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澳洲金融学assignment指导:探讨国际金融机构解决全球贫困的努力不足

论文价格: 免费 时间:2019-03-20 14:28:07 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
世界银行(以下简称“世界银行”)和国际货币基金组织(以下简称“国际货币基金组织”)等国际金融机构致力于减少世界各地发展中国家的全球贫困。对发展中国家来说,完全依赖国际金融机构的影响是不够的。此外,减少贫困不仅依赖于金钱,而且还依赖于国家的人权、技术和其他能力。资金支持可以在短期内恢复贫困,长期的关键问题无法解决。本文认为,资金支持不仅是解决贫困问题的途径,而且是可持续发展的重要途径。因此,国际金融机构解决全球贫困的努力是不够的。
The international financial institutions such as The World Bank (referred to “WB”) and International Monetary Fund (referred to IMF) are dedicated to reduce global poverty for the developing countries around the world. Fully depending on the effects of the international financial institutions is not sufficient over the time for the developing countries. In addition, reducing poverty is not only reliance on the money, but also human right, technology and other ability over the country. The money support may recover the poverty over the short term; the key problem in the long term could not be solved. This essay would like to argue that money supporting is not only solution for the poverty, but also the sustainable development is also important. Therefore, the International Financial Institutions efforts to address global poverty are inadequate.
他们正把人权和环境留在为发展中国家投资大型项目的背后。在世界银行和国际货币基金组织的支持下,他们在教育和结构等项目上投入了大量的资金,而人权等严重问题正逐渐消失。人权可以参照教育权和其他权利的内容来提升在社会中的地位。除此之外,技术支持对长期发展至关重要。从长远的扶贫效益来看,技术支持可以通过政策设计和资金落实等形式帮助当地居民脱贫。资金只是建立初创企业的根本关键,下一个过程可能依赖技术和人权(Meckled Garcia,2014年)。随着时间的推移,国际货币基金组织通过其在宏观经济政策、税收政策、支出政策、财政政策、货币政策和汇率制度领域的核心竞争力提供技术援助。在这方面,有140多个国家从2010年的援助中受益,向低收入和低收入以上国家提供了适当的85%的技术支持,这意味着大多数资金愿意解决这些国家之间关键竞争的技术发展问题。七个以上的区域技术援助中心(RTAC)正在扩大规模,以帮助巴西、韩国、科威特、卡塔尔和沙特阿拉伯,在项目中心,它们将为官方成员和建设能力提供培训。此外,在帮助发展中国家提高其在某些领域的技能和知识的过程中,建设也是至关重要的。因此,资金只是短期支持的关键,技术和技能的发展对发展中国家的长远发展至关重要。They are leaving the human right and environment behind the investment on the big projects for the developing countries. In the case of the supporting from the WB and IMF, they are investing a lot of money on the projects such as educations and structures, the serious problems are leaving such as human rights.  Human rights can be referred to contents on the education right and other rights to enhance position in the society. Besides that, technology supporting is quite crucial to develop in the long-term. In the benefit of long-term in reduction of poverty, technology supporting can be in the form of the policy design and well-implement of the funds to help the local residents to leave the poverty. Money is only the fundamental key to build the start-up, the next process could be reliance on the technology and human right (Meckled-Garcia, 2014). Over the time, the international monetary fund to provide technical assistance through its core competitiveness in the field of macroeconomic policy, tax policy, spending policy, fiscal policy, monetary policy and exchange rate system. In this respect, more than 140 countries have benefited from the aid in 2010, appropriately 85 percentages technical supporting has been flowed to the low and above the lower income countries, which means that the majority money is willing to solve the issue of the technology development that is key competition among these countries. More than seven regional technical assistance center (RTACs) are building to enlarge to help Brazil, South Korea, Kuwait, Qatar and Saudi Arabia.In the central of the project, they are indicated to train for the official members and construction ability. Besides that, the construction is quite vital in the process of the helping the developing countries in order to lift their skills and knowledge on the certain areas. Therefore, money is only the key to support in the short term, the technology and skills development is quite vital for the long term for the developing countries. 
On the other side of the money supporting, WB has played an critical role to reduce the global poverty. On the form of the reducing, the WB normally offered the low interest loan or no interest loan for the developing countries. In the term of the WB voting, they are preferred to increase the voting rights to the developing countries, the goal is supporting more to them to construction and educations development. a 13.3% increase in the voting rights for developing and transition countries, which makes the international bank for reconstruction and development of the total number of voting rights to 47.19%(Kwon & Kim, 2014).  In addition, under the help of the WB, the successful example of the supporting in the South Asia, the economic has experienced average of 6% growthfor the Fiscal Year over the past 20 years (Kwon & Kim, 2014). However, the economic development has slowed down without the help from the WB, the key reason is that the residents have heavily depending on the supporting rather than the skills which they have. On the consequence, they would not be willing to work and create.Thoughthe WB is rich enough to support the developing countries in a short on the certain project such as Education and healthy sectors, the long term development is not separate from the social factors such as technology, culture or human right, these factors are ignore by these financial institutions to support the developing countries. 
On the theory base that “free market economists still believe that economic growth in long run is the best strategy to promote poverty reduction in the long run and the best way to promote economic growth is economic globalization and free markets” (week 7, 2015).That means that economic growth could enhance the strategy of the global poverty reduction and economic globalization and free markets are important strategies to the economic growth. As a consequence, economic globalization and free markets are two important factors to economic development. On the hand of the economic globalization is dedicated to export and import from the trade overseas, on the other respective, the free markets are provided the platform to trade from the both parts of the countries with restriction on the exporting and importing. These parts of the contents for the development on the economic are without the effects for the local government. That means the government should make the policy on the economic development on the free markets. The reduction of the poverty, the government is also working on the policy making. In addition, participate in the foresight and availability damage seems to explain the responsibility of slavery. But there is a wrong case, common mistake: extra collective and individual human slavery basic error(Kwon & Kim,2014). Besides that, Sarangi (2012) has stated that Slavery - friendly government to help them with anyone the wrong person, because the behavior of Slavery the wrong people, the first kind of error is the result of the second. Slave law is wrong, because slavery was wrong behavior. Analogy to trade system requires the same basic errors of slavery, the others, especially the government, can be accomplices. Now suppose, equivalent to global trade basic mistakes directly to other individuals under the condition of poverty is not a personal, this makes the definition of participants' basic wrong option (slavery) to participate in the system caused by the harmful effects of foreseeable and avoidable. this definition has prejudice is simply wrong. When a more reasonable description of abuse others (such as unreasonable loss), our participation in the implementation of the trade system will not count as a mistake.Furthermore, development economics began in the 1950s, in order to determine "newly independent countries became known as" developing countries, should be the same level of success in economic development in developed countries. As a result, these early economists pay close attention to these countries to realize the economic growth method, especially by increasing the Gross National Product (GNP) in developing countries(Dreher&Gassebner, 2012). Economic development is considered the economic growth. This distinction is important because many development economists will change their concept to understand the economic development in the mid-1970s. Robert McNamara as World Bank President from 1968 to 1968 has played an important role in the change through he emphasized social factors how to affect the development, and to solve the problem of serious contradiction shows that overall economic growth in poor countries.Therefore, the poverty reduction is not apart from the effects from the government on the policy making and also the policy on the economic development and free markets. 
There are also examples on comparison between China and Mexico on the investment on the technology supporting. In addition, virtual universities invest its 15 years of experience in distance higher education and e-learning for community learning center (CLC) network to develop a wide range of content(Larson, & Murray, 2008). In addition, the teachers, staff and students of Monterey Tec actively involved in the effort to social and economic development in poor areas. Recently to rewrite the Monterrey Tec identification knowledge transfer of the mission statement of sustainable social development as a high priority at the university of the 21st century.Second, distinguish between China and Mexico project and other projects focused on the use of education to strengthen and support development.In addition, the third and final characteristic of China and Mexico's plan is the project involves a large public computer network center in a wide range of education system. In this sense, they don't like cited above, most of the television announcer. Discussed here two items are broad and ambitious enterprise, education can create content, distribution, and Shared by a lot of poverty, rural residents.As a consequence, money is not only solution to reduce poverty; the only solution is just depending on the effects on self. #p#分页标题#e#
The plan is also to reduce the poverty by 2015 comparing the amount of poverty in 1990. A long with poverty, to reduce the population of hunger, disease, illiteracy, etc. are also included in the plan.Millennium DevelopmentGoals (hereafter MDGs), which was agreed in September 2000 officially by 189 countries, have set a series of specific targets, including halving the proportion of extreme poverty. The United Nations is also working with governments, civil society and other partners to work together to achieve this goal. Meanwhile, UN continues to pursue an ambitious post-2015 development agenda. MDGs proven goal setting allows millions out of poverty, empowerment of women and girls, improving the health and wellbeing, provide substantial new opportunities to live a better life. With targeted interventions, a reasonable strategy, adequate resources and political will, even the poorest countries can make progress.2015 UN MDGs have been successfully fulfilled. Sustainable development path for the discussions with the countries after 2015, the continuation of the valuable outcomes of the Millennium Development Goals, the continued development of inclusive economic, social inclusiveness, the ecological environment to ensure sustainable development, the United Nations launched a global "My World" survey, aimed In the call for the world's peoples to elect six issues most concerned about from "taking action on climate change" and other 16 topics, as the UN General Assembly in September this year, we plan on the Millennium "in 2015 after the global sustainable development goals," the important data reference.MDG period coming to an end, the international community has reason to celebrate. With the collaboration of global, regional, national and local, and the Millennium Development Goals has saved millions of lives, there are more people living therefore improved. This report presents data and analysis has shown that only targeted interventions, sound strategies, adequate resources and political will, even the poorest countries can achieve unprecedented astonishing progress. The report also pointed out that there is not a balanced development and deficiencies in many areas. The task is far from over; it must be extended to the new era of development.Does Reasonable connection good governance and the mechanism of poverty reduction on the theory base? To establish this, a clear link to prove, experience and theory is necessary. To improve the bureaucracy and the ability of civil servants will improve the delivery. Also must improve quality laws and regulations, market economy smoothly to generate economic growth, in the long run, will help reduce poverty.
In conclusion, the deduction poverty is not apart from the economic development on the developing countries for the global poverty. As a consequence, the money can overcome the short time poverty issue which could not lead long term benefit. On the long-term, the sufficient government governance could contribute to the poverty issue for the developing countries especially in the term of the human rights. As a consequence, the human right should put center of the development rather than money supporting. In general, the money is not only solution to the reduction of the poverty in the long-term, the technical supporting and efforts on self can be sufficient solutions in the long-term, so that the International Financial Institutions efforts to address global poverty are inadequate. 
Reference
Blackmon, P. (2008). Rethinking Poverty through the Eyes of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. International Studies Review, 10(2), 179-202. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2486.2008.00770.x
Dreher, A., &Gassebner, M. (2012). Do IMF and World Bank Programs Induce Government Crises? An Empirical Analysis.International Organization, 66(2), 329-358. doi:10.1017/S0020818312000094
Kwon, H., & Kim, E. (2014). Poverty Reduction and Good Governance: Examining the Rationale of the Millennium Development Goals. Development & Change, 45(2), 353-375. doi:10.1111/dech.12084
Larson, R. r., & Murray, M. E. (2008). Distance Learning as a Tool for Poverty Reduction and Economic Development: A Focus on China and Mexico. Journal Of Science Education & Technology, 17(2), 175-196. doi:10.1007/s10956-007-9059-1
Meckled-Garcia, S. (2014). Does the WTO Violate Human Rights (and Do I Help It)? Beyond the Metaphor of Culpability for Systemic Global Poverty. Political Studies, 62(2), 435-451. doi:10.1111/1467-9248.12036
Reuss, A. (2007). Anti-Neoliberal Backlash: Leaving the World Bank and IMF Behind. NACLA Report On The Americas, 40(4), 3.
Sarangi, U. (2012). Role of IMF and World Bank in Global Macroeconomic Stability. Journal Of International Economics (0976-0792), 3(1), 31-43.
 
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