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Summary of Total Quality Management Model 全面质量管理模式概述

论文价格: 免费 时间:2023-05-07 12:50:17 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

本文一篇Summary范文,主要内容是是讲述再20世纪90年代初,一种名为“全面质量管理”的管理哲学开始流行起来。它的起源可以追溯到美国质量专家的想法。W.Edwards Deming和Joseph Duran,并在Malcolm Baldrige国家质量奖等项目中备受关注。

Summary范文首先阐述全面质量管理(TQM)被定义为“管理整个组织,使其在对客户重要的产品和服务的各个方面都表现出色。”正如定义所述,这一理念专注于将质量作为组织竞争优势的主要组成部分。营销决策直接受到这样一个系统的影响,因为质量是产品/服务设计的一个组成部分,也是潜在买家使用的一个重要决策标准。下面就一起来看一下这篇Summary范文的全部内容。

Summary范文

In the early 1990s, a philosophy of management called “total quality management” gained popularity. Its origins are traced to the ideas of U.S. quality experts

W. Edwards Deming and Joseph Duran and highlighted by such programs as the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award.

Total quality management (TQM) is defined as “managing the entire organization so that it excels in all dimensions of products and services that are important to the customer.” As the definition states, this philosophy concentrates on quality as a primary component of the organization’s drive for competitive advantage. Marketing decision-making is directly effected by such a system because quality is a component of product/service design and can be an important decision-making criterion employed by potential buyers.

The TQM model goes beyond product and service quality, however, and suggests that a highly structured system of management that emphasizes mechanisms like control and punitive action which stifles people and ultimately hinders an organization’s attempt to produce quality products and services. Rather, the organization that views all its employees as critical, creative resources will be much better able to pursue quality in every activity and through every decision. Some of the key tenets of TQM are:

然而,TQM模型超越了产品和服务质量,并表明一个高度结构化的管理体系,强调控制和惩罚行动等机制,这些机制会扼杀人们,并最终阻碍组织生产高质量产品和服务的努力。相反,将所有员工视为关键的创造性资源的组织将能够更好地在每一项活动和每一项决策中追求质量。全面质量管理的一些关键原则是:

Every employee has creative skill and talent that can be beneficial to the organization, and employees should be empowered with decision-making responsibility and authority.

An organization must engage in parallel and simultaneous decision making rather that hierarchical decision-making. Functions like marketing and production must work together and simultaneously to create solutions rather than waiting for another and engaging in reactive decision-making.

An organization must replace a control mentality and structure with one that nurtures creativity and cross-functional participation in decision-making.

Speed and quality are the essential dimensions of competitive advantage and should constitute the overriding objectives of the organization.

每个员工都有对组织有益的创造性技能和才能,员工应该被赋予决策责任和权力。

一个组织必须参与平行和同时的决策,而不是分层决策。营销和生产等职能部门必须同时合作,创造解决方案,而不是等待另一个解决方案并参与被动决策。

一个组织必须用培养创造力和跨职能参与决策的心态和结构来取代控制心态和结构。

速度和质量是竞争优势的重要方面,应构成组织的首要目标。

The underlying premises of TQM are attractive. However, TQM can be a very costly and time-consuming process. Speed and quality are essential to the concept of TQM as they are to product development and the efforts by firms like Honda to cut development time and use speed as a strategic tool. The argument that rigid and hierarchical organizational structures suppress creativity and limit an organization’s potential is a believable proposition. But, organisations are discovering that the concept of TQM has some practical hazards that make complete implementation difficult. Specifically, the following can compromise TQM as a management approach:

全面质量管理的基本前提是有吸引力的。然而,全面质量管理可能是一个非常昂贵和耗时的过程。速度和质量对于TQM的概念至关重要,就像它们对于产品开发以及本田等公司缩短开发时间和将速度作为战略工具所做的努力一样。僵化和等级森严的组织结构抑制了创造力并限制了组织的潜力,这是一个可信的命题。但是,各组织发现,全面质量管理的概念存在一些实际危险,使其难以完全实施。具体而言,以下因素可能会影响TQM作为一种管理方法:

Not all employees are capable of or desire to be empowered. Many employees, even at middle-management levels are content to make contributions to the organization by following rather than leading.

It can be difficult to motivate employees to embrace corporate objectives over their own personal or career objectives. Effective implementation of TQM requires that corporate goals be placed ahead of personal goals.

Effective implementation of TQM procedures presumes effective and swift communication within an organization in order for functional areas to operate simultaneously rather than hierarchically. Many organizations are unable to establish effective and rapid communications networks essential to the success of a TQM system.

并非所有员工都有能力或渴望获得授权。许多员工,甚至是中层管理人员,都满足于通过追随而不是领导来为组织做出贡献。

很难激励员工接受公司目标,而不是自己的个人或职业目标。全面质量管理的有效实施要求将企业目标置于个人目标之上。

TQM程序的有效实施要求组织内部进行有效而迅速的沟通,以便职能部门同时运作,而不是分层运作。许多组织无法建立对TQM系统的成功至关重要的有效和快速的通信网络。

Implementation of a total quality system requires its own sort of bureaucracy, which itself can bog down the organization from the standpoints of both cost and speed of decision making.

While TQM is an appealing philosophy, it remains to be seen whether it can be effectively implemented across complex organizations. Some firms, like Motorola, have had tremendous success with a TQM approach to management. Many other firms, however, have experienced almost insignificant quality increases when compared to the massive scale of the firm’s quality effort.

全面质量体系的实施需要其自身的官僚作风,从决策成本和速度的角度来看,官僚作风本身可能会使组织陷入困境。

虽然全面质量管理是一种很有吸引力的哲学,但它能否在复杂的组织中有效实施还有待观察。一些公司,如摩托罗拉,在TQM管理方法方面取得了巨大成功。然而,与该公司大规模的质量努力相比,许多其他公司的质量增长几乎微不足道。

Horizontal Management Structure 横向管理结构

The horizontal corporation may be the most radical of the new management systems being touted. A horizontal management structure is defined as managing across an organization rather than in a top-down, hierarchical fashion by identifying key processes and creating teams to manage them. The main premise of horizontal management structure borrows a dimension from TQM: the downward, hierarchical authority of an organization must be dismantled to take advantage of all corporate resources. In place of vertical authority, a new horizontal system is proposed that organizes a firm around processes rather than tasks. Such a horizontal structure is said to eliminate a task orientation and focus company resources on customers instead.

横向公司可能是被吹捧的新管理体系中最激进的。横向管理结构被定义为通过确定关键流程并创建团队来管理这些流程,而不是以自上而下、分层的方式在整个组织中进行管理。横向管理结构的主要前提借用了全面质量管理的一个维度:一个组织的向下、分级的权力必须被拆除,以利用所有的企业资源。提出了一种新的横向系统来代替纵向权力,该系统围绕流程而不是任务来组织企业。据说,这种横向结构消除了任务导向,而是将公司资源集中在客户身上。

The following are the seven key elements of a horizontal structure management system:以下是横向结构管理系统的七个关键要素:

A Process Organizational Structure.Create a structure around processes rather than tasks. The entire company can be built around three to five core processes. A process owner is assigned to each.流程组织结构。围绕流程而不是任务创建一个结构。整个公司可以围绕三到五个核心流程来构建。每个流程都分配了一个流程所有者。

Horizontal Structure.Levels of supervision should be kept to a minimum by combining tasks within processes. The hierarchical nature of the organization should be flattened to resemble the activities.横向结构。应通过将流程中的任务结合起来,将监督级别保持在最低限度。组织的层级性质应该扁平化,以类似于活动。

Team Management.Teams rather than managers will run processes. Each team is held accountable for performance within processes.团队管理。团队而不是经理将运行流程。每个团队都要对流程中的绩效负责。

Customer Satisfaction Drives Performance.Do away with old measures of performance like stock appreciation or profitability and use customer satisfaction instead: profits will follow if customers are satisfied?客户满意度推动绩效。摒弃旧的绩效衡量标准,如股票升值或盈利能力,转而使用客户满意度:如果客户满意,利润就会随之而来?

Team Performance Rewards.The evaluation and pay system should emphasize team not individual performance. Encourage the development of multiple skills rather than specialization.团队绩效奖励。评估和薪酬体系应强调团队而非个人绩效。鼓励发展多种技能,而不是专业化。

Maximum Supplier, Customer, Employee Contact.Employees must have direct and frequent contact with suppliers and customers. Find in-house teams where suppliers and customers can be participants.最大限度的供应商、客户和员工联系。员工必须与供应商和客户有直接和频繁的联系。找到供应商和客户可以参与的内部团队。

Inform and Train All Employees.Employees must be trusted with critical data and important decisions. Include all employees, not just leaders.通知并培训所有员工。必须信任员工掌握关键数据和重要决策。包括所有员工,而不仅仅是领导者。

The horizontal structure, like others, is intended to increase the speed and efficiency of activities and decision-making. So far, it has met with considerable success. AT&T Network Systems Division has reorganized all of its 130 activities around 13 core processes and employee bonuses are based on customer satisfaction evaluations. Kodak has eliminated several vice-president level positions and uses self-directed teams to manage the areas instead. Finally, Xerox now handles its new product development through multi-disciplinary teams that work in a single process structure rather than vertical or even simultaneous functions.

与其他结构一样,横向结构旨在提高活动和决策的速度和效率。到目前为止,它已经取得了相当大的成功。AT&T网络系统部围绕13个核心流程重组了其130项活动,员工奖金基于客户满意度评估。柯达已经裁撤了几个副总裁级别的职位,转而使用自主团队来管理这些领域。最后,施乐现在通过多学科团队来处理其新产品开发,这些团队在单一的流程结构中工作,而不是垂直的甚至同时的功能。

Re-engineering 企业重组

Reengineering as a management imperative is similar to the horizontal structure system with one major exception. Re-engineering focuses on the redesign of processes within an organization just as the horizontal system does. However, reengineering is not restricted to any particular redesign of processes. Rather, the entire organization is scrutinized from top to bottom to search for opportunities for improvement. Re-engineering is defined as “the radical redesign of business processes to achieve major gains in cost, service, or time.” Changing processes to achieve productivity or effectiveness gains does not distinguish reengineering from either TQM or a horizontal structure. There are, however, two distinctive aspects of reengineering. First, re-engineering examines the organization from the outside in and designs it around customers’ needs. The key question to be asked is, “If we could start this company from scratch, how would it be designed?” Second, reengineering promotes strong leadership from the top, the Managing Director or Chief Executive Officer leads the organization. This is completely different from either TQM or a horizontal structure.

重组作为管理的当务之急,类似于横向结构体系,只有一个主要例外。重新设计的重点是重新设计组织内的流程,就像横向系统一样。然而,再造并不局限于任何特定的流程重新设计。相反,从上到下对整个组织进行仔细检查,以寻找改进的机会。再工程被定义为“对业务流程进行彻底的重新设计,以在成本、服务或时间方面实现重大收益。”改变流程以实现生产力或有效性收益,并不能将再工程与全面质量管理或横向结构区分开来。然而,再造有两个不同的方面。首先,重新设计从外部到内部检查组织,并围绕客户的需求进行设计。要问的关键问题是,“如果我们能从头开始创办这家公司,它将如何设计?”其次,重组促进了高层的强有力领导,总经理或首席执行官领导组织。这与TQM或水平结构完全不同。

Several firms have had tremendous success with reengineering. Union Carbide has used reengineering to cut U.S.$400 million out of the fixed costs of its operations over a three-year period. GTE reengineered its customer service operations from the outside in and created “customer care centres.” Before reengineering, customers had to deal with three different departments for line problems, billing questions, and special services. After reengineering, GTE has a single customer contact process where effectiveness is judged by how many times a problem can be solved without passing the customer on to another department. Reengineering is recommended for important, broad-based corporate and marketing processes like new product development and customer service rather than for specific strategic issues like cost or quality problems.

几家公司在重组方面取得了巨大成功。联合碳化物公司通过重组,在三年内从其固定运营成本中削减了4亿美元。GTE从外部到内部重新设计了其客户服务运营,并创建了“客户服务中心”。在重新设计之前,客户必须与三个不同的部门处理线路问题、计费问题和特殊服务。再造后,GTE有一个单一的客户联系流程,通过在不将客户转移到另一个部门的情况下解决问题的次数来判断有效性。建议对新产品开发和客户服务等重要、基础广泛的企业和营销流程进行重组,而不是对成本或质量问题等特定战略问题进行重组。

The Virtual Corporation 虚拟企业

The virtual corporation is a management system in which several companies form a temporary network of joint ventures and alliances that come together quickly to exploit fast-changing opportunities. The virtual corporation is conceived of as a grouping of independent organization, manufacturers, service providers, suppliers, customers, and even competitors that are linked with information technology to share knowledge and skills. There is no central administration, no hierarchy, and no formal lines of authority. Rather, the virtual corporation is a group of collaborators that will come together temporarily to exploit market opportunities. Each partner in the alliance contributes what it is best at doing. (This sort of arrangement with an example of Toshiba Electronics global alliances).

虚拟企业是一种管理系统,在该系统中,几家公司组成了一个由合资企业和联盟组成的临时网络,这些企业和联盟迅速聚集在一起,利用快速变化的机会。虚拟公司被认为是一个由独立组织、制造商、服务提供商、供应商、客户甚至竞争对手组成的集团,这些组织与信息技术联系在一起,共享知识和技能。没有中央政府,没有等级制度,也没有正式的权力线。相反,虚拟公司是一群合作者,他们会临时聚在一起利用市场机会。联盟中的每个合作伙伴都贡献了自己最擅长做的事情。(这种安排以东芝电子全球联盟为例)。

The key features of a virtual corporation management arrangement are:虚拟企业管理安排的主要特征是:

Excellence.Each partner in a virtual corporation alliance brings a core competence to the collaboration. In this way, each function and process can be world-class calibre.卓越。虚拟企业联盟中的每个合作伙伴都为合作带来了核心能力。这样,每个功能和流程都可以达到世界级水平。

Technology.Global information networks will allow participants to create electronic links for sharing expertise and knowledge. Information superhighways could create electronic contracts without legal ties.技术。全球信息网络将使参与者能够建立电子链接,分享专业知识和知识。信息高速公路可以创建没有法律联系的电子合同。

Opportunism.The partnerships are temporary and created to exploit a specific market opportunity. Once the opportunity disappears, the alliance will likely disappear as well.机会主义。这种合作关系是暂时的,是为了利用特定的市场机会而建立的。一旦机会消失,联盟很可能也会消失。

Trust.The fate of each partner is dependent on the other. Trust is a key dimension in the successful performance of a virtual corporation.信任。每个伙伴的命运取决于另一个。信任是虚拟公司成功运作的关键因素。

No Borders.The collaboration among customers, suppliers, producers, and competitors breaks down borders between organizations.无国界。客户、供应商、生产商和竞争对手之间的合作打破了组织之间的边界。

The virtual corporation concept has its critics, but it also has brought together some of the most prominent names in the corporate world. AT&T used Marubeni Trading Co. to establish a relationship with Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. to expedite the production of notebook computers, which were designed by a fourth partner, Henry Dreyfuss Associates. Corning, Inc., has 19 partnerships that account for nearly 13 percent of the firm’s earnings. Former rivals IBM, Apple, and Motorola have created an alliance to develop an operating system and microprocessor for a new generation of computers, the Power PC.

虚拟企业的概念有其批评者,但它也汇集了企业界一些最著名的名字。美国电话电报公司利用丸红贸易公司与松下电气工业公司建立了合作关系,以加快笔记本电脑的生产,笔记本电脑由第四位合作伙伴Henry Dreyfuss Associates设计。科宁公司(拥有19家合伙企业,占公司收入的近13%。前竞争对手IBM、苹果和摩托罗拉成立了一个联盟,为新一代计算机Power PC开发操作系统和微处理器。

Once again, this proposed corporate management system would have pervasive effects across the marketing systems of the firms involved. Product development speed and efficacy, customer service, sales effectiveness, and price levels all can be directly affected. The future of the virtual corporation vision is unknown. While it is conceptually intriguing, there are definite obstacles. The information technology is not quite in place; firms have never had to trust each other to the degree that this proposal calls for; and there may need to be changes in regulations related to antitrust and intellectual property before virtual corporations can actually be formed.

重复一遍,这一拟议的企业管理系统将对相关公司的营销系统产生普遍影响。产品开发速度和效率、客户服务、销售效率和价格水平都会受到直接影响。虚拟企业愿景的未来是未知的。虽然这在概念上很有趣,但也存在一定的障碍。信息技术还没有完全到位;企业之间从未像这项提案所要求的那样相互信任;在虚拟企业真正成立之前,可能需要改变与反垄断和知识产权相关的法规。

A Global Perspective 全球视角

By now you have become accustomed to a discussion at this point of the global issues associated with a topic area. Successful cultivation of worldwide markets is by far the most formidable challenge faced by organisations. An organization’s resources are pressed to their limits when foreign markets become the focus of the marketing effort.

到目前为止,您已经习惯于在这一点上讨论与某个主题领域相关的全球问题。成功培育全球市场是迄今为止组织面临的最艰巨的挑战。当国外市场成为营销工作的焦点时,一个组织的资源就会被挤压到极限。

Case Study:案例分析

What short-term marketing strategies did Harley-Davidson implement while it was developing the long-term strategy of redesigned engines?哈雷戴维森在制定重新设计发动机的长期战略时,实施了哪些短期营销策略?

A Tale of Management Challenges 管理挑战的故事

By the start of the 1980s, Harley-Davidson, the last U.S. motorcycle maker, had seen its share of the super-heavyweight motorcycle market drop from 75 percent in 1973 to less than 25 percent. Quality in the production process was so poor that more than half the cycles produced came off the assembly line missing parts and were delivered to dealers inoperable. The big Harleys leaked oil, vibrated excessively, and were hard to start. Performance couldn’t touch the new “bullet bikes” arriving from Japan with their breath-taking acceleration and silky smooth transmissions. Harley loyalists were still willing to get their hands greasy to fix the big bikes and to modify their performance, but new buyers who were fuelling the growth in the motorcycle market had no intention of doing so. Needless to say, Harley-Davidson faced a huge management challenge. As Vaugn Beals, chairman of Harley-Davidson, put it, “We were being wiped out by the Japanese because they were better managers. It wasn’t the robotics, or culture, or morning calisthenics and company songsit was professional managers who understood their business and paid attention to detail.”

到20世纪80年代初,美国最后一家摩托车制造商哈雷戴维森在超重量级摩托车市场的份额从1973年的75%下降到了不到25%。生产过程中的质量非常差,以至于生产的一半以上的循环从装配线下来时缺少零件,交付给经销商时无法操作。大型哈雷车漏油,振动过大,很难启动。性能无法与来自日本的新型“子弹头自行车”相媲美,它们拥有令人惊叹的加速和丝滑的变速器。哈雷的忠实拥护者仍然愿意为修理大型自行车和修改它们的性能而沾沾自喜,但推动摩托车市场增长的新买家无意这样做。不用说,哈雷戴维森面临着巨大的管理挑战。正如哈雷戴维森公司董事长Vaughn Beals所说,“我们被日本人淘汰了,因为他们是更好的管理者。这不是机器人、文化或晨练,公司的首席执行官是了解他们的业务并关注细节的专业管理者。”

Beals devised a long-range plan to win customers and bring Harley-Davidsons back to prominence in the motorcycle market. The important change would be to upgrade performance with a new generation of engine designs. This transition would take up to ten years. Harley needed solutions much sooner to survive. Those solutions came in the form of marketing management decisions to implement short- and intermediate-term strategies.

Beals制定了一项长期计划,以赢得客户,并使哈雷戴维森在摩托车市场重新崭露头角。重要的变化将是通过新一代发动机设计来提高性能。这一转变将需要长达十年的时间。哈雷需要更快的解决方案才能生存。这些解决方案以营销管理决策的形式出现,以实施短期和中期战略:

“Willie G.” Davidson created a series of cosmetic styling changes. In the five years before Harley could bring the new engines on line, he introduced a succession of new models -Super Glide, Low Rider, and Wide Glide – that emulated the look of the choppers Harley fanatics were putting together themselves. With a decal here and a paint strip there the new models were a huge success.

“威利·戴维森”创造了一系列的化妆品造型变化。在哈雷将新发动机投入使用之前的五年里,他推出了一系列新型号——超级滑翔机、低空滑翔机和宽滑翔机——模仿了哈雷狂热分子自己组装的直升机的外观。这里有贴花,那里有油漆条,新车型取得了巨大成功。

Beals and several managers toured a Honda assembly plant and came away knowing their manufacturing techniques were woefully outdated and costly. A manufacturing team introduced a just-in-time inventory program in the firm’s Milwaukee engine plant. Huge inventories and elaborate materials handling systems were eliminated with the program. The result was an increase in quality and a reduction in costs.

Beals和几位经理参观了本田的一家装配厂,离开时知道他们的制造技术已经过时且成本高昂。一个制造团队在该公司的密尔沃基发动机工厂推出了一项及时库存计划。该项目消除了庞大的库存和复杂的材料处理系统。其结果是提高了质量,降低了成本。

In marketing, management shifted its focus away from trying to compete with the Japanese across several product lines and concentrated on developing the big-bike segment. In 1983, the company formed the Harley Owners Group (HOG) to develop a closer relationship with customers. Shortly afterward, a $3 million demonstration campaign was initiated called SuperRide, which invited bikers to visit any of the company’s 600 dealers for a ride on a new Harley. 在市场营销方面,管理层将重点从试图在多个产品线上与日本人竞争转移到了开发大型自行车领域。1983年,该公司成立了哈雷车主集团,以发展与客户更密切的关系。不久之后,一项名为SuperRide的耗资300万美元的示威活动开始了,该活动邀请骑自行车的人参观该公司600家经销商中的任何一家,乘坐一辆新的哈雷。

The Role of Marketing Management 营销管理的作用

In 1984, Harley-Davidson sales were a mere U.S.$294 million, which produced a profit of only U.S.$2.9 million. By 1993, sales had soared to over U.S.$1.2 billion and profits approached U.S.$75 million. Harley-Davidson has not only survived, but has prospered and grabbed nearly 50 percent market share in the super-heavy weight market. The leaders of the firm managed Harley-Davidson out of crisis: corporate resources were focused on an identifiable target market segment, marketing and manufacturing were integrated to contain costs, programs to attract customers and support dealers were initiated, and strategies for the short- and long-term target market development were conceived and implemented.

1984年,哈雷戴维森的销售额仅为2.94亿美元,利润仅为290万美元。到1993年,销售额飙升至超过12亿美元,利润接近7500万美元。哈雷戴维森不仅生存了下来,而且在超重型市场上取得了近50%的市场份额。该公司的领导人管理哈雷戴维森摆脱了危机:公司资源集中在可识别的目标细分市场,营销和制造一体化以控制成本,启动了吸引客户和支持经销商的计划,并制定和实施了短期和长期目标市场发展战略。

As this episode in the history of Harley-Davidson highlights, the role of marketing management in an organization is to provide a mechanism for guiding marketing strategy development and implementation. No firm can compete effectively without performing basic tasks in the marketing mix: product development, pricing, distribution, and promotion. But, the difference between a firm that achieves mediocre results and a firm that prospers is often based on how much emphasis is placed on the management of marketing activities. Marketing management is critical to making the marketing process prominent in a firm. As the marketing process is granted unique status through focused management attention, the precision and impact of marketing activities increases.

正如哈雷戴维森历史上的这一集所强调的那样,营销管理在一个组织中的作用是为指导营销战略的制定和实施提供一种机制。如果不执行营销组合中的基本任务:产品开发、定价、分销和促销,任何公司都无法有效竞争。但是,业绩平平的公司和繁荣的公司之间的区别往往取决于对营销活动管理的重视程度。营销管理对于在企业中突出营销过程至关重要。随着营销过程通过集中的管理注意力而被赋予独特的地位,营销活动的准确性和影响力也随之提高。

This demonstrates that managing marketing activities rather than simply implementing marketing tasks has a tremendous impact on the competitive strength and profitability of a firm. Marketing management involves specialized management efforts. A highly useful and well-articulated definition of marketing management is:

The analysis, planning, implementation, and control of programs designed to create, build, and maintain mutually beneficial exchanges and relationships with target markets for the purpose of achieving organizational objectives.

REFERENCES 参考文献

Points in the discussion of Harley-Davidson are taken from “How Harley Beat Back the Japanese,” Fortune (September 25, 1989) 155-164.

Philip Kotler, Marketing Management: Analysis, Planning, Implementation and Control, 4th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1980), 22.

Thomas A. Stewart, “GE Keeps Those Ideas Coming,” Fortune (August 12, 1991): 41-49.

Summary表明管理营销活动而不是简单地执行营销任务会对企业的竞争实力和盈利能力产生巨大影响。营销管理涉及专业化的管理工作。营销管理的一个非常有用且清晰明了的定义是:分析、规划、实施和控制计划,旨在创建、建立和维护与目标市场的互利交流和关系,以实现组织目标。本站提供各国各专业Summary写作指导服务,如有需要可咨询本平台。


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