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美国银行的商业道德case study:The business ethics analysis of Bank of

时间:2019-07-22 16:13来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
Introduction介绍 自2007年美国次贷危机以来,越来越多的专家学者认识到,商业银行道德问题的缺失对其自身声誉乃至整个金融体系的稳定与发展都有着严重的影响。同时,在经济全球化的背景下
Introduction介绍
自2007年美国次贷危机以来,越来越多的专家学者认识到,商业银行道德问题的缺失对其自身声誉乃至整个金融体系的稳定与发展都有着严重的影响。同时,在经济全球化的背景下,日益激烈的市场竞争使得商业银行的生存和发展面临着越来越严峻的挑战,迫使商业银行只能不断地创造、提高和保护自身的核心竞争力,从而使商业银行的生存和发展面临更大的挑战。o继续生存和发展。虽然商业银行的竞争已经逐渐从有形的金融产品竞争逐步走向无形的声誉和竞争形象,但要提高商业银行的核心竞争力,不太可能仅仅依靠硬件资源,如技术和资金来进行竞争。发挥其他“软件资源”的作用,而财务伦理是一种非常重要的“软件资源”。
Since 2007 the US subprime mortgage crisis, more and more experts and scholars realized that the lack of ethical problems of commercial banks has the serious influence to its own reputation and even the entire financial system's stability and development. At the same time, under the background of economic globalization, the increasingly fierce market competition makes the commercial bank's survival and development face more and more serious challenges, forcing commercial banks only constantly create, improve and protect their core competitiveness, to continue to survival and development. While commercial banks competition has gradually from tangible financial product competition gradually to invisible reputation and image of the competition, to enhance the core competitiveness of commercial Banks, is unlikely to simply rely on hardware resources, such as technology and capital to play to the role of the other "software resources", and financial ethics is a kind of very important "software resources". 
Analysis分析
由于信息不对称、金融交易中的委托代理关系、激励不相容、不平等、合同不完整、责任制度不完善等制约因素,商业银行充满道德风险(Chew,2016)。例如,由于信息不对称,银行客户经理可能会引导客户处理不必要的业务,甚至给客户带来不必要的损失,使客户对银行失去信心,银行利益或损失以满足个人利益,例如关注个人绩效。e评价指标,不关注银行长期发展的价值取向(Pesendorfer,2017)。同时,由于委托代理理论的存在,客户与代理人(雇员)相互怀疑、资源消耗,形成了损失的影响率,实质上降低了商业银行的核心竞争力(Chew,2016)。因此,提高美国银行的财务道德水平是非常重要的,当法律不完善时,美国银行的财务道德往往成为其风险控制和维护最后一道防线的核心竞争力(Dudley,2017年)。
Due to information asymmetry, the principal-agent relationship in the financial transactions, the incentive incompatibility, unequal, incomplete contract and responsibility system failure factors such as constraints, commercial banks full of ethical and moral risk(Chew, 2016). Due to asymmetric information, for example, BOA customer manager may lead customers to deal with unnecessary business and even bring unnecessary loss to customers, make customers lose faith in the bank, bank interests or loss to satisfy personal interests, such as focus on the individual performance assessment indicators and not pay attention to the value orientation of the bank for the long-term development(Pesendorfer, 2017). At the same time, because of the existence of trust-agent theory relations clients and the agent (employee) mutual suspicion, resources consumed, forming effect rate of loss, virtually reduced the core competitiveness of commercial banks(Chew, 2016). Therefore, improve the level of BOA 's financial ethics is very important, when the law is not completely, BOA financial ethics tend to become its risk control and maintain the core competitiveness of the last line of defense(Dudley, 2017).
BOA selects a matter for national economic and social development and easy to be ignored by people financial ethical issues as the research object, combined financial ethics and the core competitiveness of commercial banks, the integrated use of empirical research, logical analysis and mathematical analysis methods, build the evaluation index system of financial ethics and the introduction of financial ethics of commercial bank core competence evaluation index system of these two systems, and from the perspective of commercial bank employees, using mathematical analysis software of financial ethics, core competitiveness of BOA and their relationships were empirical analysis(Chew, 2016). First of all, BOA studies the relationship between financial ethics and core competitiveness. Financial ethics origin, development, connotation, characteristics and operation mechanism, etc., explores the origin and development of commercial bank core competence theory, the ascension path selection, model evaluation, analysis of financial ethics promote the core competitiveness of commercial Banks embedded mechanism and barrier mechanism and mechanism of identification. Secondly, BOA constructs a financial ethics evaluation model for financial subjects. Through the construction of the financial ethics evaluation index system, the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation algorithm is applied to evaluate the financial ethics comprehensively, systematically and comprehensively. Thirdly, BOA makes an empirical study on the core competence and identification mechanism of financial ethics and commercial Banks. By the commercial bank office automation system, through the questionnaire issued a large number of field visits and other way, the commercial bank financial ethics, core competitiveness of commercial Banks and the relationship between the sampling investigation, and comprehensive use of SPSS mathematical analysis software for survey data for empirical analysis, to explore the financial ethics to promote the core competitiveness of commercial banks real evidence. Finally, this introduces the core competitiveness index system of commercial banks. By adopting Delphi expert evaluation method, based on the main characteristics of the core competitiveness of commercial banks, with its constituent elements for specific content, build the evaluation index system of measuring the evaluation index weight, evaluate the core competitiveness of BOA to obtain the better evaluation result(Dudley, 2017). 
Since the rights and responsibilities between commercial banks and employees are not completely symmetrical, one party has certain rights and the other party has no responsibility to match it. More importantly, the staff and the right and responsibility of commercial Banks may conflict, employees sometimes face may not realize the responsibility of the commercial bank's rights to achieve department interests or the interests of the individual responsibility of contradictory problems. Even more complicated, the commercial bank employees in financial activities with "other people's money", also faces is to realize the commercial bank to maximize the benefit maximization, realizes the benefit of the principals (i.e., the customer benefit maximization), or choose to maximize its own interests. This is the ethical dilemma that commercial bank employees must face and solve. As a master of commercial bank core secrets and technical staff, more have sold out the interests of the BOA for their own advantage, such a case, the staff's loyalty becomes important ethical issues(Jahdi, 2017). Therefore, it is suggested that BOA should pay attention to and improve their employees' ethical standards from four aspects: employee management, employee protection, employee loyalty and dispute resolution. Due to the customer's choice of commercial banks to provide products and services derived from the collateral bank with a line of customer manager, under the condition of information asymmetry, customers to enjoy the products and services, pricing agreement, accept the promotion, in the process of counter service consulting, often at a disadvantage, vulnerable to unfair treatment, every time customers tend to vote with their feet, resulting in the loss of bank customers and business(Jahdi, 2017). Therefore, it is suggested that commercial banks should actively pay attention to and improve their customer ethic level from four aspects: product and service, pricing, promotion and counter service(Pesendorfer, 2017). Due to the finiteness and scarcity of resources, competitive machine production plays an important role in the market economy. For commercial Banks, the competition between each other mainly occurs in the pursuit of high-quality customers, market and deposit and loan, and the pursuit of excellent talents and information. Therefore, it is suggested that commercial Banks should actively pay attention to and improve their level of competition ethics in four aspects: market, talent, information and competition regulations.
To deeply understand the inner mechanism and deep connotation of financial ethics to enhance the core competence of BOA(Chew, 2016). Financial ethics can enhance the core competitiveness of commercial banks through three mechanisms: embedding mechanism, barrier mechanism and recognition mechanism. The conclusion is that financial ethics is the sum of ethical relations, moral norms and identity mechanism involved in financial activities(Kaouther, 2017). The core competitiveness of commercial Banks is the ability of BOA to excel in competitive market competition and maintain competitive advantage and sustainable development. As a financial institution, commercial Banks should accept the guidance of relevant departments of the state, as well as the regulation of financial policies, monetary policies and economic policies, thus forming a relationship between political and business ethics. All kinds of commercial Banks and distribution in the form of network in the related community, and community as well as the close relationship between the local government, have important responsibility for the community social and economic development, have important impact, social responsibility is significant. BOA in investing, just consider themselves the blind spots for leaving investment interests, or not to consider the nature of loan companies to invest, or do not participate in the local government or community organization of environmental protection and other social public welfare activity, etc., these involve ecological ethics(Kaouther, 2017). Therefore, it is suggested that commercial Banks should pay attention to and improve their environmental ethic level from three aspects: political and business ethics, social responsibility and ecological ethics. BOA can improve employees' ethic awareness and level, set the rules of ethics and ethical education, in order to reduce and eliminate does not comply with the financial ethics thought and behavior, to improve the quality of the bank with all the staff ethics, formed its own ethic advantage. This ethical advantage formed by the higher ethical quality will eventually transform into the competitive advantage of commercial Banks and become the core competitiveness of the competition. Therefore, it is suggested that BOA should pay close attention to the five aspects of ethics, ethics, ethics, ethics, ethics and ethical control to improve their own ethical construction(Oates, 2016).


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