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澳大利亚蓝山酒店管理学院assignmetn:how the organization can leverage on

论文价格: 免费 时间:2019-07-17 11:35:09 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
1.0 Introduction引言
双湾是悉尼中央商务区外的一家五星级酒店。它曾经是最成功的五星级酒店之一,但随着悉尼五星级酒店数量的不断增加和悉尼酒店业竞争的日益激烈,近年来双湾酒店的客户数量和客户忠诚度都有所下降。为了更好地应对挑战和危机,酒店可以通过建立以客户为中心的管理体系和企业文化来改变现有的体系,以更好地吸引和留住客户。酒店可以考虑采取组织发展战略进行内部改革,以期更好地吸引和留住消费者。组织发展是指组织在变革推动者的帮助下,为应对环境变化带来的挑战,提高组织解决问题的能力所做的长期努力(Shatrevich,2014)。由于外部环境的急剧变化,双湾酒店面临着挑战,因此,对酒店而言,组织发展是其提高整体效益的重要途径之一。本文旨在了解双湾酒店在管理上的不足,并根据组织发展理论,提出酒店的改进措施。本文首先对组织发展的相关理论进行了分析,然后通过对目前双湾存在的问题的探讨,对如何解决这些问题提出了建议。
Double Bay is a five-star hotel outside the CBD in Sydney. It was once one of the most successful five-star hotels, but with the increasing number of five-star hotels in Sydney and the increasingly competition in the hotel industry in Sydney, both the number of customers and the customer loyalty of Double Bay in recent years decreased. In order to better meet the challenges and crises, the hotel can make changes to the existing system through the establishment of a customer-centric management system and corporate culture in order to better attract and retain customers. The hotel can consider taking organizational development strategy to carry out internal reforms to look forward to be able to better attract and retain consumers. Organizational development refers to the long-term effort made by an organization, with the help of change promoters, to address the challenges posed by changes in the environment to raise the capacity of the organization to solve problems (Shatrevich, 2014). Double Bay is facing the challenge due to the dramatic changes in the external environment, therefore, for the hotel, organizational development is one of its important ways to improve the overall effectiveness. The purpose of this article is to understand Double Bay’s deficiencies in management, and in accordance with the organization development theory to bring forward improvement measures for the hotel. This article first analyzes the relevant theories of organizational development, then by discussing the current problems of Double Bay to put forward suggestions on how to solve these problems.
2.0 Main body主体
本节首先回顾与组织发展相关的研究。组织发展是指行为科学知识在促进组织有效性的战略、结构和过程中的广泛应用(Shimoni,2017)。
组织发展既有一定的目标,又有连贯、不断变化和动态的过程(karakaya和y_lmaz,2013)。在组织的发展过程中,企业中的各种管理和业务事件不是孤立的,而是相互关联的(Flamholtz和Hua,2002)。一个部门或一方进行的组织发展必然会影响其他部门或各方的进展(Rogist、Segers和Witteloostuijn,2018)。因此,组织发展应从一个完整的组织开始,必须考虑各部分的工作,从整个系统出发,协调各部分的活动,调整与外部世界的关系(sroufe,2017)。
This section begins with a review of researches related to organizational development. Organizational development refers to the widespread application of behavioral scientific knowledge in developing, refining and enhancing strategies, structures and processes that promote organizational effectiveness (Shimoni, 2017).
Organizational development has both certain goals and a coherent, constantly changing and dynamic process (Karakaya and Yılmaz, 2013). In the development of an organization, various management and business incidents in an enterprise are not isolated but interrelated (Flamholtz and Hua, 2002). Organizational development conducted by a department or a party necessarily affects the progress of other departments or parties (Rogiest, Segers and Witteloostuijn, 2018). Therefore, organizational development should be started from an entire organization, it is necessary to consider work of various parts and from the entire system to coordinate the activities of various parts, and adjust its relationship with the outside world (Sroufe, 2017). 
Organizational development is a strategy of achieving change through planned re-education (Král and Králová, 2016). Organizational development is not just about changes in knowledge and information, but more importantly in all aspects of management psychology, such as attitudes, values, skills, relationships and cultural atmosphere (Karakaya and Yılmaz, 2013). According to the theory of organizational development, management and staff can abandon the old norms that are not suited to the development of the situation to set up new codes of conduct, and make their code of conduct based on the optimization of management and employees' attitude and value system through the re-education of organizational development, thereby achieving the strategic purpose of the organization (Shimoni, 2017).
Organizational development has clear goals and planning (Shimoni, 2017). Organizational development activities are the process of setting and implementing development goals and plans, it needs to design various training and learning activities to improve targeting and strategic planning ability (Karakaya and Yılmaz, 2013). A large number of studies show that clear, specific, medium-difficulty goal can stimulate work motivation and improve work efficiency (Flamholtz and Hua, 2002). Goal setting and goal management activities can not only maximize the use of business resources to play the roles of both human and technical potential; but also produce high-quality development plans to enhance long-term sense of responsibility and obligation (Rogiest, Segers and Witteloostuijn, 2018).
The following sections analyze Double Bay’s current problems in the management from the following three aspects.
As consumers become more rational and mature, consumers have increasingly higher demands for quality of hotel services, one of the most important demands is hoping that hotels can keep abreast of and meet their requirements (Chen, 2016). This has brought many challenges to the management of hotels. Taking Double Bay as an example, in order to provide consumers with high-quality and stable services and products, the services provided by employees to consumers are often standardized, while the needs of consumers are often personalized and instantaneous. When consumers propose to extend the check-out time by one hour due to the needs of the journey or when consumers want quick compensation for service or product issues, for hotel system and procedural issues, the hotel staff can not respond to and meet the needs of customers in time, which has a greater negative impact on consumers' consumption experience to cause the hotel to lose valuable customers.
Double Bay is currently taking a hotel pyramid-level management system: general manager - department managers - directors - foremen - employees. The advantage of this organizational structure is that the division of powers and responsibilities among employees is clear and the hotel management can be stricter for employees to ensure the high quality of service. However, in the current market environment, there are two defects in this system. One is its low efficiency of information communication. No matter the communication of market information from front-line staff to top-level employees, or conveying management concept from hotel leaders to first-line staff, or lateral information communication between departments needs to go through too many intermediate links. The other is to greatly increase the cost of management of enterprises, as there will be too many middle managers and these people are often paid higher, but what they directly contribute to a hotel is limited.
With the increasingly fierce competition in the hotel industry and the increasing demand from consumers for hotel services, it has higher requirements for the enthusiasm and skills of work of employees (Chiang, 2010). However, as far as staff performance is concerned, there are some problems in Double Bay. Firstly, there is a lack of team spirit in staff’s work. When dealing with customer complaints and providing services, the efficiency of mutual cooperation is low, so that customers can not enjoy it in time deserved service. Second, the staff's attitude and enthusiasm for work needs to be further improved, customer complaints and advice can not be quickly and effectively responded. Third, there is a poor learning atmosphere in the enterprise and there is the lack of skills and knowledge for the employees, making them unable to satisfy consumers effectively when the consumers are in need of individual demands.
According to the theory of organizational development, the article proposes solutions to the three problems of Double Bay from the following three aspects.
It should give employees a certain degree of decision-making power. Empowerment is considered to give employees a certain degree of decision-making power in their work, which is to grant staff certain power to dominate personnel, funds and other resources, and allow employees to exercise the power in the best way that they consider, so that when a service error occurs, they do not need to go find the relevant managers who are not in the field, but to break the routine, take the initiative to provide service for customer flexibly (Rogiest, Segers and Witteloostuijn, 2018). Chiang (2010) states that empowerment for front-line workers can take many forms, such as allowing employees to decide on their own what to do to make customers happier or giving employees the authority to remedy any service error, for example, in Double Bay, it may be provided that any employee who wants to be able to reimburse dissatisfied customers with additional expenses not exceeding the hotel’s quota, they may be entitled to provide free drinks for their customers and may even pay for bills for customers.#p#分页标题#e#
Hotel employees have the most direct contact with customers (Chen, 2016). If the employees were not adequately trained and mentored before providing service, they may not know how to deal with disgruntled customers when service errors occur, and they may not know what to do when handling service errors, lack of confidence makes them unable to decide best solutions (Dimitriou and Ducette, 2018). Therefore, when a service error occurs, how to carry out a remedial service requires a learning process, and therefore, it is necessary to train front-line service employees. The hotel can train employees in the following two aspects. First, it should emphasize the hotel's values, beliefs and codes of conduct to the employees, so that the employees can enhance their sense of service and establish the idea of providing good service to form a good working attitude. Second, it should train staff to creatively solve various service quality problems for customers and improve their adaptability; it should improve the staff’s service knowledge and service skills, enhance their confidence to do remedial service work and how to make appropriate decisions, and so on.
Most modern hotels take a "resident manager - department manager - director - foreman - staff" management structure (Chiang, 2010). However, the arrangement of some posts in such an organizational structure is of little significance to improving the quality of service, but virtually prolongs the path of information dissemination. Such posts should be withdrawn and the management level should be reduced. Taking the hotel's departments of dining and rooms as an example, due to the large number of employees, the planning, management, decision-making and control of customer service work are generally handled by their business executives or department managers. Therefore, in a strict sense foreman does not belong to a management position, but virtually extends the dissemination of information and increases the unnecessary management levels, so foremen in these departments can be abolished. Under the flat structure, grassroots service employees will no longer be fixed in a certain team or functional department, but will be assigned with different tasks at any time according to the actual needs of the hotel. So managers need to be familiar with the workflow and business characteristics of other departments.
Based on Double Bay’s shortage in service efficiency, organizational structure and staff capacity, this article puts forward the strategy of organization development. From the above review of the literatures it can be seen that organizational development has three characteristics. First, organizational development has clear objectives and planning. Double Bay’s organization development aims to improve service efficiency and service quality, establish a consumer-centric enterprise management system and culture, so this article proposes to strengthen staff training, employee empowerment, and take a flat organizational structure, these strategies are to achieve the organizational goals. Second, in addition to focusing on improving employee skills, organizational development also emphasizes improving employees' attitudes and corporate culture. This article proposes to strengthen staff training, which on the one hand improves staff’s skills and knowledge, so that employees are more able to adapt to staff empowerment and the requirements of a flat organization. On the other hand, it motivates staff enthusiasm and attitude to promote the active learning of employees. Finally, the development of a hotel is a systematic work that requires all employees and departments of the hotel to participate. This article recommends the organizational development strategies from three different perspectives. These strategies not only work together to improve the competitiveness and quality of the hotel, but also mutually reinforce. For example, strengthening employee empowerment lays the foundation for the success of a flat organizational structure, and the flat organizational structure also facilitates the smooth implementation of employee empowerment.
3.0 Conclusion
For Double Bay, organizational development is one of the important ways to improve the hotel’s overall effectiveness. Organizational development has three characteristics, first, organizational development has clear objectives and planning. Second, organizational development emphasizes improving employees' attitudes and corporate culture in addition to focusing on improving employees’ skills. Finally, hotel development is a systematic effort to involve all employees and departments in a hotel. Based on the theory of organizational development, the article proposes to strengthen staff training and employee empowerment and to adopt a flat organizational structure in order to solve the problems that Double Bay has in service efficiency, organizational structure and deficiencies in staff capacity.
 
References
Chen, W. J. (2016). The model of service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior among international tourist hotels. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 29(11), 24-32.
Chiang, C. F. (2010). Perceived organizational change in the hotel industry: An implication of change schema. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 29(1), 157-167.
Dimitriou, C. K. and Ducette, J. P. (2018). An analysis of the key determinants of hotel employees' ethical behavior. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 34(3), 66-74.
Flamholtz, E. and Hua, W. (2002). Strategic organizational development and the bottom line:: Further Empirical Evidence. European Management Journal, 20(1), 72-81.
Karakaya, A. and Yılmaz, K. (2013). Problem solving approach at organizational development activities: a research at Karabuk University. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 99(6), 322-331.
Král, P. and Králová, V. (2016). Approaches to changing organizational structure: The effect of drivers and communication. Journal of Business Research, 69(11), 5169-5174.
Rogiest, S., Segers, J. and Witteloostuijn, A. (2018). Matchmaking in organizational change: Does every employee value participatory leadership? An empirical study. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 34(1), 1-8.
Shatrevich, V. (2014). Industrial structures as competitive factor in organization development. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 110(24), 871-878.
Shimoni, B. (2017). A sociological perspective to organization development. Organizational Dynamics, 46(3),165-170.
Sroufe, R. (2017). Integration and organizational change towards sustainability. Journal of Cleaner Production, 162(20), 315-329.
 
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