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旅游类型和其重要性

时间:2016-02-12 09:14来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学生作业 点击:

旅游类型和其重要性
Types Of Tourism And Their Importance Tourism Essay


据世界旅游组织(WTO),旅游是目前世界上最大的产业。世界旅游组织(WTO)预计到2020年,与2002年相比,全球将有16亿游客。2002年,全世界只有7.15亿游客。因此,很多国家,无论在发达和发展中国家,旅游外汇收入的主要来源,为人们创造很多就业机会。

根据麦金托什等,旅游可分为图的现象和关系发生往来的游客,酒店服务提供者,业务的经销商,东道国政府,政府和当地社区的起源的过程中吸引和托管这些游客和其他游客。

根据页面、旅游消费活动是不断被旅游业开发和人企业,营销是用于开发新的概念,产品和服务和目的地。这反映在国际兴趣发展利基产品:假期天专注于特定的兴趣和活动。

墨菲认为,随着旅游业的发展在规模和范围,它变得明显,这个行业,和其他人一样,争夺有限的资源和资本,其非消耗属性并不一定避免腐蚀或修改景点。

According to The World Tourism Organization (WTO), Tourism is currently the largest industry in the world. The World Tourism Organization (WTO) is expected there is going to be 1.6 billion worldwide tourists by 2020, compared to 2002, there is only 715 million worldwide tourists in 2002. Therefore, a lot of countries, no matter under developed and developing, tourism main source of foreign currency earnings and creating job opportunities for people.

According to McIntosh et al, tourism can be classified as the figure of the phenomena and relationships take place from the dealings of tourists, hospitality service provider, business dealer, the host governments, the origin of the governments and local communities in the process of attracting and hosting these tourists and other visitor.

According to Page, tourism as a consumer activity is continuously being developed by the tourism industry and person businesses, as marketing is used to develop new concept, products and services and destinations. This reflected in the international interest in developing niche products: holiday days focused on specific interest and activities.

Murphy argue that, as the tourism grew in size and scope it become obvious that this industry, like others, vie for limited resources and capital, that its non-consumptive attributes did not necessarily avoid the corrosion or modification of attractions.

可持续旅游——Sustainable Tourism

Sustainable tourism model is related to the ethic of sustainable development, which in conjecture supported that people struggle to meet their own needs, most probably measured against the standard of living currently enjoyed (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987). Sustainable development can defined as the sum of the trade-off between the need s and objective of the present, and those of the future (Archer and Cooper, 1994). According to Butler (1993), he challenges the use of the term sustainable tourism, in spite of its currency, arguing that it implies the maintenance of tourism itself, whatever its impacts, rather than the maintenance of the human or physical context within which the tourism occurs.

According to Butler et al supported the term sustainability tourism development, involving tourism which is development and in such a way that area (community and environment), in such a scale, it will remain practical in an inaccurate term, not reduce or change the phenomena (human and physical), of which there is such a level, its success development and prohibited activities and processes as well as other benefits.

Clarke (1997) suggested that the development of the idea of sustainable tourism involve four approaches which are polar opposite, whereby sustainable tourism and mass tourism were seen as polar opposites; a range, whereby sustainable tourism and mass tourism were no longer seen as polar opposites, but rather it was acknowledge that there were different shades of sustainable and mass tourism, which would merge at the middle; movement, an approach which suggested that positive action could make mass tourism mare sustainable; convergence, is the idea that all types of tourism can strive to be sustainable. (J. Swarbrooke, 1999)

生态旅游—— Ecotourism

Every researchers and authors have the different description and definition on the term of ecotourism. Out of the variety of definition about ecotourism, there is one of the most quoted definition came from Hector Ceballos-Lascurain (1987:13). He defined that, the ecotourism or also known as ecological tourism can classify as a kind of tourism that involves travelling relatively without interruption. Ecotourism also can defined as travelling to pure natural areas with the main purpose of studying, admiring, and take pleasure in the natural landscape and its wild flora and fauna as well as any obtainable cultural aspects (both past and present) that can be found in these area.(Luck, 2003)

Ceballos-Lascurain (1990) also argued, nature-oriented tourism means scientific, aesthetic and philosophical move toward to take a trip, even though ecological tourist is not a skilled scientist, artist or philosopher. The most important reason is that the individual who carry out ecotourism has the opportunity of getting closer with natural environment in a manner usually not existing in the city life that normally full of pressure. (Weaver, 2009)

Based on Stanford Research Institute (1990), the ecotourism characterized as the fastest growing sector of the whole international tourism industry, it has increased rate of 30 per cent per year. Ecotourism observed the impacts, both positive and negative, of domestics and international tourism. Other than that, ecotourism is also a kind of tourism product that promotes protection and support sustainable development whilst having a minimum impact on the environment. Ecotourism also involves travelling to distant locations to learning the flora, fauna and wildlife animal in their native habitats. It also gives the chance to see how local people live and work. (Abraham, 2010)

According to Hundloe, to summarize, good understanding of services, cultural sensitivity and involvement with the local community are the three main issues which differentiate ecotourism from its cousins - green tourism and sustainable tourism.

生态旅游的意义——Significance of Ecotourism

Sierra et all (1999) believed, ecotourism can be describe as 'one of the most potential tools in the arsenal of the contemporary conservationists'. Ecotourism is an environmentally friendlier and potentially more sustainable alternative to extractive activities. For example, logging, farming, mining, or hunting of wildlife. Local people may have an opportunity being away from a cycle of poverty and, by sharing their information among local people and tourist about the local topography and ecology, which can helps to build up a stronger awareness of community pride and a wider, more global perspective that is aware of the importance of biodiversity to human being in the future.

Ecotourism provide a prospect for long-term protection of the environment and its resources. The hot spot of biological diversity is mostly the least developing country which is the economy of the country is particularly in drive people to destroy the natural environment. Ecotourism also provide an opportunity to protect the environment and biological diversity that almost extinct. Whereby, this is also chance to generate more income to hold research efforts. An eco-tourist attractions, the program registration fee can be further directed to the scientific knowledge about the ecological environment; support captivity, rehabilitation or reforestation; or man-made impact monitoring, to ensure that does not reduce access resources.

According to Sierra et al (op cit), to further verify the growth of global tourism, the relationship sandwiched between tourism and the environment is requires being clearly management to reduce the harmful and capitalize on valuable impacts. The appearance of ecotourism gives emphasis to the need for future professionals to develop suitable skills in tourism and ecological management.

马来西亚的生态旅游——Ecotourism in Malaysia

Malaysia is one of the countries from South-East Asia and it is well-known as a multicultural country. Multicultural has not only made the country as a food paradise, it has also made Malaysia place to holding hundred colorful festivals. Malaysia was also famous with the warm and friendly local people.

According to Smith, In Malaysia, tourism sector is currently the second-largest industry after the manufacturing was the largest industry in Malaysia. The government organization responsible on promoting tourism industry in Malaysia is Tourism Malaysia or also name as Malaysia Tourism Promotion Board.

Because of the geographical background, Malaysia is as miscellaneous as its culture. The country is separated into two parts, peninsula of Malaysia with eleven states and two states on the northern part of Borneo which is Sabah and Sarawak. The country is covers a total area of 329 758 km2 in South East Asia. The typical weather of the country is always warm and humid all through the year. Malaysia was listed as one of the most botanically diverse countries in the world. Malaysia is an amazing country with numerous abundance of biodiversity. The area of the country is granted with many natural destination and attraction such as flora, fauna and wildlife, beautiful coast, exotic marine aqua life, large rain forests and the biggest and oldest caves in the world. (Daud, 2010)

A unique natural and cultural asset diversification is what Malaysia really had. Therefore, eco-tourism in Malaysia was very favorable, feasible, sustainable and long-lasting form of tourism. In the year of 2008, Malaysia has won The Best Ecotourism award by TravelWeekly (Asia) during the Industry Award 2008 which's held in Singapore. It is the second time that Malaysia was honored after 2007. It was an important accomplishment for Malaysia that proved itself for its natural environment as an attraction for tourism and unique geographical layout.



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