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美国essay范文:Market Structure of the Airline Industry

论文价格: 免费 时间:2022-08-17 09:20:09 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

美国essay范文-航空业的市场结构,本文是一篇美国留学生essay写作范文,主要内容是描述作者选择的公司运营的市场结构和行业类型,并确定其主要竞争对手?essay范文分析提到以前欧洲航空业被认为是寡头垄断的市场结构,不完全竞争,少数公司控制了该行业。寡头垄断企业要么激烈竞争,最终模仿完美竞争对手,导致低利润和降低成本,要么合作和勾结,像垄断公司一样,在推高价格和赚取稳定利润方面茁壮成长。价格和广告等各种决定取决于其他公司的决定,因此,每个公司的行动是相互依存的。通常情况下,进入市场的障碍很高,原因是如果更容易进入,那么其他公司就会介入追逐利润,并会降低领先公司的市场份额。下面就一起来参考这篇美国essay格式范文。

美国essay格式范文

Introduction 引言
- Describe the type of the market structure and industry in which the company of your choice operates and identify its main competitors? (400 words)
Formerly the European airline industry was identified as an oligopolistic market structure, imperfect competition in which a few firms have control over the industry (Rubin and Joy 2005). Oligopolistic firms can either compete hard and end up imitating perfect competitors, leading to low profits and driving costs down or cooperate and collude to act like monopoly companies and thrive in pushing up the prices and earn consistent profits (OpenStax 2016). Various decisions such as prices and advertising depend on the decisions of the other firms, therefore, the actions of each firm are interdependent. Normally there are high barriers to enter the market, reason being is if it was easier to enter then other firms would step in chasing the profits and would decrease the market share for the leading firms.
Heavily advertising and booking landing slots are one of the few high barriers in the industry. EasyJet maximized competitiveness and have overcome obstacles by differentiating the service from well-established companies like British Airways who have larger market share (Young Economist 2015). Offering fewer cabin crew and a lot less legroom was one of the Ryanair’s tactics to bring the price down. It has caught the attention of the fliers who were not buying tickets when the price was higher. And that allowed EasyJet to increase its market share, in addition, this competition also reduced British Airways price to ensure that more customers stay with them and choose them over low-cost airlines (Young Economist 2015). In 1998, BA decided to try the low-cost carrier market which had boomed in the 90s and the company ‘Go’ was born in result, it flew from its base in Stansted to all around the Europe. It was British Airways attempt to hijack success from its competitors: EasyJet, however, this was eventually sold to EasyJet through a management buyout in 2002 (Laura 2019).
大量的广告和预订着陆位是该行业为数不多的高障碍之一。易捷航空通过将该服务与市场份额较大的知名公司(如英国航空公司)区分开来,最大限度地提高了竞争力,并克服了障碍。提供更少的乘务员和更少的腿部空间是瑞安航空降低价格的策略之一。这引起了那些在票价上涨时没有买票的乘客的注意。这使得易捷航空增加了其市场份额,此外,这种竞争还降低了英国航空公司的价格,以确保更多的客户与他们住在一起,并选择他们而不是低成本航空公司。1998年,英国航空公司决定尝试在90年代蓬勃发展的低成本航空公司市场,于是“Go”公司诞生了,它从斯坦斯特德基地飞往欧洲各地。英国航空公司试图从竞争对手手中夺取成功:然而,易捷航空最终在2002年通过管理层收购将其出售给易捷航空。
The revenue generated by the business per passenger was 58 pounds compared to the cost per seat including fuel of £53. For the first time in 2017, total business revenues amounted to more than 5 billion pounds, compared to operating cost of 4.6 billion pounds of which just over 1 billion is the cost of fuel. The return on capital employed was just under 12% in 2017 (Riley 2018). Such data suggests that EasyJet is a fast-growing business with strong revenue growth and a consistent corporate strategy to gain cost efficiencies in a market where many carriers are losing more than most years (Riley 2018).
该业务为每位乘客带来的收入为58英镑,而包括燃油在内的每个座位的成本为53英镑。2017年,总业务收入首次超过50亿英镑,而运营成本为46亿英镑,其中燃料成本略高于10亿英镑。2017年,使用的资本回报率略低于12%。这些数据表明,易捷航空是一项快速增长的业务,收入增长强劲,在许多航空公司亏损超过大多数年份的市场中,公司战略一致,以提高成本效益。
- Explain how expansionary monetary and fiscal policies could impact the business activities of your chosen company. (400 words) 解释扩张性货币和财政政策如何影响所选公司的业务活动。
The federal government uses fiscal policy -- taxation and government spending -- to steer the economy in the right direction by increasing or decreasing the demand and availability of goods and services. Fiscal policy can encourage investment, create jobs and pave the way for long-term economic growth. For retail businesses, fiscal policy affects consumer demand, the cost of doing business, investment decisions and the ability to compete. Fiscal policy influences how much risk a retailer takes. When Congress introduces tax credits for investing in business expansion, or tax incentives to hire and train employees, retailers may feel confident in hiring workers or opening new locations. Lower corporate tax rates also free up cash to reinvest in facilities and merchandise selection. Possible ways in which a change in ADT could impact on the economy – supply side responses
联邦政府利用财政政策——税收和政府支出——通过增加或减少商品和服务的需求和可用性来引导经济朝着正确的方向发展。财政政策可以鼓励投资,创造就业机会,并为长期经济增长铺平道路。对于零售企业而言,财政政策影响消费者需求、经营成本、投资决策和竞争能力。财政政策影响零售商承担多大风险。当国会通过税收抵免来投资商业扩张,或通过税收优惠来雇佣和培训员工时,零售商可能会对雇佣工人或开设新工厂充满信心。较低的公司税率也释放了现金,用于对设施和商品选择进行再投资。ADT变化可能对经济产生影响的方式——供给侧反应
Airlines could also respond to the ADT cut in a number of different ways – with some budget airlines suggesting that they would do this. They could be incentivised by the anticipated increase in demand to add new destinations and/or increase frequencies on existing ones. On the other hand, they could just pocket higher profits and leave ticket prices unchanged if they expect customers to be irresponsive to price changes.
航空公司也可以以多种不同的方式应对ADT削减,一些廉价航空公司建议他们会这样做。他们可能会受到预期需求增加的刺激,以增加新的目的地和/或增加现有目的地的频率。另一方面,如果他们希望客户对价格变化不负责任,他们可以赚取更高的利润,保持票价不变。
Interestingly, a 2014 study on the likely impact of an APD cut in Northern Ireland found that, even in the most optimal tax design scenario, the cut in the air passenger tax is likely to deliver only small economic benefits (and only in the short-run). Their results are driven by findings of minimal impact from tourism effects and from airlines retaining some or most of the losses in tax revenues in the form of profit.
有趣的是,2014年一项关于北爱尔兰APD削减可能产生的影响的研究发现,即使在最理想的税收设计方案中,航空客运税的削减也可能只带来很小的经济效益(而且仅在短期内)。他们的结果是由旅游业影响和航空公司以利润形式保留部分或大部分税收损失的最小影响的结果驱动的。
Naturally, forecasts of this kind are highly dependent on the underlying assumptions of the modelling approach. And there may well be strategic and wider policy reasons why cutting ADT is appropriate.
But the presence of conflicting forecast results, and the complexity and ambiguity surrounding the underlying economic effects leads us to conclude that we need to be cautious about assuming that any reduction in ADT will act as a massive boost to the Scottish economy.
美国essay范文总结这类预测高度依赖于建模方法的基本假设。削减ADT很可能有战略和更广泛的政策原因。但是,由于预测结果相互矛盾,以及潜在经济影响的复杂性和模糊性,我们得出结论,我们需要谨慎对待假设ADT的任何减少都将对苏格兰经济起到巨大的推动作用。本站提供各国各专业essay写作指导服务,如有需要可咨询本平台。


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