不再是一种奢侈,而是许多人的要求。在过去,只有富人才能负担得起旅行费用,而在今天,随着技术的不断发展,学生和利润一般的人都能从中受益。由于这一事实,在过去的几十年里,全球航空公司的数量一直在显著增加,分别在70年代初,美国首次出现了一种新的类型:低成本航空公司。第一家低成本航空公司是西南航空公司,该公司于1971年开始运营,直到1973年才盈利。20世纪90年代初,由于对欧洲天空的放松管制,在美国之后的20年里,这种现象在欧洲出现了。

One of the first low-cost airlines which emerged was Ryanair (Ireland) and Easy Jet (UK) and they keep being still among the most active on the market.

瑞安航空(爱尔兰)和易捷航空(英国)是最早出现的低成本航空公司之一,它们仍然是市场上最活跃的航空公司之一。

Company’s history, development, and growth 公司的历史、发展和成长

Ryanair is one of the World’s favorite airlines and operates more than 1,400 flights per day from 44 bases and 1100+ low fare routes across 27 countries, connecting 160 destinations. Ryanair operates a fleet of 250 new Boeing 737-800 aircraft with firm orders for a further 64 new aircraft which will be delivered over the next 2 years (www.ryanair.com).

瑞安航空是世界上最受欢迎的航空公司之一,每天从44个基地运营1400多个航班,在27个国家运营1100多条低票价航线,连接160个目的地。瑞安航空运营着一支由250架新波音737-800飞机组成的机队,另有64架新飞机的确定订单将在未来两年内交付。

Ryanair is a innovator among LCA (Low Cost Airline) companies in Europe. They were among the first and they are still today the most active LCA on the continent. This business is increasing fast and from the beginning has passed through very significant phases.

瑞安航空是欧洲低成本航空公司中的创新者。他们是最早的,今天仍然是非洲大陆最活跃的LCA。这项业务增长迅速,从一开始就经历了非常重要的阶段。

Ryanair was founded in 1985 by the Ryan family in Ireland. In 1988 and during only one year due to financial losses, the company launches a business class service and a frequent flyer club for customers, neither of which prove particularly successful. This change has meant that Ryanair has changed its generic strategy. Indeed, the company since the early 90’s pursuing a cost strategy. Ryanair now offers the lowest fares in every market, high frequency flights, moving to a single aircraft fleet type, scrapping free drinks and expensive meals on board. These decisions have significantly reduced ticket prices for customers. In order to reduce again costs, Ryanair decided also to narrow down traveling lines from 19 to 6 routes between 1990 and 1992. With this new policy the Irish firm carry over 1 million passengers in one year for the first time in 1993. On 29th May 1997 Ryanair becomes a public company for the first time with a successful flotation on the Dublin and NASDAQ (New York) Stock Exchanges. In March 1999, Ryanair accepts the delivery of five new Boeing 737-800 series aircraft. Those new aircrafts began operations from the main base at London Stansted, and their impact allowed Ryanair to operate with significantly lower seat costs and to offer much lower airfares, but with better reliability and a fantastic new customer product (www.ryanair.com).

瑞安航空由爱尔兰的瑞安家族于1985年创立。1988年,由于经济损失,该公司仅在一年内就为客户推出了商务舱服务和飞行常客俱乐部,但这两项服务都没有特别成功。这一变化意味着瑞安航空改变了其通用战略。事实上,该公司自90年代初开始奉行成本战略。瑞安航空现在提供每个市场最低的票价,高频率的航班,转向单一的机队类型,取消机上免费饮料和昂贵的餐食。这些决定大大降低了顾客的票价。为了再次降低成本,瑞安航空还决定在1990年至1992年间将旅行线路从19条缩减为6条。根据这项新政策,这家爱尔兰公司于1993年首次在一年内运送超过100万名乘客。1997年5月29日,瑞安航空在都柏林和纳斯达克(纽约)证券交易所成功上市,首次成为上市公司。1999年3月,瑞安航空接受了五架新波音737-800系列飞机的交付。这些新飞机从伦敦斯坦斯特德的主基地开始运营,它们的影响使瑞安航空能够以显著更低的座位成本和更低的机票价格运营,但具有更好的可靠性和出色的新客户产品。

Communication between customers and the company is always a priority. In 2000, Ryanair’s website (www.ryanair.com) became the largest booking website in Europe with more than 50.000 bookings each week. This source of information allows also customers to avail of the lowest car hire, hotel accommodation, travel insurance and rail services. At that time, Ryanair was the only LCA which developed interactive useful internet services for customers. Ryanair was in 2003 in the category “most popular brand” the fifth most searched website in the world (http://www.google.com/intl/en/press/zeitgeist2003.html). The Irish airline became also the first LCA to sponsor a program on television in order to gained more customers. The company decided to sponsor Skynews Weather reports. Following this effort in communication, 1 million people traveled for the first time in during a month with Ryanair in august 2001. According to R. O’Brian (mail communication, 15 April 2009) in order to be closer to customers, they build also the first continental base at Brussels Charleroi Airport in Belgium between 2001 and the end of 2002. In 2002, the company selected Frankfurt Hahn as the second Continental European base and launched in April with 10 routes. German customers flock in their millions to avail of the lowest air fares to and from Frankfurt according to J. Meier (personal communication, 15 April 2009). To accommodate this growth, Ryanair announced the largest ever aircraft order by an Irish airline by increasing their aircraft order with Boeing from 45 to 125 firm aircraft, with a further 125 options. The value of this order exceeds € 6 billion and signals Ryanair’s ambition to continue to be the largest LCA in Europe. Ryanair became also the number one in Europe of customer services beating all other European airlines for punctuality, fewer cancellations and least lost bags (www.ryanair.com). Meanwhile according to the company respondent “communications to customers have not stopped”. In 2004, Ryanair is named the most popular airline on the web by Google, as the website continues to be the most searched travel one in Europe. These performances continued and now more than 98% of all Ryanair bookings are made through the website and Internet customer services.

客户和公司之间的沟通始终是首要任务。2000年,瑞安航空的网站成为欧洲最大的预订网站,每周预订量超过50000张。这种信息来源还允许客户使用最低的汽车租赁、酒店住宿、旅行保险和铁路服务。当时,瑞安航空是唯一一家为客户开发交互式有用互联网服务的LCA。2003年,瑞安航空在“最受欢迎品牌”类别中名列世界第五. 这家爱尔兰航空公司也成为第一家赞助电视节目以获得更多客户的LCA。该公司决定赞助Skynews天气报道。经过这一沟通努力,2001年8月,在瑞安航空的一个月内,有100万人首次出行。根据R.O'Brian的说法,为了更接近客户,他们还在2001年至2002年底期间在比利时布鲁塞尔沙勒罗瓦机场建造了第一个大陆基地。2002年,该公司选择法兰克福-哈恩作为第二个欧洲大陆基地,并于4月开通了10条航线。据J.Meier报道,数以百万计的德国顾客蜂拥前往法兰克福,享受往返法兰克福的最低票价。为了适应这一增长,瑞安航空宣布了爱尔兰航空公司有史以来最大的飞机订单,将其与波音公司的飞机订单从45架增加到125架,还有125种选择。该订单的价值超过60亿欧元,标志着瑞安航空继续成为欧洲最大的LCA的雄心。瑞安航空也成为欧洲客户服务的第一,在准点率、取消航班次数和行李丢失最少方面击败了所有其他欧洲航空公司。同时,据该公司受访者称,“与客户的沟通并没有停止”。2004年,瑞安航空被谷歌评为网络上最受欢迎的航空公司,因为该网站仍然是欧洲搜索量最大的旅游网站。这些表现仍在继续,现在瑞安航空98%以上的预订都是通过网站和互联网客户服务进行的。

During 2005 and 2006, Ryanair used communication tools in order to try to be different from other airlines for customers. First, they made a big communication called “no fuel surcharge guarantee”. Following the statements by the respondents , this was a new communication for customers because many “full service” airlines such as British airways, Air France or Lufthansa continue even today to supplement already high fares fuel with surcharges in case of extra costs. Second, Ryanair became “The World’s Favorite Airline” because they carried more customers than British Airways and all other airline and LCA firms. Third, Ryanair was and is still the most punctual company in Europe with more than 90% of flights who arrived on time and respect schedules. Many radio advertising were made with this information. Finally, in order to attract new customers, they offered 100.000 seats for 1€ for the 20th birthday of the Irish brand. From 2006 until now, a new customer service was launched. According to the respondent “This is a web check-in service giving passengers the opportunity to check-in online across Ryanair’s entire route network”.

在2005年和2006年期间,瑞安航空使用通信工具,试图为客户与其他航空公司不同。首先,他们做了一个大的沟通,叫做“无燃油附加费保证”。根据受访者的陈述,这对客户来说是一种新的沟通方式,因为许多“全方位服务”航空公司,如英国航空公司、法国航空公司或汉莎航空公司,即使在今天,仍继续用附加费来补充已经很高的票价燃料,以防产生额外成本。其次,瑞安航空成为“世界上最受欢迎的航空公司”,因为他们的客户比英国航空公司和所有其他航空公司和LCA公司都多。第三,瑞安航空过去是,现在仍然是欧洲最准时的公司,90%以上的航班准时到达并遵守时间表。许多电台广告都是用这些信息做的。最后,为了吸引新客户,他们为爱尔兰品牌的20岁生日提供了100000个座位。从2006年到现在,推出了一项新的客户服务。据受访者称,“这是一项网络值机服务,让乘客有机会在瑞安航空的整个航线网络中在线办理登机手续”。

The company is also the first airline worldwide to carried more than 5 million travelers in a month and created plan for a new customer service: onboard mobile. For the moment, Ryanair has 830 low fare routes all around Europe and across 26 different European countries. They produced customer services from their 31 European bases. Ryanair currently has a team of more than 8,000 people and expects to carry approximately 73.5 million passengers in the current fiscal year (www.ryanair.com).

该公司也是全球第一家在一个月内接待超过500万旅客的航空公司,并制定了一项新的客户服务计划:车载移动服务。目前,瑞安航空在欧洲各地和26个不同的欧洲国家有830条低票价航线。他们在31个欧洲基地提供客户服务。瑞安航空目前拥有8000多人的团队,预计本财年将运送约7350万名乘客。

Strategy 战略

Ryanair strategy remains the same from the beginning of the 90’s and since then it continues to act as the European LCA leader and continues the expansion in order to attract more customers. Ryanair aims to offer low fares that generates increased passengers traffic while maintaining a continuous focus on cost-containment and operating efficiencies (Ryanair’s annual report from 2008).

瑞安航空的战略从90年代初就保持不变,从那时起,它继续作为欧洲LCA的领导者,并继续扩张,以吸引更多的客户。瑞安航空的目标是提供低票价,增加乘客流量,同时持续关注成本控制和运营效率。

Business Model 商业模式

Full Service :全方位服务

Low Cost:低成本

Using Hub&Spoke network, Congestion during peak hours 使用集线器和轮辐网络,高峰时段拥堵

Delay of only a few inbound flights Will spill over across large portions of the network 只有少数入境航班的延误将波及网络的大部分地区

Low average daily utilization of aircraft, higher costs per seat mile 飞机的平均日利用率较低,每座英里的成本较高

Enormous transaction costs 巨额交易成本

Complex fare structure 复杂的票价结构

Non-stop point-to-point services 不间断的点对点服务

High seating density and load factors, Uniform aircraft types (usually the 737-300) 座位密度和载荷系数高,机型均匀(通常为737-300)

Direct booking (internet/call centre – no sales commissions) 直接预订(互联网/呼叫中心-无销售佣金)

No frills such as “free” food/drinks, lounges or ‘air miles’ Simple systems of yield management (pricing) 无装饰,如“免费”食品/饮料、休息室或“空中里程”简单的收益管理系统(定价)

Use of secondary airports to cut charges and turnaround times 利用二级机场减少收费和周转时间

The main components of their strategy are low fares, customer services, frequent point-to-point flights on short-haul routes, low operating costs, high maintaining productivity, high personnel productivity, low customers costs, airport access fees, taking again a better advantage of Internet in order to serve the customer, commitment to safety and quality maintenance, enhancement of operating results and ancillary services and focused criteria or objectives for growth (Ryanair’s annual report from 2008).

他们战略的主要组成部分是低票价、客户服务、短途航线上频繁的点对点航班、低运营成本、高维护生产力、高人员生产力、低客户成本、机场接入费,再次更好地利用互联网为客户服务,对安全和质量维护的承诺,提高运营成果和辅助服务,以及重点标准或增长目标。

Passengers may trade-off price savings against service reductions but anyway Ryanair’s market success shows that the product/price trade-off is broadly in line with customer’s requirements so far.

乘客可能会在节省价格和减少服务之间进行权衡,但无论如何,瑞安航空的市场成功表明,到目前为止,产品/价格的权衡基本符合客户的要求。

One of the key to the success of Ryanair was that they adopted the decision to build a powerful brand and as an example in 2003 the company was declared the fifth most searched website in the world. This confirms Gilbert´s (1996) assumptions that branding is becoming increasingly important when it comes to product differentiation. In the case of LCA`s building brand recognition can be seen as another effective tool to be prepared for the competitive environment.

瑞安航空成功的关键之一是他们决定建立一个强大的品牌,例如2003年,该公司被宣布为世界上搜索量第五多的网站。这证实了Gilbert的假设,即品牌在产品差异化方面变得越来越重要。在LCA的建设中,品牌识别可以被视为为为竞争环境准备的另一个有效工具。

These assumptions will be tightened through the argumentation by O´Connelly and Williams (2005) that for LCA´s who are offering a strong alternative to full service airlines it is from special relevance to build a strong brand around the company, but with the addition of customer loyalty and satisfaction. During the years the airline has stated clearly the product and stayed rigidly to that model with over 180 routes and 17 bases. In order to maintain the low fares the company has decided to eliminate the amount of travel agents and marketing costs and to sell tickets per internet.

这些假设将通过O´Connelly和Williams的论证得到加强,即对于为全方位服务航空公司提供强大替代方案的LCA来说,围绕公司建立强大品牌具有特殊意义,但同时增加了客户忠诚度和满意度。多年来,该航空公司明确表示了该产品,并严格遵循该模式,拥有180多条航线和17个基地。为了保持低票价,该公司决定取消旅行社和营销成本,并通过互联网售票。

This strategic decision had a positive impact and as a result the number of the customers has increased because the clients prefer to avoid the agency and to check, compare and buy the tickets themselves. Since the implementation of internet booking in 2000, passenger numbers has grown rapidly. The growth rate increased from 15,7% (in 1999) to 30,7% (in 2000) and to over 40 % in the following years. Ryanair stimulated the passenger growing by focusing on price and not on service. Thinking on long terms this can arouse problems when another new airline enters the market and this may adversely affect Ryanair`s market share and profitability. This assumption is mainly based on statement by Lawton (1999) where it is said that just having the focus on one strategy, for instance price leadership, will be unsustainable in the future. Mainly driven by the Ryanair will to expand it is certain to sustain its competitive advantage by setting the focus secondary.

这一战略决定产生了积极影响,因此客户数量增加了,因为客户更喜欢避开代理商,自己检查、比较和购买门票。自2000年实施互联网预订以来,乘客数量迅速增长。增长率从1999年的15.7%增加到2000年的30.7%,并在随后的几年中超过40%。瑞安航空通过关注价格而非服务来刺激乘客增长。从长远来看,当另一家新航空公司进入市场时,这可能会引发问题,并可能对瑞安航空的市场份额和盈利能力产生不利影响。这一假设主要基于Lawton的声明,该声明称,仅仅专注于一种战略,例如价格领导力,在未来是不可持续的。主要受瑞安航空扩张意愿的驱动,它肯定会通过将重点放在次要位置来维持其竞争优势。

While the rate of price reduction in air fares charged by low cost airlines is likely to moderate the passenger demand for the Ryanair product is likely to remain high. Ryanair clearly satisfies the markets demand which indicates that the strong price reducing strategy attracts a high number of customers. We can suppose that this fact will remain the same as far as the clients don’t change their preferences and their necessities, as long as they want just to move from one point to another and nothing more. The clients tend to keep and select the low cost airline especially for the low cost services provided by them.

虽然低成本航空公司收取的机票降价率可能会减缓乘客对瑞安航空产品的需求,但乘客对该产品的需求可能仍很高。瑞安航空明显满足了市场需求,这表明其强有力的降价策略吸引了大量客户。我们可以假设,只要客户不改变他们的偏好和必需品,只要他们只想从一个点转移到另一个点,这一事实就会保持不变。客户倾向于保留和选择低成本的航空公司,尤其是为他们提供的低成本服务。

However the Ryanair is not really focused in the relations with the customers and are counting every penny in order to maintain them on the market. To give you anecdotal case experience I had with Ryanair: one of my Ryanair flight was cancelled so I ended with no communications at all, no change of the ticket, no accommodation provided. Writing numerous letters to Ryanair didn’t get me not even a reply and only after writing to the European Commissions for Air Passengers Rights after 3 years I’ve got my money back. The conclusion is that what is really important for the company is to keep the low cost as low as possible, no matter what is takes. Otherwise Ryanair could even however face the problem of cost cutting itself out of the market.

然而,瑞安航空并没有真正专注于与客户的关系,而是在计算每一分钱,以维持他们在市场上的地位。给你一个我在瑞安航空公司的轶事经历:我的一次瑞安航空航班被取消了,所以我结束时根本没有通信,没有改签,也没有提供住宿。我给瑞安航空公司写了很多信,但都没有得到回复。3年后,我才给欧洲航空乘客权利委员会写信,拿回了钱。结论是,对公司来说,真正重要的是保持尽可能低的成本,无论付出什么代价。否则,瑞安航空甚至可能面临成本削减的问题。

What counts to the customers is to obtain fair services in direct rapport with the fair prices. The focus that Ryanair need to be focus is the importance of relationship building with its customers, otherwise it may risk losing its position. In case that the airline is capable to unite the low price with a special network of customer fidelity, only then the competitive advantage can be obtained. Strategies could be influenced directly by the numbers of travellers. According to the history of the Ryanair, in its initial stages the company wasn’t very effective and after introducing the hard discount pricing strategy the firm became really successful and attractive for the clients.

对客户来说,重要的是以公平的价格直接获得公平的服务。瑞安航空需要关注的焦点是与客户建立关系的重要性,否则它可能会面临失去地位的风险。如果航空公司能够将低价与客户忠诚度的特殊网络相结合,那么只有这样才能获得竞争优势。策略可能直接受到旅行者数量的影响。根据瑞安航空的历史,在最初阶段,该公司并不是很有效,在引入硬折扣定价策略后,该公司变得非常成功,对客户很有吸引力。

Company’s internal strengths and weaknesses 公司内部优势和劣势

SWOT Analysis SWOT分析

Strengths 优势

Low Cost Pioneer 低成本先锋

First in cost reductions 率先降低成本

1stmover advantage 总体优势

Strong Brand 强势品牌

Established market share 已建立的市场份额

Variety of supplementary services 各种补充服务

Weaknesses 弱势

Week relations with customers 与客户的关系

Unpredictable customer relations 无法预测的客户关系

Poor relations between employees 员工关系不好

Refused to recognize unions 拒绝承认工会

Reliance on Michael O’Leary 依赖Michael O'Leary

Unfriendly connection with competitors 与竞争对手的联系不友好

Opportunities 机会

Continuing development 持续发展

Advanced fee decreasing 预付费减少

EU growth 欧盟增长

Traveller Destinations 旅行者目的地

Rapidly developing competition 快速发展的竞争

New low cost entrants 新的低成本进入者

Alliance/Mergers between rivals 竞争对手之间的联盟/合并

Threats 威胁

Industry criticism 行业批评

Alternative transportation(cars, trains) 替代交通(汽车、火车)

External environnement 外部环境

Analyzing the external environment we can define 4 categories of external factors that influence the strategy of Ryanair.通过分析外部环境,我们可以定义影响瑞安航空战略的四类外部因素。

Political and legal:政治和法律

Have an increased Trade-Union pressure, EU abolishment of Duty-free Sales, EU expansion 欧盟压力加大,欧盟取消免税销售,欧盟扩张

Advertising and Marketing Campaigns 广告和营销活动

Economic:经济

Continuously price growth of fuel 燃料价格持续增长

Depreciation of US dollars 美元折旧

EU Commissions Decisions regarding: communication with passengers, cancelled passenger compensation, overbooking, getting illegal subsidies from airports. 欧盟委员会关于以下方面的决定:与乘客沟通、取消乘客赔偿、超售、从机场获得非法补贴。

Sociocultural:社会文化

The developing of new style of living by travelling, increasing demand of business with require travelling 旅游新生活方式的发展,商务需求的增长

Increasing of new high-speed trains, better cars and other ways of travelling 新型高速列车、更好的汽车和其他出行方式的增加

Technological: 技术

With Internet, and all the IT technology, everything is much simple you can book, cancel, buy easily a ticket wherever you like 有了互联网和所有的IT技术,一切都很简单——你可以在任何你喜欢的地方轻松预订、取消、购买门票

Competitors 竞争对手

Ryanair now has a number of low-cost competitors. In 2004, approximately 60 new low-cost airlines were formed. Although traditionally a full-service airline, Aer Lingus moved to a low-fares strategy from 2002, leading to a much more intense competition with Ryanair on Irish routes. AirBerlin wich uses a Business model -instead of point to point connections, it offered guaranteed connections via its hubs, low fare alliances. Another new competitor is BNIBaby a subsidiary of BMI British Midband and leading low cost carriers in the Midlands and Nothern England.

瑞安航空现在有许多低成本的竞争对手。2004年,大约有60家新的低成本航空公司成立。尽管传统上是一家提供全方位服务的航空公司,但爱尔兰航空公司从2002年开始转向低票价战略,导致其在爱尔兰航线上与瑞安航空的竞争更加激烈。柏林航空采用商业模式,通过其枢纽、低票价联盟提供有保障的连接,而不是点对点连接。另一个新的竞争对手是BNIBaby,它是BMI英国Midband的子公司,也是英格兰中部和北部领先的低成本航空公司。

Alos is FlyBE which has an incorporated aspect of budget airline model. Airlines which attempt to compete directly with Ryanair are treated competitively, with Ryanair being accused by some of reducing fares to significantly undercut their competitors. In response to MyTravelLite, who started to compete with Ryanair on the Birmingham to Dublin route in 2003, Ryanair set up competing flights on some of MyTravelLite’s routes until they pulled out. Go was another airline which attempted to offer services from Ryanair’s base at Dublin to Glasgow and Edinburgh in Scotland. A fierce battle ensued, which ended with Go withdrawing its service from Dublin. [Quinn, Eamonn. “No competitors for Ryanair in Dublin, says Cassani”, 30 November 2003, at Tcm.ie. Retrieved 18 December 2006.]

Alos是FlyBE,它融合了廉价航空公司模式的一个方面。试图与瑞安航空直接竞争的航空公司受到竞争待遇,瑞安航空被一些人指责降低票价以大幅削弱竞争对手的竞争力。MyTravelLite于2003年开始在伯明翰至都柏林的航线上与瑞安航空竞争,瑞安航空在MyTravelLite的一些航线上设立了竞争航班,直到他们退出。Go是另一家试图提供从瑞安航空都柏林基地到苏格兰格拉斯哥和爱丁堡的服务的航空公司。随后发生了一场激烈的战斗,最终Go从都柏林撤出了服务。

Ryanair’s biggest competitor is EasyJet, announced routes to the Republic of Ireland for the first time, beginning with the Cork to London Gatwick route. Until then, EasyJet had never competed directly with Ryanair on its home ground. [Mulligan, John. “Ryanair wins judicial review of decision over Knock route”, 10 September 2008 at Independent.ie]

瑞安航空最大的竞争对手是易捷航空,该公司首次宣布了飞往爱尔兰共和国的航线,从科克到伦敦盖特威克的航线开始。在此之前,易捷航空从未在本土与瑞安航空直接竞争过。

External Analysis 外部分析

Porter’s Five Forces 波特的五种力量

Threat of new Entrants 新进入者的威胁

Medium 中等

Is somehow affected by new comers in the market 在某种程度上受到市场新来者的影响

Suppliers’ Bargaining Power 供应商的议价能力

Low 低

Industry Competitors 行业竞争对手

Competition Among existing Firms 现有企业之间的竞争

High 高

There are several strong competitors fighting for the same clients.有几个强大的竞争对手在争夺相同的客户。

Buyers’ Bargaining Power 买方议价能力

Low 低

Threat Of Substitute Products 替代产品的威胁

Medium 中等

There is a living style that makes EU people to travel during the weekend with, buses, cars, caravans, trails 有一种生活方式让欧盟人在周末出行,公共汽车、汽车、大篷车、小径

Ryanair Competitive Advantage 瑞安航空的竞争优势

In nowadays the company tries to position itself by providing a strong brand on the market and obtaining a good reputation. Driven by this, company has to adapt each time to the condition of the market following strategies that can improve their competitiveness. These include cost leadership, differentiation, focused cost leadership and integrated cost leadership/differentiation. Ryanair restructured the model and they moved from conventional airline to the first European low fare. At the beginning it provided services only between Ireland and the UK. At the end of 1990 in spite of the increasing in clients, Ryanair faced losses of 20 mln IR pounds. At this period of time and directed by Michael O’Leary the company decides to adopt the model of successful American Southwest Airlines. The problems encountered at this stage were that, Ryanair tried to concentrate and on costs and also on focus. At this stage, the competitors can invade the market, and without a proper strategy the company cannot position themselves on a segment and survive. So they choose to go for Cost Leadership which proved to be a right choice.

如今,该公司试图通过在市场上提供强大的品牌并获得良好的声誉来定位自己。在这种驱动下,公司每次都必须适应市场的条件,遵循能够提高竞争力的策略。其中包括成本领先、差异化、重点成本领先和综合成本领先/差异化。瑞安航空重组了这一模式,他们从传统航空公司转变为欧洲第一家低票价航空公司。一开始,它只提供爱尔兰和英国之间的服务。1990年底,尽管客户不断增加,瑞安航空仍面临2000万IR英镑的损失。在这段时间里,在迈克尔·奥利里的指导下,该公司决定采用成功的美国西南航空公司的模式。这一阶段遇到的问题是,瑞安航空试图集中精力,关注成本,也关注焦点。在这个阶段,竞争对手可能会入侵市场,如果没有适当的战略,公司就无法在某个细分市场上定位并生存。因此,他们选择了成本领先,这被证明是一个正确的选择。

So how they do that:那么他们是如何做到的

Fleet Standardization 车队标准化

The company uses the most sold and used planes from the world Boeing 737. Maintenance costs are low, spares parts are chip and because of this, the Ryanair is capable to keep the low prices,

该公司使用的是世界上销售和使用最多的波音737飞机。维护成本低,备件价格低廉,因此瑞安航空能够保持较低的价格,

New Aircrafts, Owns Own Fleet, Operations Denominated in Euro, Hedge Fuel Risk

新飞机,拥有自己的机队,以欧元计价的运营,对冲燃料风险

Airport Charges 机场费用

The company chose to avoid main airports and to use secondary or regional airport but closed to big cities, and respectively these airport charge lower taxes

该公司选择避开主要机场,使用次要或区域机场,但对大城市关闭,这些机场分别收取较低的税款

Limited Airport Transportation 机场运输有限

Employees and Productivity 员工和生产力

The company provides lower employment costs, but the staff can earn more money based on their performance 公司提供较低的雇佣成本,但员工可以根据自己的表现赚更多的钱

Model 模型

Online Bookings, One Class Travel, Ticketless Boarding, Unallocated Seats, Point-to-Point Flying, No Frills, Reduced Turnaround Times, No Refund Policy

在线预订、头等舱旅行、无票登机、未分配座位、点对点飞行、无恐惧、缩短周转时间、无退款政策

Outsourcing of Services 服务外包

The company uses the third part services such as aircraft handling, ticketing.该公司使用第三方服务,如飞机处理、票务。

Highly Successful Ancillary Service Offering, Outsourcing of Services at International Airports,非常成功的辅助服务提供,国际机场服务外包,

Marketing and Advertising 市场营销和广告

The company’s promoting is basically in newspaper, radio, television and their web site 该公司的宣传主要在报纸、广播、电视和他们的网站上

Advertising on Airplanes, In-house Marketing 飞机广告、内部营销

Basic Service on board 船上基本服务

Offers minimum standards of service and very low prices for point-to point short have flights, no extra such as in flight meals, advance seat assignment, free drinks and other services.

为点对点短途航班提供最低标准的服务和极低的价格,无需额外费用,如机上用餐、提前分配座位、免费饮料和其他服务。

Eliminating seatback pockets, No blankets or pillows, Airsickness bags distributed on request, Charges larger penalties for overweight luggage

取消了座椅靠背口袋,没有毯子或枕头,应要求分发晕车袋,对超重行李收取更大的罚款

This strategy was a success and by 1997, Ryanair was floated on the Dublin Stock Exchange and on NASDAQ.

这一战略取得了成功,到1997年,瑞安航空在都柏林证券交易所和纳斯达克上市。

Expansion strategy is another factor that enables Ryanair to position itself in the marketplace. The company has been known to be an airline which launches new routes since its operation begins. In addition, under the expansion strategy, company acquires Buzz in February 26, 2003. Such acquisition enables Ryanair to gain immediate access to11 new French regional airports and makes the company the largest airline operating at London Stansted Airport. In addition, the company continues to expand by opening two new Continental European bases with low-fare flights from Milan Bergamo and Stockholm. In the year, 2003, the company has been able to launch 73 new routes and carry over 2 million passengers in one month (July). In addition, the company website has been able to make the company position itself in the global market.

扩张战略是瑞安航空在市场上定位的另一个因素。该公司自运营以来一直是一家推出新航线的航空公司。此外,在扩张战略下,公司于2003年2月26日收购了Buzz。此次收购使瑞安航空能够立即进入11个新的法国地区机场,并使该公司成为在伦敦斯坦斯特德机场运营的最大航空公司。此外,该公司继续扩张,开设了两个新的欧洲大陆基地,提供从米兰-贝加莫和斯德哥尔摩出发的低票价航班。2003年,该公司在一个月(7月)内推出了73条新航线,载客量超过200万人次。此外,公司网站已经能够使公司在全球市场上定位。

Corporate Strategy 企业战略

High 高

Global Strategy 全球战略

Transnational Strategy 跨国经营战略

Low 低

International Strategy 国际战略

Multidomestic strategy 多国内战略

Low 低

High 高

Future of Ryainair Cutting costs: “Race to bottom”瑞安航空削减成本的未来:“竞争到底”

Ryanair, the World’s favorite airline, today (9th July) launched an online poll to ask if  passengers would ‘stand’ on short flights if it meant they could travel for FREE, or pay 50% less than seated passengers. Ryanair is gauging passenger demand for its ‘vertical seating’ which will allow passengers to travel – for free – in a secure upright position on short flights of approximately one hour.

世界上最受欢迎的航空公司瑞安航空今天(7月9日)发起了一项在线民意调查,询问乘客是否会“站着”乘坐短途航班,如果这意味着他们可以免费旅行,或者比坐着的乘客少支付50%的费用。瑞安航空正在衡量乘客对其“垂直座位”的需求,这将允许乘客在大约一小时的短途航班上以安全的直立姿势免费旅行。

Ryanair’s Future Plans, Cutting the costs, No Window Blinds , No Reclining Seats, Leather Seats , Velcro Headrests , Carry-on Luggage

瑞安航空的未来计划,削减成本,无百叶窗,无倾斜座椅,皮革座椅,尼龙搭扣头枕,随身行李

Profit enhancement Satellite Television , Internet On-board , Rented In-flight entertainment

利润提升卫星电视,互联网机上,租用机上娱乐

Future plans “Free tickets. In a decade or so, airlines will pay travellers to distribute people around Europe.

未来计划“免费机票。在十年左右的时间里,航空公司将向旅行者支付费用,让他们在欧洲各地运送乘客。”

“The airline industry is Tesco, is Ikea, is network TV in the way viewers watch for free and advertisers Pay for access to them, is the internet in the same way that websites earn money for delivering click-through traffic or other sites.” Michael O’Leary ,Chief Executive Officer of the Irish airline Ryanair

“航空业是乐购,是宜家,是网络电视,观众免费观看,广告商付费访问,是互联网,就像网站通过提供点击流量或其他网站赚钱一样。”

Issues at Ryanair 瑞安航空的问题

Risks and Challenges 风险和挑战

Extra capacity building would create certaintly about the success of new routes and locations 额外的能力建设肯定会为新路线和地点的成功创造条件

Fuel Prices 燃料价格

Vulnerable to rising fuel prices 易受燃油价格上涨的影响

Represents 35 % of the operating costs 占运营成本的35%

Compensation to passengers 对乘客的赔偿

Regulation by the European Union 欧盟的监管

Terrorism and security 恐怖主义与安全

Added risks and Costs to the industry 增加了行业的风险和成本

Expand into Central and Eastern Europe 扩展到中欧和东欧

Continue aggressive acquisition 继续积极收购

Overhaul the customer service 检修客户服务

Internet ticketing 网络订票

Develop the smaller operating base 发展较小的运营基地

Increase the ancillary revenues-focus on after sales 增加专注于售后的辅助收入

Future 未来

Conclusion 结论

Despite the fact that Ryanair is tied to low cost policy and doesn’t care about the loyalty of the clients, the relations with the Clients, the service and with bad experience with them, the customers and myself will keep to buy their services, yes we will get the basic service but is cheap, is easy and after the exams I will fly with them in Portugalia.

尽管瑞安航空坚持低成本政策,不关心客户的忠诚度、与客户的关系、服务以及与客户的不良体验,但客户和我都会继续购买他们的服务,是的,我们会获得基本服务,但价格低廉,很容易,考试结束后我将和他们一起飞往葡萄牙。

Ryanair rapid growth is due to:瑞安航空的快速增长是由于

Low cost Airline Business Model that restructured European Aviation Industry 重组欧洲航空业的低成本航空公司商业模式

Pioneer innovative cost reduction methods 开拓创新的成本降低方法

Creative alternative revenue generation &free flights goal in next phase evolution 创造性的替代创收和下一阶段发展中的免费航班目标

Value segments consist of travellers interested to optimize comfort, time and price. This would mean a requirement for city-centric airports, and comfortable departure times. Competitors are catering to value market segment and have established slots at some primary airports, furthermore provide cost effective basic services. Acquisition of a similar airline would enhance expansion into value-orientated market segments without comprising its top position in the low-price segment. The key challenge for Ryanair in the next few years therefore is developing a successful strategy for not only winning the war in Low Price segment but acquiring solid position in the Value Segment and in new non-European markets.

价值细分市场包括有兴趣优化舒适度、时间和价格的旅行者。这意味着需要以城市为中心的机场和舒适的起飞时间。竞争对手正在迎合价值细分市场,并在一些主要机场设立了机位,此外还提供成本效益高的基本服务。收购一家类似的航空公司将加强向价值导向型细分市场的扩张,而不会影响其在低价细分市场的最高地位。因此,瑞安航空未来几年的主要挑战是制定一项成功的战略,不仅要赢得低价市场的战争,还要在价值市场和新的非欧洲市场获得稳固的地位。本站提供各国MBA Essay格式范文以及MBA Essay写作辅导,如有需要可咨询本平台。

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