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Business Research Report格式范文:Coca Cola Globalisation Methods And Plans

论文价格: 免费 时间:2024-01-20 11:26:04 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

Business Research Report格式范文-可口可乐全球化方法与计划。本文是一篇留学生Business Research Report节选内容。研究报告的这一部分将使用第2部分中解释的商业技术,即SWOT分析和Ohmae的五个C,详细介绍可口可乐的全球化方法和计划。它将包括对可口可乐全球化计划和方法的结果的描述,但有任何限制。除此之外,可口可乐公司使用表格和流程图扩张的市场结果。将对可口可乐全球化效应的结果进行批判性分析。最后,将根据总体研究结果得出结论,同时监督预测目标和研究问题的实现情况以及适当的建议。下面就一起来看一下这篇Business Research Report格式范文部分写作内容。

Business Research Report格式范文

This part of the research report would provide a detailed account of Coca-Cola’s globalisation methods and plans using the business techniques explained in part 2 which are the SWOT analysis and Ohmae’s five Cs. It would include a description of results of Coca-Cola’s globalisation plans and methods with any limitation. Besides that, market results of Coca-Cola expansion with the use of tables and flowcharts. There would be a critical analysis of the results of the globalisation effect of Coca-Cola. Lastly, conclusions would be drawn based on overall research findings while overseeing how well projected objectives and research questions are met and appropriate recommendations.

Globalisation 全球化

According to the Levin Institute,根据莱文研究所的说法,

“Globalisation is the process of interaction and integration among people, companies, and governments of different nations, driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology. This process has major effect on the environment, culture, political systems, economic development and prosperity, and on human physical well-being and societies around the world.”

“全球化是在国际贸易和投资的推动下,在信息技术的帮助下,不同国家的人民、公司和政府之间相互作用和融合的过程。这一过程对环境、文化、政治制度、经济发展和繁荣以及人类的身体健康都有重大影响-世界各地的存在和社会。”

(Levin Institute, n.d)

Its effects influences people as businesses tend to move beyond their domestic and national markets to other markets around the globe, where different markets are interconnected. It is also seen as extending its reach to other parts of the world.

它的影响影响着人们,因为企业往往会从国内和国内市场转移到全球其他市场,在这些市场上,不同的市场是相互关联的。它还被视为将其影响力扩展到世界其他地区。

Why did Coca-Cola globalise?可口可乐为什么要全球化?

Using Kenichi Ohmae’s 5Cs framework with reference to the BPP textbook, we can understand the reasons why Coca-Cola moved towards international markets for expansion.

使用大前研一的5Cs框架并参考BPP教科书,我们可以理解可口可乐走向国际市场扩张的原因。

Customer 顾客

The Coca-Cola Company wanted everyone around the world to enjoy its product. It was the owner’s vision for its product to be enjoyed worldwide. The company’s success was also ensured since it enjoyed homogenous customers where people around the world enjoyed the same taste. This partnered with major advertising campaigns made Coca-Cola one of the most famous brand name in the world. With the help of creative advertising, Coca-Cola was able to capture the loyalty of consumers to continue use of its products. Advertising is seen as a medium for the company to communicate and promote its products to its customers which is widely used by The Coca-Cola Company.

According to Figure 1, there is clear indication of gradual increase of unit case sales over the 4 year period. Table 1 show that the increase of unit cases sold over the 4 years compared to the previous year has dropped slightly in 2009 with only 2.95% whereas the highest increase was in 2007 with a 6.07% increase from 2006.

可口可乐公司希望全世界的每个人都能享受它的产品。这是所有者的愿景,使其产品在全球范围内受到欢迎。该公司的成功也得到了保证,因为它拥有同质的客户,世界各地的人都有相同的口味。这与主要的广告活动相结合,使可口可乐成为世界上最著名的品牌之一。在创意广告的帮助下,可口可乐能够赢得消费者的忠诚度,继续使用其产品。广告被视为公司向客户沟通和推广产品的媒介,可口可乐公司广泛使用广告。

根据图1,有明显迹象表明,在4年的时间里,单元案例的销售额将逐渐增加。表1显示,与前一年相比,4年内售出的单位箱数在2009年略有下降,仅为2.95%,而增幅最高的是2007年,比2006年增加了6.07%。

The Coca-Cola Company has also introduced new products to existing markets in order to suit to a particular country taste bud. In 2009, research testing of a new fountain dispenser called the Coca-Cola Freestyle is able to dispense more than 100 different brands of beverages which is currently being placed in selected US markets and would continue to be placed worldwide. The purpose of the new dispenser is to capture data of what kind of taste people have in preference, this allows the company to gather data on statistics of people’s choice in order to develop and introduce a new product into the market. (The Coca-Cola Company)

可口可乐公司还向现有市场推出了新产品,以适应特定国家的味蕾。2009年,一种名为可口可乐Freestyle的新型饮水机的研究测试能够配制100多种不同品牌的饮料,这些饮料目前正在选定的美国市场销售,并将继续在全球销售。新分配器的目的是获取人们偏好的口味数据,这使公司能够收集人们选择的统计数据,以便开发新产品并将其推向市场。

Company 公司

The Coca-Cola Company enjoys large economies of scale by moving into international markets. Large scale bottling in the long run makes the company more competitive by improving their production methods in order to achieve the lowest cost possible. They also look into potential international markets for growth and investment opportunities. After local market needs are fulfilled, the company would want to enter into new markets in order to increase its sales and profits. It would also increase the company’s customer base since there is a new supply of demand to be met. Listed below in Figure 2 and Table 2 is the net operating revenue, operating income and net income for the Coca-Cola Company over 4 years.

可口可乐公司通过进军国际市场而享有巨大的规模经济效益。从长远来看,大规模装瓶通过改进生产方法以尽可能降低成本,使公司更有竞争力。他们还着眼于潜在的国际市场,寻找增长和投资机会。在满足当地市场需求后,该公司希望进入新市场,以增加销售额和利润。这也将增加公司的客户群,因为需要满足新的需求。下图2和表2中列出了可口可乐公司4年来的净营业收入、营业收入和净收入。

According to Figure 2, the company’s net operating revenue is seen to be increasing gradually over the 4 year period while dropping only slightly in 2009 although there was a major recession. Net income also has been increasing over the 4 year period to a record high of $ 6.8 billion in 2009. This could be due to better cost management.

Further analysis on Table 3 indicates that the company’s cost is also kept at a constant level of around 33% to 36% of total net operating revenue in order to maintain a high gross profit margin of 63% to 66%. This is to ensure that the company is always profitable to attract move investors.

根据图2,该公司的净营业收入在4年期间逐渐增加,而在2009年仅略有下降,尽管出现了严重的经济衰退。净收入在4年期间也一直在增长,2009年达到68亿美元的历史新高。这可能是由于更好的成本管理。

对表3的进一步分析表明,公司的成本也保持在总净营业收入的33%至36%左右的恒定水平,以保持63%至66%的高毛利率。这是为了确保公司始终盈利,吸引感动投资者。

According to the recent capital expenditures made by The Coca-Cola Company, the company is still seen expanding its operations worldwide with increased capital expenditure made over the 4 years. This can be found in Table 4 below which show the capital expenditures made by the company from 2006 to 2009.

根据可口可乐公司最近的资本支出,该公司仍在全球范围内扩大业务,4年来资本支出有所增加。这可以在下面的表4中找到,表4显示了该公司2006年至2009年的资本支出。

Competition 竞争

The Coca-Cola Company competes in the non-alcoholic beverages segment of the commercial beverages industry. The beverage industry is highly competitive, as there are many different types of drinks in the market ranging from non-alcoholic to alcoholic products. There are many companies that are similar to The Coca-Cola Company, some of which tends to compete for share of market across the world. The company particularly globalised due to the fact that they wanted to gain access into new and bigger markets since their domestic market needs are already fulfilled. Another reason would be due to strong competition from The Pepsi-Cola Company as they are the company’s biggest rivals. According to the Coca-Cola Company, there are numerous competitive factors that could impact the business which include “pricing, advertising, sales promotion programs, product innovation, increased efficiency in production techniques, the introduction of new packaging, new vending and dispensing equipment, brand and trademark development and protection.” (The Coca-Cola Company) Below Figure 3 and Table 5 indicates the top 10 beverage companies ranked accordingly by market share.

可口可乐公司在商业饮料行业的非酒精饮料领域展开竞争。饮料行业竞争激烈,因为市场上有许多不同类型的饮料,从非酒精饮料到酒精产品。有许多公司与可口可乐公司相似,其中一些公司倾向于在世界各地争夺市场份额。该公司尤其全球化,因为他们希望进入新的更大的市场,因为他们的国内市场需求已经得到满足。另一个原因是来自百事可乐公司的激烈竞争,因为他们是该公司最大的竞争对手。根据可口可乐公司的说法,有许多竞争因素可能会影响业务,包括“定价、广告、促销计划、产品创新、提高生产技术效率、引入新包装、新的自动售货和配药设备、品牌和商标的开发和保护。”下图3和表5显示了按市场份额排名的前十大饮料公司。

According to Figure 3, The Coca-Cola Company still leads in market share of 41.9% ahead of PepsiCo of 29.9%. This is a good sign for the company as PepsiCo is the company’s biggest competitor. The company should remain focus on defending its market share and stay the market leader. According to the data in Table 5, market share for The Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo have negative share change in 2009 while the others have a slight improvement or no improvement. This should not be taken lightly by the company as the competitors might team up and take on the company.

根据图3,可口可乐公司仍以41.9%的市场份额领先于百事公司的29.9%。这对百事公司来说是个好兆头,因为百事公司是该公司最大的竞争对手。该公司应继续专注于捍卫其市场份额,并保持市场领先地位。根据表5中的数据,可口可乐公司和百事可乐公司的市场份额在2009年出现了负份额变化,而其他公司则略有改善或没有改善。公司不应对此掉以轻心,因为竞争对手可能会联合起来与公司较量。

Currency 通货

Coca-Cola also went international so that they can mitigate their foreign currency exchange rates by earning revenue in a different currency through sales in a particular country. Selling products and services in multiple countries also reduces the company’s exposure to possible economic and political instability in a single country. In 2009, The Coca-Cola Company traded in 71 different functional currencies in addition to the U.S Dollar. A total of 74 percent net operating revenue was derived from outside the United States. Therefore, increases or decreases in the value of the U.S. dollar against other currencies will have a major effect on the items that are denominated in foreign currencies. Listed below in Figure 4 are foreign exchange rate gains or losses from 2006 to 2009.

可口可乐还走向了国际市场,这样他们就可以通过在特定国家的销售赚取不同货币的收入来降低外汇汇率。在多个国家销售产品和服务也减少了公司在一个国家可能出现的经济和政治不稳定的风险。2009年,除了美元,可口可乐公司还交易了71种不同的功能货币。74%的净营业收入来自美国以外地区。因此,美元对其他货币的升值或贬值将对以外币计价的项目产生重大影响。下图4所列为2006年至2009年的外汇汇率损益。

Country 国家

The Coca-Cola Company would want gain access to cheaper labour, raw materials and finance. Such as the cost of labour hour in China is only $1.27 per hour (Malone, 2008) which is ranked fairly low compared to other developed countries. This would minimize the cost of bottling and result in higher revenue gained. Bottling plants in China as of end of October 2009 total at 39 plants and is still increasing at a high rate. (The Coca-Cola Company) Furthermore, resources that are difficult to obtain in their home market can be located elsewhere at a better price while going international. This can be achieved by outsourcing some of their operation to other countries in order to improve efficiency since service providers are specialised in its services rendered. Outsourcing is widely used by today’s company, as it allows the company to focus on its core activities where non-core activities are outsourced to specialist industries. This can lead to a saving in fixed cost as there is no need to hire monthly salaried staff.

可口可乐公司希望获得更便宜的劳动力、原材料和资金。例如,中国的工时成本仅为每小时1.27美元,与其他发达国家相比,这一数字相当低。这将最大限度地降低装瓶成本,并带来更高的收入。截至2009年10月底,中国的装瓶厂总数为39家,而且仍在高速增长。此外,在国内市场难以获得的资源可以在国际市场上以更好的价格定位在其他地方。这可以通过将其部分业务外包给其他国家来实现,以提高效率,因为服务提供商专门提供服务。外包被今天的公司广泛使用,因为它允许公司专注于其核心活动,而非核心活动外包给专业行业。这可以节省固定成本,因为无需雇佣月薪员工。

As per Figure 5, we can see that average salary earned in the United States of America (USA) is much higher than the salary earned in China which is more than a 150 percent difference. This is mainly because China is still a developing market while USA is a developed market. This enables the company to fetch a lower cost for labour in China than in USA.

根据图5,我们可以看到,美国的平均工资远高于中国的工资,两者相差超过150%。这主要是因为中国仍然是一个发展中的市场,而美国是一个发达的市场。这使该公司在中国的劳动力成本低于在美国。

How did Coca-Cola globalise 可口可乐是如何全球化的

There are different entry modes a company can choose on how to enter a market. The Coca-Cola Company uses different stages of entry modes depending on the markets. It mainly depends on the total size or market population, the percentage of that population using their products, and the quantity of products that they can sell to non-users. Once the market is identified and selected, they would first consider the degree of resource commitment and the extent of the firm operational involvement in that particular region.

公司可以选择不同的进入模式来进入市场。可口可乐公司根据市场的不同采用不同阶段的进入模式。这主要取决于总规模或市场人口、使用其产品的人口比例以及他们可以向非用户销售的产品数量。一旦确定并选择了市场,他们将首先考虑资源承诺的程度和公司在该特定地区的运营参与程度。

As their bottling strategy, the company would first help their bottlers to build up their business. This is by injecting funds into the said bottlers through equity investments. This is beneficial for both the company and its bottler as in increase in production capacity at bottler level would have a resulting increase in concentrate sales. The level of investment depends on the bottler’s capital structure and resources at the time of investment. (The Coca-Cola Company)

作为他们的装瓶战略,该公司将首先帮助装瓶商建立业务。这是通过股权投资向上述灌装商注入资金。这对该公司及其装瓶商都是有益的,因为装瓶商水平的生产能力的增加将导致浓缩液销量的增加。投资水平取决于灌装商在投资时的资本结构和资源。

According to the company, it maintains business relationship with three types of bottlers which are:据该公司称,它与三种类型的灌装商保持着业务关系,这三种类型是

Bottlers in which the company has no ownership interest;公司没有所有权的瓶子;

Bottlers in which the company has invested and has a non-controlling ownership interest; and 公司已投资并拥有非控股所有权权益的瓶子制造商;以及

Bottlers in which the company has invested and has a controlling ownership interest.该公司投资并拥有控股权的瓶子制造商。

According to the company, controlling interest is only often held for a temporary basis. By owning such interest, it helps by being able to exert influence in monitoring bottler’s revenue. It also develops the bottler’s business where funds are used to build the capital structure of the bottle which would enable them to widen its operations.

该公司表示,控股权通常只是暂时持有的。通过拥有这样的利益,它有助于在监控灌装商的收入方面发挥影响力。它还发展了装瓶商的业务,资金用于建立瓶子的资本结构,这将使他们能够扩大业务。

As part of their long term strategy, the company would consider reducing their ownership interest in the bottler when their investment matures. The company then comes down to two options, one is to combine their bottling interest with others to form strategic alliances, or the other is to sell their interest to equity method investee bottlers. However, the company will still continue to monitor the bottler’s results. For investments that are non-controlling interest, the company would provide its expertise and resources to strengthen those businesses.

作为其长期战略的一部分,该公司将考虑在投资到期后减少对装瓶厂的所有权。然后,该公司可以归结为两种选择,一种是将其装瓶权益与其他公司合并,形成战略联盟,另一种是向权益法投资的装瓶商出售权益。然而,该公司仍将继续监测灌装商的业绩。对于非控股权益的投资,该公司将提供专业知识和资源来加强这些业务。

China 中国

The stages of entry are explained in detailed below using China as an example by referring to Mok’s journal review. (Mok et al. , 2002)以下以中国为例,参考莫的期刊评论,详细解释进入阶段。

During the first stage (1974-84), Coca-Cola exported and sold its concentrate to its franchised Chinese-owned bottlers. Local market agents were held fully responsible for production and distribution whereas the company were in charge of advertising. Due to the bottler’s opportunistic behaviour which first prioritise their own bottom line, it limited the expansion of Coca-Cola’s market share in early stages. The method used is seen as exporting through contractual agreements as trust of the bottlers has yet to be gained.

在第一阶段(1974-84年),可口可乐将其浓缩液出口并出售给其特许经营的中国瓶装商。当地市场代理商全权负责生产和分销,而该公司负责广告。由于装瓶商的机会主义行为首先优先考虑自己的底线,这限制了可口可乐早期市场份额的扩张。所使用的方法被视为通过合同协议出口,因为尚未获得装瓶商的信任。

During the second stage (1985-92), Coca-Cola bought equity shares in the bottling businesses in order to reduce the effect of uncertainty. Besides that, it was also to restrict the opportunistic behaviours of its local bottlers since their only focus was on their own bottom-line which were disadvantageous to Coca-Cola. This is known as Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) into the said bottlers which may include acquisitions of well established companies in the later stage.

在第二阶段(1985-92年),可口可乐购买了装瓶业务的股权,以减少不确定性的影响。除此之外,这也是为了限制当地装瓶商的机会主义行为,因为他们唯一关注的是自己的底线,这对可口可乐不利。这被称为对上述装瓶厂的外国直接投资,其中可能包括在后期收购知名公司。

During the third stage (1993-present), Coca-Cola teamed up with two foreign bottlers which are the Kerry and Swire group under a franchise agreement. The company then began to internalise its management and operations by sourcing locally. Soon then, the whole operation was handed to locals and watched over by the foreign division manager. Sourcing for upstream suppliers is decentralised to the division manager since buying locally would have savings on taxes. Contracting in local language would be made easier as a result of the localisation.

在第三阶段(1993年至今),可口可乐与两家外国瓶装商合作,即嘉里集团和太古集团,签订了特许经营协议。随后,该公司开始通过在当地采购将其管理和运营内部化。很快,整个行动就交给了当地人,并由外国分部经理负责监督。上游供应商的采购被下放给部门经理,因为在当地采购可以节省税款。由于本地化,用当地语言签订合同将变得更容易。

India 印度

Coca-Cola was the leading bola business in India before 1977. However, a change of government forced them to pull out their business since new legislations required the sharing of the secret formula with a local partner which posed a huge risk. The Coca-Cola only re-entered the market in 1993, after Indian regulations were changed to allow foreign brands to operate without any Indian partnership. By then, PepsiCo had already captured majority share and ruled without competition as they were there since 1988. (Srivastava, 2010)

1977年之前,可口可乐是印度主要的波拉饮料企业。然而,政府的更迭迫使他们退出了业务,因为新的立法要求与当地合作伙伴共享秘密配方,这带来了巨大的风险。1993年,印度改变了规定,允许外国品牌在没有任何印度合作关系的情况下经营,可口可乐才重新进入市场。到那时,百事公司已经获得了多数股权,并像1988年以来那样在没有竞争的情况下进行统治。

To make things worse, Coca-Cola suffered a huge blow to their brand name in India as their plants had huge demands for water, which led thousands of farmers out of work by draining the water that feeds their crops which had implications on the local economy. Besides that, the waste sludge produced by their plants sold as fertilizer was proven to be toxic to the soil. (Brown, 2003). PepsiCo’s market in India has been strong since then, as it has become the “default” name for colas in India.

更糟糕的是,可口可乐在印度的品牌受到了巨大的打击,因为他们的工厂对水的需求巨大,导致数千名农民失业,因为他们排放了养活作物的水,这对当地经济产生了影响。除此之外,他们的工厂生产的废污泥作为肥料出售,被证明对土壤有毒。自那以后,百事可乐在印度的市场一直很强劲,因为它已经成为印度可乐的“默认”名称。

However, the company has not given up on the Indian market as growth is picking up slowly. Their strategy includes introducing other products in their portfolio to the market and buying up a local brand cola competitor Thums Up, to compete against PepsiCo. Thums Up is now ranked first in India with a market share of 16.16% as of 2009, Sprite also a product of Coca-Cola is ranked second with 15.6% compared to Pepsi’s market share of just 13% according to AC Nielsen data. (Bhushan, 2009)

然而,由于增长缓慢,该公司并没有放弃印度市场。他们的战略包括将其产品组合中的其他产品推向市场,并收购当地品牌的可乐竞争对手Thums up,与百事公司竞争。根据AC Nielsen的数据,截至2009年,Thums Up以16.16%的市场份额位居印度第一,可口可乐旗下的雪碧以15.6%的市场份额排名第二,而百事可乐的市场份额仅为13%。

The Coca-Cola Company’s mode of entry often changes according to suit the particular country. Internationalisation is seen as a sequential process whereby firms gradually increase their commitment to new markets and accumulate knowledge slowly in order to increase their capabilities. It suggests that firms initially use entry modes that allow them to maximise knowledge acquisition whilst minimizing the risk of their assets.

可口可乐公司的进入模式经常根据特定国家的情况而变化。国际化被视为一个连续的过程,企业逐渐增加对新市场的承诺,慢慢积累知识,以提高能力。它表明,企业最初使用的进入模式使其能够最大限度地获得知识,同时将资产风险降至最低。

Effects of globalisation 全球化的影响

The effects as a result of The Coca-Cola Company’s globalisation have had a huge impact on the world. By using the SWOT analysis, the effects of globalisation of The Coca-Cola Company can be separated into positive and negative effects. Positive effects consist of strengths and opportunities, whereas negative effects are the company’s weaknesses and threats.

可口可乐公司全球化的影响对世界产生了巨大影响。运用SWOT分析法,可口可乐公司全球化的影响可分为积极影响和消极影响。积极影响包括优势和机会,而消极影响是公司的弱点和威胁。

Positive effects 积极影响

Strengths 优势

Competition to improve quality 提高质量的竞争

Globalisation has led to increased competition for the non-alcoholic beverage market for the company. Hence, there is an overall competition to improve the quality of their products for them to compete for market share. In order to survive, the company must be able to cope with the rising standards of their customers. The company must be able to compete at low prices and continuously improve their bottling processes. Keen competition forces companies to accelerate their product innovation and advertising campaigns which can be seen as strength for the industry.

全球化导致该公司在非酒精饮料市场的竞争加剧。因此,他们在提高产品质量方面存在着全面的竞争,以争夺市场份额。为了生存,公司必须能够应对客户不断提高的标准。该公司必须能够以低廉的价格进行竞争,并不断改进装瓶工艺。激烈的竞争迫使公司加快产品创新和广告活动,这可以被视为行业的优势。

Innovation 创新

The economic environment is changing rapidly as a result of globalisation. The future development of the world is shaped as a result of globalisation. Benefits to society are often shared among people for the greater good. With the invention of seatbelts by Volvo shared, it increased the survival rate of car accidents. (Bellis, n.d) An example would be the bottling plants built by The Coca-Cola Company uses mechanics that are advanced automated robotics which introduces countries to a more effective and efficient way of bottling which could then be improved further to suit local needs. By improving their production line around the world, it would strengthen the company’s presence. The company will be able share their technical know-how around their bottling plants based on experience in different countries. Such as improvements made in one country can be shared with other bottling plants owned by the company around the world. The first bottling plant that follows Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) standards was opened in 2009 in Latin America. (The Coca-Cola Company)

由于全球化,经济环境正在迅速变化。世界未来的发展是全球化的结果。社会的利益往往是为了更大的利益而在人们之间分享的。随着沃尔沃共享安全带的发明,它提高了车祸的存活率。一个例子是可口可乐公司建造的装瓶厂使用先进的自动化机器人技术,为各国介绍了一种更有效、更高效的装瓶方式,然后可以进一步改进以满足当地需求。通过改善他们在世界各地的生产线,这将加强公司的影响力。该公司将能够根据不同国家的经验,在装瓶厂周围分享他们的技术诀窍。例如,在一个国家所做的改进可以与该公司在世界各地拥有的其他装瓶厂共享。第一家遵循能源与环境设计领导力(LEED)标准的装瓶厂于2009年在拉丁美洲开业。

Popularity and recognition 受欢迎程度和认可度

As a result of mass expanding and advertising programs, the company was able to enter into countries worldwide which eventually made their brand name one of the most well-known brands of today. Many companies have since followed by expanding into international waters while keeping focus on brand recognition would eventually come to known worldwide still can be seen in today’s industry. Advertising campaigns are the strengths of The Coca-Cola Company as it can capture the loyalty of consumers with easily recognised advertisements. An example would be the commercial advertisement in 1971 where The Hillside Singers sang a song called “I’d like to teach the World to Sing in Perfect Harmony.” (The Coca-Cola Company) In this commercial, people of all different cultures and races come together to sing about wanting world peace and infers that world peace can be achieved by buying someone a coke.

由于大规模扩张和广告计划,该公司得以进入世界各国,最终使其品牌成为当今最知名的品牌之一。此后,许多公司纷纷进军国际市场,同时专注于品牌知名度,最终在全球范围内广为人知,这在当今的行业中仍然可见。广告活动是可口可乐公司的优势,因为它可以通过容易识别的广告来赢得消费者的忠诚度。一个例子是1971年的商业广告,Hillside Singers演唱了一首名为“我想教世界完美和谐地歌唱”的歌曲,在这则广告中,所有不同文化和种族的人聚在一起,唱着想要世界和平的歌,并推断世界和平可以通过给某人买一杯可乐来实现。

Opportunities 机会

Job opportunities 工作机会

With the company’s global expansion, it was able to provide job opportunities in over 200 different countries worldwide which would definitely build and enhance the economic development of one’s country. The Coca-Cola Company itself currently has 92,800 employees worldwide as of 2009 (Hoovers, 2009) and much more if other related parties are added. This is seen as an opportunity for the company as it would be able to employ a diverse background of employees from all around the world.

随着公司的全球扩张,它能够在全球200多个不同的国家提供就业机会,这必将建立和促进一个国家的经济发展。截至2009年,可口可乐公司目前在全球拥有92800名员工,如果加上其他相关方,员工数量还会更多。这被视为该公司的一个机会,因为它将能够雇佣来自世界各地的不同背景的员工。

Cultural influence 文化影响

Cultures around the world have come together and created so many different societies across different cities around the globe which have grown and improved according to globalisation. Some old traditions are discarded while new ones are form from day to day. The same can be said of Coca-Cola, which has pop-up in countries across the world and change the way people have their meals. The brand is widely accepted by different nations due to homogenous markets. This is such a great opportunity for the company to make an impression and an indelible move as the different types of cultures around the world, where there is a similar or common culture, that is, Coca-Cola. (Kulkarni, n.d)

世界各地的文化聚集在一起,在全球不同的城市创造了许多不同的社会,这些社会随着全球化而发展和改善。一些旧的传统被抛弃,而新的传统则日复一日地形成。可口可乐也是如此,它在世界各国推出,改变了人们的饮食方式。由于市场同质化,该品牌被不同国家广泛接受。这对公司来说是一个巨大的机会,可以给世界各地不同类型的文化留下深刻的印象,也是一个不可磨灭的举动,那里有一种相似或共同的文化,那就是可口可乐。

Huge portfolio to pursue 庞大的投资组合

Since The Coca-Cola Company has over 200 brands in its portfolio, there are other many up and coming new brands for the company to pursue. This would ensure the company’s survival in the late future if a brand succession plan is in place. An unknown product does not mean it’s a failure, just not yet discovered by people. Once discovered it will pave the road to success and therefore securing the company’s future. One of the main company strategies is to buy out competition of rising brands that they think would do well in the distant future.

由于可口可乐公司的产品组合中有200多个品牌,该公司还可以追求其他许多新兴品牌。如果品牌继承计划到位,这将确保公司在未来的生存。一个未知的产品并不意味着它是失败的,只是还没有被人们发现。一旦被发现,它将为成功铺平道路,从而确保公司的未来。公司的主要战略之一是收购他们认为在遥远的未来会做得很好的新兴品牌的竞争对手。

Negative effects 负面影响

Weaknesses 弱势

Lack of popularity in other portfolio brands 在其他组合品牌中缺乏知名度

In addition, the other brands offered besides the main brand Coca-Cola lacks popularity. It is mostly unknown or rarely seen on shelves probably due to restricted distribution in a particular country as testing acceptance of the market. These brands are kept low profiled and no related link is made to the main brand in case the brand fails. This is seen as a weakness in the line of products Coca-Cola has to offer as advertising allowance is not fairly distributed to all their products.

此外,除了主品牌可口可乐之外,其他品牌也缺乏知名度。它大多不为人知或很少出现在货架上,可能是由于在特定国家的分销受到限制,以测试市场的接受度。这些品牌都保持低调,在品牌失败的情况下,不会与主品牌建立相关联系。这被视为可口可乐必须提供的产品线的一个弱点,因为广告补贴并没有公平地分配给他们的所有产品。

Health effects 健康影响

There are also certain health effects to be concerned with as a result of Coca-Cola’s globalisation. By referring to the book Liquid Candy written by Jacobson (Jacobson, 2005), he discusses the effects of consuming soda drinks that could lead to several health concerns. Below are adverse health effects viewed as a threat to the company’s going concern if people boycott their products which would have adverse effect on the company’s revenue and survival.

可口可乐的全球化也对健康产生了一定的影响。通过参考雅各布森(Jacobson,2005)撰写的《液体糖果》一书,他讨论了饮用汽水可能导致几种健康问题的影响。以下是被视为威胁公司持续经营的不利健康影响,如果人们抵制他们的产品,这将对公司的收入和生存产生不利影响。

Sugar is important source of carbohydrates for our body. However, soft drinks contain high amounts of sugar (Better Health Channel, n.d) where regular consumption could lead to overweight or obese problems. By being obese, it tends to increase the chances of having diabetes and many other types of diseases. Obesity could also lead to social and psychological problems such as starving oneself to reduce weight.

糖是我们身体碳水化合物的重要来源。然而,软饮料含有大量的糖(Better Health Channel,n.d),经常食用可能会导致超重或肥胖问题。肥胖往往会增加患糖尿病和许多其他类型疾病的几率。肥胖也可能导致社会和心理问题,比如为了减肥而挨饿。

Soft drinks often have links with lower calcium levels which could lead to the disease osteoporosis. Deep concern should be placed on children since calcium is needed in early stages for development of bones. Too much soft drinks could lead to poor bone materialisation in the future life of the children. Therefore, in order to safeguard ones future, parents should control the intake of soda drinks of their children.

软饮料通常与较低的钙水平有关,这可能导致骨质疏松症。由于骨骼发育的早期阶段需要钙,因此应高度关注儿童。过多的软饮料可能会导致孩子未来生活中骨骼材料的不良。因此,为了保障自己的未来,父母应该控制孩子的汽水摄入量。

Soft drinks also have high levels of phosphoric acid which can be harmful to ones teeth. The acidity level in soft drinks can be compared to that of vinegar which can cause corrosion of the enamel. Most of the soft drinks contain caffeine for its energy boosting effects. Therefore consuming too much soft drink could lead to caffeine addiction. There are withdrawal symptoms such as nausea or headache if one is addicted. High intakes of caffeine can lead to insomnia and even irregular heartbeats. (Yakowicz, 2010)

软饮料中的磷酸含量也很高,对牙齿有害。软饮料中的酸度可以与醋的酸度进行比较,醋会导致牙釉质腐蚀。大多数软饮料都含有咖啡因,因为它具有增强能量的作用。因此,摄入过多的软饮料可能会导致咖啡因成瘾。如果上瘾,会出现恶心或头痛等戒断症状。咖啡因摄入过多会导致失眠,甚至心跳不规律。

Threats 威胁

Changing health consciousness 健康意识的转变

With the company’s globalisation, bad aspects of foreign cultures would tend to affect its way into local cultures. Such as the soft drinks craze that is spreading around the world. Although beneficial for the company where higher consumption leads to higher revenues, consuming too much will have adverse health effects on its consumers. The health consciousness of people are starting to change, as they are moving towards a healthier lifestyle in which avoidance on soda drinks may be a threat to the company future.

随着公司的全球化,外国文化的不良方面往往会影响公司进入当地文化。比如正在全球蔓延的软饮料热。尽管对消费量越高收入越高的公司有利,但消费过多会对消费者的健康产生不利影响。人们的健康意识开始改变,因为他们正在朝着更健康的生活方式迈进,在这种生活方式中,避免喝汽水可能会威胁到公司的未来。

Job insecurity 工作无保障

Companies often seek to lower their cost in order to earn a higher profit margin. One of the methods is to outsource their non-core activities such the payroll function to service providers. This would ensure a lower cost with an acceptable level of quality in work done. As a result, it increases unemployment rate in developed nations. Developing countries like China and India dominate the outsourcing market because of their fairly low labour cost. There is a higher risk of retrenchment for employees in the developed countries as they can be replaced by their counterparts across the world in pursuit of low cost. Therefore, a threat exists where the company might lose its good employees to competitors if it shows the slightest signs of restructuring.

公司经常寻求降低成本以获得更高的利润率。其中一种方法是将其非核心活动(如工资发放职能)外包给服务提供商。这将确保更低的成本和可接受的工作质量水平。结果,它增加了发达国家的失业率。中国和印度等发展中国家由于劳动力成本较低而在外包市场占据主导地位。发达国家的员工裁员风险更高,因为他们可以被世界各地的同行取代,以追求低成本。因此,如果公司表现出最轻微的重组迹象,它可能会失去优秀的员工给竞争对手。

Local industries taken over by foreign multinationals 外国跨国公司接管的本地产业

Foreign multinationals often take over local companies as a mode of entry into the particular country. It would deprive the upbringing of local industries as those who remained will have to face a tougher competition posed by the foreign multinational. This is one of the strategies used by The Coca-Cola Company as they are actively acquiring local bottling plants around the world. A threat would be present if the local governments start to restrict the company from further expansion in its country in order to safeguard their home grown companies. This would serve as an obstacle to the company’s expansion plans into the said country. (Pillai, n.d)

外国跨国公司通常接管当地公司,作为进入特定国家的一种方式。这将剥夺当地产业的成长,因为那些留下来的产业将不得不面对外国跨国公司带来的更激烈的竞争。这是可口可乐公司积极收购世界各地当地装瓶厂时使用的策略之一。如果地方政府开始限制该公司在其国家的进一步扩张,以保护其本土公司,那么就会存在威胁。这将成为该公司向上述国家扩张计划的障碍。

Waste and pollution 废物和污染

Developing countries are often taken advantage of by foreign multinationals. Since developing nations need high levels of foreign investment to boost its economic development, the local governments would tend to overlook on the pollution caused as they cannot risk a withdrawal of funds from the country. The environmental laws and regulations of a developing nation are also in the process of setting up. Therefore, foreign multinational companies often take this advantage by setting up plants at an early stage. The Coca-Cola Company has taken advantage of this matter in India where their factories produced waste sludge and were sold as fertilizer which was proven toxic to crops. (Brown, 2003) As this poses a threat to the environment, the company’s licenses can be revoked if not settled. Measures should be taken by the company to implement environmentally friendly plants for the future in deluding the toxic waste.

发展中国家经常被外国跨国公司利用。由于发展中国家需要高水平的外国投资来促进其经济发展,地方政府往往会忽视所造成的污染,因为他们不能冒险从该国撤出资金。发展中国家的环境法律法规也在制定过程中。因此,外国跨国公司往往利用这一优势,在早期阶段就设立工厂。可口可乐公司利用了印度的这一问题,他们的工厂生产废弃污泥,并作为肥料出售,这些肥料被证明对作物有毒。由于这对环境构成威胁,如果不解决,该公司的许可证可能会被吊销。公司应采取措施,在未来对有毒废物进行淹没的过程中,采用环保型工厂。

Conclusions 结论

The international expansion of The Coca-Cola Company can be seen worldwide. Its products have permeated into societies all over the world. The first project objective of this research project has been met, which evaluates the positive and negative effects of globalisation of Coca-Cola brand name where the SWOT analysis was used is outlined below in Figure 7.

可口可乐公司的国际扩张在全世界都可以看到。它的产品已经渗透到世界各地的社会中。该研究项目的第一个项目目标已经实现,该目标评估了可口可乐品牌名称全球化的积极和消极影响,使用SWOT分析的情况如下图7所示。

(S)trengths 优势

Popularity and recognition 受欢迎程度和认可度

Competition to improve quality 提高质量的竞争

Innovation 创新

(W)eaknesses 劣势

Lack of popularity in other portfolio brands 在其他组合品牌中缺乏知名度

Health effects 健康影响

(O)pportunities 机会

Huge portfolio to pursue 庞大的投资组合

Cultural influence 文化影响

Job opportunities 工作机会

(T)hreats 威胁

Job insecurity 工作无保障

Changing health consciousness 健康意识的转变

Local industries taken over by foreign multinationals 外国跨国公司接管的本地产业

Waste and pollution 废物和污染

The second project objective was to assess the job opportunities The Coca-Cola Company created jobs worldwide. As of 2009, the company has 92,800 employees employed worldwide. By providing jobs to developing countries such as China and India, it would greatly help the development of the said country.

第二个项目目标是评估工作机会可口可乐公司在全球范围内创造了就业机会。截至2009年,该公司在全球拥有92800名员工。通过向中国和印度等发展中国家提供就业机会,这将大大有助于该国的发展。

We can understand why The Coca-Cola Company moved towards globalised markets based on Ohmae’s 5Cs as discussed previously. According to market research, The Coca-Cola Company has the largest non-alcoholic beverage market share worldwide with a market share 42.9% as of 2009 according to (Sicher, 2010) with 24.4 billion unit cases sold worldwide in 2009. (The Coca-Cola Company) Therefore, the third project objective was also met.

我们可以理解为什么可口可乐公司在之前讨论的Ohmae的5Cs的基础上走向全球化市场。根据市场调查,可口可乐公司拥有全球最大的非酒精饮料市场份额,根据2010年的数据,截至2009年,该公司的市场份额为42.9%,2009年全球销量为244亿箱。因此,第三个项目目标也得以实现。

Recommendations 建议

The main recommendations for The Coca-Cola Company are to exploit their strengths and opportunities, while mitigating their weaknesses and threats.

可口可乐公司的主要建议是利用他们的优势和机会,同时减轻他们的弱点和威胁。

The main strength is its popularity of the brand Coca-Cola. The company can use the Coca-Cola name to support their other products if the product is accepted by consumers. A step further is to advertise the products side by side since its advertising campaigns are refreshing and easily recognised. This enables the company to capture a new type of customer loyalty.

其主要优势在于其受欢迎的可口可乐品牌。如果产品被消费者接受,该公司可以使用可口可乐的名字来支持他们的其他产品。更进一步的是并排为产品做广告,因为它的广告活动令人耳目一新,易于识别。这使公司能够获得一种新型的客户忠诚度。

Popularity of a brand name mainly depends on the people’s word of mouth. This can either be positive or negative in different conditions. Other brands that the company offer lack popularity which is a weakness for the company. The company should not just focus on the main brand but also push potential brands to the public.

一个品牌的知名度主要取决于人们的口碑。在不同的条件下,这可能是正的,也可能是负的。该公司提供的其他品牌缺乏知名度,这是该公司的一个弱点。公司不仅要专注于主要品牌,还要将潜在品牌推向公众。

The Coca-Cola Company should pursue other brands in their portfolio since Coca-Cola is already a world known product. This can be done with increased advertising for the less popular products which would lead to more brand recognition if the product is successful. If a product is unable to capture a market and operations are running at a loss, the product should be discontinued. Funds saved from closing the division can be used to improve other brands or to acquire new potential brands.

可口可乐公司应该在其产品组合中追求其他品牌,因为可口可乐已经是一种世界知名的产品。这可以通过增加不太受欢迎的产品的广告来实现,如果产品成功,这将带来更多的品牌知名度。如果产品无法占领市场,且运营处于亏损状态,则应停止生产该产品。关闭该部门节省的资金可以用于改善其他品牌或收购新的潜在品牌。

A major threat to the company is the changing health consciousness of the people. The company has made efforts since then by introducing low sugar and caffeine-free products into their portfolio and must continue doing so. Besides that, there is strong competition from other rival brands such as PepsiCo. The main idea here is to steal market share from its rivals such as finding out what are the strong brands the rival have and to introduce a similar product that would serve as an alternative.

对公司的一个主要威胁是人们健康意识的变化。自那以后,该公司一直在努力将低糖和无咖啡因产品引入其产品组合,并必须继续这样做。除此之外,还有来自百事等其他竞争品牌的激烈竞争。这里的主要想法是从竞争对手那里窃取市场份额,比如找出竞争对手拥有哪些强大的品牌,并推出类似的产品作为替代品。本站提供Business Research Report格式范文以及Business Research Report写作指导,如有需要可咨询本平台。


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